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Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1989. APEC' 89. Conference Proceedings 1989., Fourth Annual IEEE

Date 13-17 March 1989

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  • APEC 89. Fourth Annual IEEE Applied Power and Electronics Conference and Exposition. Conference Proceedings 1989 (Cat. No.89CH2719-3)

    Publication Year: 1989
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Device level simulation for power converters

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 335 - 343
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)  

    The objective of device-level simulation of power converters is to obtain detailed performance information such as device voltage and current waveforms and power dissipations. The resulting model can also be used in the course of design to help optimize component choices. Issues involved in device-level simulation such as applications, problems, limitations and advantages are discussed. An example full-bridge converter is simulated and used for illustration View full abstract»

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  • Structural and performance fundamentals of sinewave-controlled brushless servo drives

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 173 - 182
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    The fundamental design concepts, functional analysis, structural description and performance characteristics are discussed of three-phase, high-performance brushless servo drives using a sinusoidal control scheme. A comprehensive summary is provided of the fundamental data and principles needed for the successful design and application of sinewave-controlled brushless servo drives View full abstract»

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  • Multiple limit cycle phenomena in switching power converters

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 143 - 148
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    The operation of switching power supplies is characterized by limit cycles. For a particular class of converters the limit cycle is not unique, and the converter output can jump almost at random among possible cycles. Converters subject to this behavior and methods for eliminating multiple-limit-cycle phenomena are presented by the authors. Experimental results on a hysteretic DC-DC converter are also included View full abstract»

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  • A method for estimating switch-mode power supply size

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 344 - 352
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A method of estimating the physical size and layout of switch-mode power supplies is presented. This method includes analytical expressions for determining the physical size of inductors, capacitors, and transformers. The calculations are based on the black box input-output requirements of the power supply, and can be used to evaluate and compare competing design approaches or topologies. The technique is based on fundamental power supply parameters-power, energy, and electric charge-and avoids needless calculations during the initial estimation stage of a power supply design. Calculations using this estimation technique are presented for buck, forward flyback, and boost regulators View full abstract»

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  • Novel high force-density PM linear oscillating motors and their controllers

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 183 - 187
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A DC permanent-magnet (PM) linear oscillating motor/controller system is discussed. The device described uses a novel manufacturing technique that results in a high force-density device. The mechanism of static force production and the effects of airgap leakage flux on the force are treated theoretically. Emphasis is on the exact determination of electromagnetic fields and forces for the resulting magnetic circuit. The analysis leads to these parameters and ultimately to the dynamic performance of these devices. The construction and initial tests for a PM linear oscillator motor and its controller have been carried out. The motor and its design and power electronics are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Effects of converter type, reset method, and core material and magamp regulator performance

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 391 - 400
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The magnetic amplifier (magamp) regulator's inherent line rejection and loop performance are examined. Specifically, it is shown how the line to output rejection is affected by the reset method, core material and the driving converter topology. Equations describing magamp performance are derived and verified by measurements. Most of the tests were conducted with the magamp control loop open in order to isolate the magamp modulator rejection View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of half-bridge ZCS-QRC and ZVS-MRC for offline applications

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 445 - 453
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Performance comparisons of the half-bridge (HB) half-wave zero-current-switched (ZCS) quasi-resonant converter (QRC) and the zero-voltage-switched (ZVS) multiresonant converter (MRC) are presented. The two converters were compared with respect to their efficiency, input voltage range, semiconductor-component stresses, power density, and reliability. A qualitative loss analysis reveals that the efficiency of the HB ZVS-MRC can be significantly lower at a nominal operating voltage when the input-voltage range is wide. The maximum efficiency of the HB ZCS-QRS is almost independent of the input-voltage range. These findings were verified experimentally by measuring efficiencies of 100 W offline HB ZCS-QRCs and ZVS-MRCs designed for various input-voltage ranges View full abstract»

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  • High density surface mounting power supply

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 265 - 271
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    The various stages in the design of a high-density surface-mounted power supply are described, including the development of the passive power components, power chip carrier package, and interconnection substrate. Emphasis is on the design and minimization of the power ceramic capacitor, quadrupole capacitor, and transformer components. The construction of a 16-60 V/5 V 20 A DC-DC converter using this technology has demonstrated that performance improvement and additional miniaturization requires the optimization of the pulse-width modulator of the power converter View full abstract»

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  • Rectifier design for minimum line current harmonics and maximum power factor

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 13 - 22
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
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    A current quantitative computer simulation-based analysis is presented for single- and three-phase rectifier line current harmonics and power factors as a function of the output filter inductor. A finite-output filter inductor is shown to produce minimum single-phase rectifier line-current harmonics and, if used with an input displacement power factor correction capacitor, to produce maximum overall power factor. A filter inductor with near-infinite output is shown to produce minimum three-phase rectifier line-current harmonics and maximum overall power factor; the smallest inductor that approximates a near-infinite inductor is determined View full abstract»

