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Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 2002. Industry Applications Society 49th Annual

Date 23-25 Sept. 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 40
  • Record of Conference Papers. Industry Applications Society. Forty-Ninth Annual Conference. 2002 Petroleum and Chemical Industry Technical Conference

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Beyond electrical heat tracing: safety showers update

    Page(s): 103 - 109
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (483 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Since their introduction to industry, safety showers and eyewash stations have required winterization to ensure operation during subfreezing ambient conditions. However, a move to provide tempered water for chemical burn victims will have significant implications for present electrical heat tracing practices on safety shower applications. View full abstract»

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  • A summary of arc flash energy calculations

    Page(s): 285 - 290
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    Recent research has been published on the hazards of an electrical arc flash. The calculations required for determining arc-flash incident energy exposure for electrical workers are involved and sometimes difficult. The authors have completed arc-flash energy studies for many industrial sites, from small facilities to large chemical plants. This paper provides a summary of the results of these studies, with an emphasis on the wide range of results that were found. Learnings about electrical equipment design, installation and operation are discussed that were found to be associated with high arc-flash energy values. In addition, some methods are described to evaluate the arc-flash energy values for a facility that can help the owner determine the most effective arc flash hazard management policy View full abstract»

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  • Switchracks in hazardous locations

    Page(s): 179 - 189
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    Switchracks, for hazardous locations, offer many advantages over site built equipment by reducing labor to install and reducing manpower requirements to design, estimate and track construction. Furthermore, factory built switchracks provide a single source for design, drawings, construction and third party certifications. Switchracks fit many applications where motor control centers are not suitable, too expensive or the locations are too remote and/or congested for other power distribution techniques. The paper presents minimum requirements for switchrack design as well as field experience on the installation and start up, maintenance and additions to switchracks in hazardous locations and safety considerations. View full abstract»

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  • Zones versus divisions: a comparative analysis of NEC articles 500 and 505 equipment and wiring methods in a petrochemical facility in the united states

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    Codes and standards now exist which allow petrochemical facilities in the United States to be classified using the Zone method of area classification. Owners, operators and designers of these facilities now have options in choosing the method of area classification and in selecting the type of equipment protection techniques and wiring methods employed. This panel discusses the results of a detailed comparison made of Division-and Zone-based wiring systems for an onshore oil and. gas production facility in the United States. Issues considered include equipment cost and availability, installation costs and maintenance and safety considerations. Conclusions and recommendations are made on a life-of-facility cost basis. View full abstract»

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  • Even harmonic resonance - an unusual problem

    Page(s): 93 - 98
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    The paper is a case study examining the cause, effect and solution of an actual "noncharacteristic" even harmonic problem in an electrochemical plant. While issues concerning "characteristic" harmonics are well documented in the literature, limited information is available describing how noncharacteristic harmonic currents create operational problems. The author has not found any papers describing a case of even harmonic resonance and would like to share the experience of resolving a 4th harmonic resonance problem in the hopes it will benefit others. View full abstract»

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  • Specification guidelines to improve power quality immunity and reduce plant operating costs

    Page(s): 39 - 46
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There are many useful IEEE and IEC standards that support the design of chemical and petrochemical plants. This article brings relevant Power Quality standards information together and provides recommendations in areas not yet covered in current standards. Circuit configurations for cost saving solutions are provided. View full abstract»

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  • Designing prefabricated substation buildings according to GOST standards

    Page(s): 251 - 259
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    Prefabricated electrical substation buildings were chosen for supplying power to the pipeline linking the oil producing regions of the Caspian Sea to a new port facility on the Black Sea. All electrical equipment was required to be in compliance with the standards and regulations of the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. This added to the complexity of the design, construction, commissioning and operation of the equipment and systems. The paper describes some of the difficulties that occurred, and the solutions implemented when applying local regulations and in obtaining GOST-R and GOST-K certification from the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. View full abstract»

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  • Construction and testing of a 1000 hp high-temperature superconducting motor

    Page(s): 223 - 228
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (517 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An air-core, synchronous motor with a high temperature superconducting field winding has been successfully constructed and tested. The motor features a salient-pole superconducting field winding that operates at a nominal temperature of 30 K. A closed-loop (reverse Brayton cycle) cryogenic refrigeration system is used for initial cooldown and normal operation. Designed for 1,000 hp, this motor was demonstrated at 1,600 hp during operation at its rated speed of 1,800 RPM. This work summarizes the design objectives and requirements, technical challenges, data acquisition techniques and testing results View full abstract»

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  • Power factor correction and energy saving with proper transformer and phase shifting techniques

    Page(s): 99 - 102
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (330 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Harmonics in electrical distribution systems are created from a number of sources, and produce a variety of undesirable side effects, therefore it is important to understand all solutions that are available. Phase shifting will be reviewed as one concept for solving certain types of problems related to power quality. Both theoretical concepts and a case study are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Motor field protection and recommended settings and monitoring

