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Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2002. Proceedings. The IEEE 5th International Conference on

Date 6-6 Sept. 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 172
  • IEEE 5th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (Cat. No.02TH8613)

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    Freely Available from IEEE
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  • Author index

    Page(s): 957 - 959
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Observed-link-flow-based OD matrix estimation with stochastic factors

    Page(s): 479 - 484
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    A new iterative procedure with the consideration of the integrating stochastic factors is established for estimating origin-destination (OD) matrices. The analytical form of the link choice proportions is developed. By minimizing the squared errors between estimated and observed link flows, the mathematical model balances all degrees of approximation for restricted equations. The recursive least squares method is conducted to evaluate OD matrices based on the estimation theory. The conducted method is more receptive to fluctuations in the observation due to integrating stochastic disturbances including the measurement errors and temporal variations of the observed link flows, and can make better use of traffic information from observation systems. The analysis and simulation study show that the method is feasible. Factors influencing the computed results of OD matrices are discussed and directions for future researches are proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple model estimation scheme for map-matching

    Page(s): 576 - 581
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    A map-matching method using a multiple model (MM) estimation scheme is presented in this paper. A vehicle travelling on the road network is subject to often changes in the movement direction as the vehicle turns onto another road at an intersection or negotiates a road bend. Hence, the estimation of the successive locations of the vehicle on the road network from a sequence of noisy position measurements can be accomplished by a MM filter with a time-varying set of switching models. Each model describes a rectilinear movement along a road which is likely to be used by the vehicle at the current instant. As underlying MM estimation technique, the proposed method applies a variable structure variant of the latest change moment testing algorithm (VS-LCMT) whereby hypotheses about the moment of the last sudden change of the road model are successively generated. The current road is identified by finding the road model which has associated the most probable hypotheses and the estimate of the vehicle state is obtained by probabilistically combining the partial estimates provided by a bank of filters matched to these hypotheses. The imminence of a road model change is quantified on the basis of the state-dependent probability of the vehicle being outside the current road. This imparts flexibility to the algorithm. The algorithm allows the reduction of the computational effort by utilizing 1D state estimates. View full abstract»

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  • Research on network-level traffic pattern recognition

    Page(s): 500 - 504
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    Real-time network-level signal control, traffic assignment and route guidance are promising approaches for alleviating congestion. Different optimal sets of control parameters and strategies for area-wide signal control, traffic assignment and route guidance can be determined according to different traffic patterns using many methods. Because of the importance of pattern recognition of network-level traffic patterns in traffic control and other applications, we present some elementary research on the topic based on the theories and methods of pattern recognition. First, we formulate the general process of network-level traffic pattern recognition, then some useful methods, such as PCA and SVM, are used for feature extraction, training and classifying of network-level traffic patterns. The experimental results show that the effectiveness of the proposed methods. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal routing policy problems in stochastic time-dependent networks. II. Exact and approximation algorithms

    Page(s): 555 - 559
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    We study a specific variant of the optimal routing policy problem in stochastic time-dependent networks where expected general travel costs are optimized. A stochastic time-dependent network is a network where the link travel times and the link travel costs are random variables with time-dependent distributions. A routing policy is defined as a decision rule that specifics what node to take next at each decision node based on the realized link travel times, the realized link travel costs and the current time. We assume the network users have perfect online travel time information and no travel cost information, implying that they have knowledge about all link travel time realizations up to the current time, but have no knowledge about any link travel cost realizations. An exact algorithm is designed, based on a specification of the generic optimality conditions presented in part I of this study. We then analyze the complexity of the exact algorithm and point out the importance of finding effective and efficient approximations to the exact algorithm. We proceed to present four approximations, and study their effectiveness against the exact algorithm theoretically. View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent tyre promoting accident-free traffic

    Page(s): 606 - 609
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    The goal of the project is to create an intelligent tyre system for improving road traffic safety. The three main objectives are: 1) to provide vehicle and tyre manufactures new products to increase road traffic safety; 2) to enable improvements for chassis control systems and advanced driver assistance systems; and 3) to enable the implementation of innovative services concerning tyre and road conditions for different user groups both inside and outside the vehicle. View full abstract»