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  • A novel lossless snubber circuit

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 40 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB)  

    A simple lossless snubber circuit for use with a switch mode power converter is presented. The circuit uses a capacitor connected between the primary and tertiary windings of a transformer in such a way as to relieve the stress from the power semiconductor switch at both turn-on and turn-off. The energy stored in the leakage inductance of the transformer is recovered via the capacitor and the tertiary winding/diode connection back to the input source. Therefore, both the efficiency of the system and transient working conditions of the switch are improved. An additional diode appropriately connected in the tertiary winding further improves the circuit performance View full abstract»

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  • A new linear regulator features switch mode overcurrent protection [for power supplies]

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 159 - 164
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)  

    A linear regulator control circuit for power supply applications is presented which, in addition to offering benefits such as low input-output differential and a precise reference voltage, features a unique and innovative approach to overload protection. By using duty-ratio, switch-mode protection, this circuit eliminates both the high internal dissipation of constant current limiting and the latch-up tendencies of limiting with current foldback. It is argued that while the power supply designer needs to incorporate foldback current limiting to reduce power dissipation, the customer needs constant-current limiting to insure reliable sharing. It is the contention of this work that what they both really need is duty-ratio protection View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of thermal effects in electrical systems

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 353 - 356
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
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    Simulators based on the SPI CE program have one major limitation in that every device in a system must operate at the same temperature. A discussion is presented of modifications implemented in SPICE such that each device's operating temperature can be set independently by operating-point power dissipation and/or user input, and can vary during a transient analysis controlled by a user-defined parallel thermal network. The method used to describe the thermal system is an electrical analog. The temperature is characterized as voltage and the power as current. The thermal resistances and capacitances are represented with resistors and capacitors. The thermal network is then solved simultaneously with the electrical network using the same algorithms View full abstract»

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  • Harmonic reduction in single-phase inverter using a parallel operation technique

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 101 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (2)
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    A technique is presented for harmonic reduction in inverters using sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (PWM). A modified circuit based on parallel operation of MOS-based inverter sets using interphase reactors as harmonic reducing elements and making use of a specific phase shift between the modulating and carrier waveforms is investigated as a means to economically and efficiently reduce the harmonic contents in the output waveform. The output waveform of a single-phase PWM inverter is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Detailed analysis shows that the harmonics lower than the 15th are all less than 1% of the fundamental component when the frequency ratio is relatively low, i.e. about nine and similarly for the 29th harmonic when the ratio is about 15. This is done without noticeable reduction in the fundamental component. The results show the feasibility of obtaining practically sinusoidal output waveforms View full abstract»

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  • A 1 kW, 500 kHz front-end converter for a distributed power supply system

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 423 - 432
    Cited by:  Papers (81)  |  Patents (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)  

    The analysis, design, and performance are discussed of a prototype high power-density converter suitable for use in the front-end of a distributed power supply system. The system delivers 1 kW to a regulated 40 V distribution bus from the rectified utility line. Its switching frequency is 500 kHz, and it uses a phase-shifted pulse-width modulation technique to avoid primary-side switching losses. The converter's topology is a standard power MOSFET H-bridge that drives a transformer. The output of this transformer is rectified by a full bridge of Schottky diodes. The switches of this forward converter are operated in a fixed-frequency PWM mode. The dominant parasitic elements are the transformer's leakage inductor, the MOSFETs' output capacitors, and the rectifiers' junction capacitors. Of these three groups of parasitic elements, only the leakage inductors do not result in a direct switching loss. To avoid MOSFET switching losses, the converter is controlled with a special gate-drive pattern that permits full recovery of the MOSFETs' capacitive energy. At the same time this drive scheme gives zero-voltage switching for the MOSFETs. The converter's efficiency at full load approaches 90% View full abstract»

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  • Driving three-phase brushless DC motors-a new low loss linear solution

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 75 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (396 KB)  

    A linear driver for small brushless DC motors has been developed that has the capability of maximizing the voltage delivered to the motor while providing commutation logic and full control. by using discrete p-n-p high-side transistor switches in conjunction with integrated saturable n-p-n low-side drivers, a total loss of under 1 V can be achieved at currents up to 2 A and complete motor control can be obtained from a 5 V power source View full abstract»

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  • 150 Watts and 140 kHz multi-output LCC-type parallel resonant converter

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 221 - 230
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
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    By using the state-plane approach, the steady state analysis and design of a high-frequency LCC-type parallel resonant converter (PRC-LCC) operating in the continuous conduction mode is presented. In this topology a capacitor is added in series to the inductor of a conventional PRC. Based on this analysis, a set of steady-state characteristic curves for component value selections and device ratings is also presented. A simple design procedure is given and a design example for a 150 W, 140 kHz multioutput PRC-LCC power supply is given. Results from a prototype unit built to verify the theoretical results are shown to be in reasonable agreement with predicted results View full abstract»

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  • Utility power requirements for electronic data processing equipment