    Page(s): 271 - 284
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (997 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Proper alarm and trip settings of induction motors may not be as obvious or as straightforward as one would believe.. Motor manufacturers can provide recommended control settings, but these settings may not be truly right for generic applications and typical conditions. There are many reasons why a particular operating condition (whether load related or environmental) may be different than the generic one. In certain situations, typical recommended settings might be too high to warn the user of a potential problem, while in others, the settings may be too low, causing nuisance trips. Trending will provide much more insight than relying solely on setting absolute values. It is important to understand any changes that go on within the motor, which could point to a potential on-coming problem. If an alarming trend is identified that cannot be associated with a change in operating conditions, then the motor condition can be better understood. View full abstract»

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  • FPSO electrical systems-lessons learned [ship power systems]

    Page(s): 111 - 118
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (802 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Floating, production, storage and offloading (FPSO) systems are an alternative to other types of deep water development and production systems such as spar platforms, tension leg platforms and floating production systems. A typical FPSO vessel may produce up to 300,000 barrels of oil per day (BOPD) and 300 million standard cubic feet of gas per day (SCFGPD), with one million barrels of on board oil storage. Oil off loading is normally by shuttle tanker and associated gas is normally injected to maintain field pressure. These vessels typically have more extensive electrical systems than the typical fixed platforms. Electrical loads may total 40-50 MW or more depending on the vessel configuration. Selection of the large drivers (turbines versus motors), picking the generation configuration (including prime, essential and emergency), configuring the electrical distribution system, and locating the various parts of the electrical distribution system (hull versus topsides) are major critical early decisions that will impact the future coordination efforts of the project. This paper explores the design of various electrical systems and installation issues of typical FPSOs and provides some lessons learned. View full abstract»

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  • Introduction and review of IEEE 576-2000 recommended practice for installation, termination, and testing of insulated power cable as used in industrial and commercial applications

    Page(s): 47 - 53
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    IEEE Standard 576-2000 is a revision to the original standard issued in 1989 for the Petroleum and Chemical Industry. The major changes include new clause on Cable Tray and Aerial Cable installations and expanded the information on splicing and terminations. This paper reviews the revised standard. View full abstract»

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  • A comparison of the IEEE and IEC standards processes

    Page(s): 1 - 12
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    This paper discusses the relevance of standards in a global marketplace. In addition, it outlines the methods used by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, (IEEE) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards process, and the rules for standards development including the procedures required to bring a standard to publication View full abstract»

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  • Industrial electric power systems operating competency - a looming crisis?

    Page(s): 197 - 202
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Petrochemical and other industrial and commercial facilities depend on continuous and reliable electric power. Although there is much focus on hardware, there has been little attention given to avoidable errors in operation of the industrial power systems. These errors have personnel and process safety, process uptime and operating/maintenance cost implications. This paper addresses an analysis of electric power disruptions from "inside the fence" causes over a 4-year period in the global operations of a large chemical company. The underlying causes suggest problems in maintaining knowledge, skills and experience in engineering, technical and risk management disciplines essential to power system operations. The authors have surveyed other large industrials to validate these findings and to project trends that could impact the chemical industry. View full abstract»

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  • A repair-replace decision model for petro-chemical industry electric motors

    Page(s): 55 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (898 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There are several repair standards, such as IEEE 841-2001 and IEEE 1068-1996, specific to the petrochemical industry. The electric motor repair industry is largely represented by the Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri. EASA serves 2500 members worldwide and has developed standards and guidelines dealing with the repair and service of electric motors. This paper presents the basic sources of a motor service and repair guideline and is built upon the experience of the EASA organization and its membership. Applicable elements from other guidelines and standards have also been incorporated (see below). The scope of this paper deals with squirrel-cage induction motors in the 1 to 3000 horsepower range-those typically found in the petrochemical industry. This paper examines the repair or replacement of the stator, rotor, shaft, bearings, fans and mechanical parts (hardware and accessories). Attention is also given to testing, verification, analysis and possible corrective actions to prevent or eliminate future failures. Options for motor replacement are also considered. View full abstract»

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  • Secondary selective system residual bus transfer-a modern application approach

    Page(s): 209 - 216
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A traditional secondary selective residual bus automatic transfer scheme is reviewed, and the basic logic necessary for automatic transfer operation is discussed. Although many transfer scheme documents are available, the authors believe the scheme complexity should challenge application engineers to better understand the "why's" rather than the "how to's" of the application. A modern PLC approach is proposed as a contemporary solution to a complex control application. View full abstract»

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  • Bearings for IEEE 841 motors

    Page(s): 77 - 83
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (465 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the IEEE 841 specification becomes widely used outside of the petrochemical industry, more review is required to assure the intent is understood. A look at competitive literature in the context of IEEE 841, finds many different terms to describe bearing life. Terms like 'Bearing Life', "B10", "L10 life", and "L10a". Belted life claims vary from 26280 hours to 70000 hours for the same bearing, in motors with very similar geometry. Clearly there are questions in the industry about the evaluation of IEEE 841 bearing systems. This paper reviews the application issues surrounding bearings in IEEE 841 motors. View full abstract»