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 23 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    A description is given of the effects of nonlinear loads on utility power along with the power quality needs of modern electronic data processing (EDP) equipment. Topics covered include the quality of utility power, power line disturbances (PLDs) and their types and frequencies of occurrence, and expectations for the future. Also discussed are the utility power needs of modern EDP equipment, and such equipment's resiliency to PLDs. A system overview and design implementations and trade-offs to enhance resiliency to PLDs are considered View full abstract»

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  • Development of a DC-to-DC power converter

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 413 - 422
    Cited by:  Patents (8)
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    A 2 in.×1 in.×0.18 in. planar transformer (consisting of two main transformers and four auxiliary transformers made of a low-profile magnetic structure and multilayer PWB windings) was fabricated and used in an interleaved flyback power converter. Power-train efficiencies greater than 80% were obtained at various input voltages, loads and temperatures using a 1 MHz, constant-frequency, pulse-width-modulated, zero-voltage resonant-transition switching technique. The highest efficiency observed was 85%. The results indicate that the planar transformer functions satisfactorily in an interleaved flyback power converter. However, power loss calculations result in 2 W unidentified losses when compared with the actual circuit performance. When discrete capacitors were replaced by a capacitor array substrate and the discrete MOSFET switches were replaced by MOSFET dies mounted on the capacitor substrate, the power conversion efficiency degraded 8%. This was attributed primarily to the extra lead resistance introduced by mounting the dies on the substrate. This loss could be reduced by improving the capacitor substrate metallization design View full abstract»

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  • The effect of capacitor equivalent series inductance on DC-DC converter performance and stability

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 136 - 142
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The filter capacitor equivalent series inductance (ESL) depends on the foil length, the anode/cathode tab lengths, and the symmetry of the structure. The author discusses the effect of the filter capacitor ESL on DC-DC power converter stability, derives the open-loop transfer function in closed form, and compares and verifies previous efforts to model the ESL with experimental data View full abstract»

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  • A two-stage two-phase double-forward converter for pulsed-load applications

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 46 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Design of the two-stage two-phase double-forward converter for pulsed-load radar applications is presented. This topology provides an optimum combination of fast output-current buildup time and low RMS current in the switching transistors. An equivalent small-signal circuit of this multiphase converter based on the single-stage model is developed. Results of the converter simulation under dynamic load conditions are shown along with experimental results View full abstract»

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  • A resonant converter suitable for 650 V DC bus operation

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 231 - 239
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)  

    A high-frequency resonant converter configuration suitable for operation on a 650 V (nominal value) DC bus is described. Selection of the high-frequency switch and an appropriate resonant converter configuration are discussed. A series-parallel resonant converter using insulated-gate bipolar transistor-gated bipolar/MOSFET (BiMOS) cascode switches and operating above resonance is chosen for the application. A simplified analysis, a simple design procedure, and detailed experimental results are presented View full abstract»

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  • Thick-film power hybridization of switchmode power circuits

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 249 - 255
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    To help the electrical circuit designer better understand what is involved in a hybrid circuit design and to aid the designer hybrid-compatible circuits, the author presents a tutorial on the design of a power hybrid circuit. The structure of a power hybrid circuit is given along with the device's material properties and dimensions. Thick film and copper-on-ceramic techniques are presented. The designer can use the information to understand both the electrical and thermal limitations of such circuits. An example of a 2 MHz, off-line, thick-film-hybrid DC-DC-converter is provided View full abstract»

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  • FB3480 new high speed current mode control IC master chip [for power supplies]

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 151 - 158
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB)  

    A reconfigurable high-speed switching regulator controller integrated circuit for power supply applications is introduced. The integrated circuit, designated as the FB3480, is an analog array chip with several preoptimized functional blocks usually found in high-performance controllers. In addition the chip has several large sections that can be reconfigured to meet specific design needs. The FB3480 contains a high-speed error amplifier with a bandwidth >4 MHz, a precision bandgap voltage reference (1%), a precision high-speed oscillator of frequency f>1 MHz, dual totem-pole output stages with an output >1.5 A, undervoltage lockout, high-speed ECL/EFL logic, and many uncommitted components for circuit customization. The discussion covers the FB3480 along with two of its derivatives, the ML4825 and the LM4809 View full abstract»

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  • Computer program for fast simulation and optimization of single-ended inductor-fed zero-voltage switching series-resonant DC/DC converters and DC/AC inverters with any loading topology

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 303 - 314
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
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    An application-specific program, RESOCAD (RESonant converter CAD), is described that computes more than 250 times as fast as do general-purpose simulation programs, for single-ended, inductor-fed, zero-voltage-switching, series-resonant DC/DC converters and DC/AC inverters and for resonant rectifiers. The program computes steady-state periodic waveforms, input and output powers, all power dissipations, efficiency and inefficiency values, and control functions. It can adjust user-designated circuit parameters to optimize a design on the basis of efficiency and output power, voltage, or current View full abstract»

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