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  • Applications engineering approach to Maxwell and other mathematically intense problems

    Page(s): 31 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (540 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electrical engineering and physics are taught with very complex. concepts involving intense mathematical manipulation. When most engineers practice, very little of the intricate science is used. The majority of problems are solved with little more than algebra. Why is there such disparity between the theory and the applications? The paper reduces all electrical theory to two very fundamental equations. A single unified equation is presented for the circuit problem. The equation is then enhanced with volumetric, motive, and lever distances. The result is a single equation for electromagnetic fields. This one equation encompasses all the fields problems including Maxwell's suite of four equations. The mathematical manipulation is never more complex than vector algebra. The procedures and considerations are items of interest to any engineer who is involved with circuits, fields, or who reads technical journals. View full abstract»

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  • An accurate low cost method for determining electric motors' efficiency for the purpose of plant energy management

    Page(s): 229 - 235
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (431 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the cost of energy increases it is increasingly more important to remove inefficient motors from operation. The first step towards achieving this goal is to estimate accurately the existing motors' efficiencies to determine how much saving will be achieved by using more efficient motors. The problem with estimating. the efficiency of motors in the field is the practicality,and cost associated with measuring the output power. This paper describes the results of a very low cost and accurate method for determining the motor efficiency without the need for removing the motors and without the need for measuring the output power or torque. Test results indicate that the novel method has an accuracy of over 99%. As a result of the high accuracy it is possible to estimate the potential savings with great confidence View full abstract»

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  • Lighting and control "advancements" for hazardous (classified) areas in industrial facilities

    Page(s): 147 - 154
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    Large industrial facilities are emerging from a traditional lighting concept to advanced lighting technologies within the petrochemical and oil sands industry. These advancements have allowed facilities to take advantage of cost effective and more uniformed lighting installations. This paper discusses several methods that are being implemented in large oil sands plants in northern Canada. Plant re-lamping programs with new microprocessor control, illumination of large process plants by high mast lighting and low profile flood luminaires in conjunction with 3-D modelling are discussed. In parallel to these initiatives, new induction lamp technology is being used to retrofit existing lighting where high vibration issues are a concern. A lighting management program of re-lamping was initiated to decrease energy consumption and increase cost effective maintenance. The evolutions to advanced lighting methods for industrial facilities are the main topics of the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Understanding electrical and mechanical tests performed on induction motors

    Page(s): 167 - 178
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (812 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When new motors are purchased, various tests are conducted to verify their performance and integrity. Many of these tests are not standard, and may add to the motor cost without adding significant value to the purchaser. Furthermore, while some of these tests may help ascertain a motor's reliability and performance, the testing may be harsh on the motor, degrading the integrity of the motor in the process. The value of the tests depends on the application, users experiences, motor size/voltage, etc. By determining which tests are truly required, both from a cost and a harshness perspective, an optimized motor test can be purchased. Additionally, alternate test procedures may exist which may yield similar information, but without the stress imposed by more traditional test methods/specifications. This paper explores the tests available for various induction motors along with an analysis of the stress on the motor and value of information derived. View full abstract»

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  • Converter-fed motors for use in potentially explosive atmospheres

    Page(s): 313 - 314
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    Asynchronous motors in conjunction with converters are being used more and more for the speed regulation of electric drives, even in the field of explosion protection. The speed regulation provides a suitable method for the control or regulation of chemical and petrochemical processes. Beside the advantages of asynchronous motors, compared to mains operation there are, however, some disadvantages involving planning and testing that affect the explosion protection. This paper provides an introduction to the particular problems of converter-fed asynchronous motors for use in potentially explosive atmospheres. View full abstract»

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  • Are all-electric platforms viable in the Gulf of Mexico?

    Page(s): 119 - 128
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    Traditionally, fixed and floating offshore production facilities in the Gulf of Mexico have used gas turbines (or engines) for large mechanical drives while providing separate gas turbines (or engines) for power generation. An alternate approach using electric power for feeding all loads, including large mechanical drives, is gaining favor as the scope of Gulf of Mexico facilities increase. During the initial design of a facility it is critical to understand the different options that are available with regard to the driver selection. These options include using gas turbines for power generation with the options of having large mechanical drives coupled to gas turbines (traditional method) or using gas turbines only for power generation and utilizing all electric drives for the mechanical loads. The critical areas that need to be evaluated in making this driver selection decision are project specific and typically include life cycle cost, capital expenses, space and weight limitations, and emissions. For the all-electric facilities, the use of fixed speed versus variable speed drivers is also considered to improve energy efficiencies and operability. View full abstract»

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  • Cost saving practices for maintenance in European chemical plants using newest installation techniques

    Page(s): 317 - 318
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    For the development of new technology for hazardous areas, the exchange of experience and a close cooperation between the manufacturer, the user and the test house is absolutely necessary. In this paper, some examples are shown for the newest installation techniques with the same high level of safety using cost saving practices for maintenance in European chemical plants. The simplification of the installation techniques makes it possible that even a nonspecialist is able to install the equipment without a decrease in safety. View full abstract»

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