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  • The Intelligent Travel Assistant

    Page(s): 691 - 696
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    The ultimate goal of the Intelligent Travel Assistant (ITA) is the fusion and development of a number of technologies into a device that will increase the efficiency of our transportation network through increased use of mass transit and ride sharing. The ITA will include: a) dynamic ridesharing, b) spatio-temporal database management, c) wireless communications, and d) a management framework. The ITA itself is envisioned to be a compact portable device with the capability to plan multi-modal routes for its user. The traveler will enter a desired destination into the ITA and it will formulate several plans to got the user to this destination. The ITA will make use of wireless Internet technology to send and receive traffic information, transit schedules, and arrange for payment of fares. The Global Positioning System (GPS) will be used to track the user's current position for use in route planning and also its it means of assessing traffic conditions while en-route. A spatio-temporal database management system will be used to efficiently track ITA positions in real-time. View full abstract»

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  • A research on bus information service system using DSRC

    Page(s): 365 - 369
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    Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) are required to collect traffic information dynamically and provide real-time information for travelers and traffic management departments. DSRC is a short-range communication system that is applied specifically in the field of transportation. It can be used for identification and location of vehicles. The concept of the Bus Information Service (BIS) system using DSRC is proposed in this paper, and the system architecture, patterns of operation, and information service available are discussed. The establishment of this system will provide an open platform for public transportation management, and offer a practical information service for both travelers and bus dispatching companies. View full abstract»

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  • Location detection system by an on-board slit camera imaging road surface marks and its application

    Page(s): 78 - 83
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    In this paper we propose a precision localization system with an on-board camera and specific road surface marks. An on-board camera is mounted downward and marks for position detection are put on road surface. The mark is detected by image processing of the resulting road surface image. The detected mark gives the vehicle position in each lane. Position related information can be attached by some simple coding schemes. The vehicle direction corresponds to inclination of the mark in the image and vehicle speed is given by the time difference of mark detection between frames in the case of a 2D video camera. We use a slit camera instead of a 2D video camera. Advantages of using the slit camera are high longitudinal resolution and simplified image processing for mark detection. The longitudinal length of mark in the slit image gives the speed information. By mounting two slit cameras at the front and rear end of the vehicle, a precise speed can be measured by the time difference of mark detection. A cross mark consisting of four separate bars is selected as a road surface mark for position detection. The position is given in subpixel accuracy as a crossing point of two straight lines. Experiments with a passenger vehicle show the effectiveness of this system. View full abstract»

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  • Performance comparisons of contention schemes for inter-vehicle communications

    Page(s): 342 - 346
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    In this paper, an autonomous cruising traffic flow simulator including medium access control (MAC) for inter-vehicle communications (IVC) is constructed and the contention schemes are compared by using this simulator. The pure-ALOHA, slotted-ALOHA, and non-persistent CSMA schemes are simulated. The results of simulation show that the non-persistent CSMA is superior to the ALOHA schemes. This superiority becomes stronger with increasing communicating vehicle density. Also, it is shown quantitatively that setting the range of carrier sensing to twice the communication range can reduce the ratio of hidden stations that have a bad influence on the performance of the non-persistent CSMA scheme. In addition, the capture ratio in the IVC is considered in the simulations, and the influence of the capture effect on the performance of each scheme is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Implementing ICVS regional shared transportation system in Singapore

    Page(s): 423 - 427
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    Honda has developed a practical new concept in transportation, the intelligent community vehicle system (ICVS), which provides the comfort and freedom of personal transportation while offering a more efficient resource utilization and an improved living environment, by using a system featuring the shared use of environmentally friendly vehicles. Since 1994, Honda has been conducting research and testing of the system in regions around the world. Based on these results and with the support from Singapore's Economic Development Board, Honda is to commence operation of an ICVS In Singapore in 2002. Through a combination of three usage patterns the vehicles are to be used to their maximum potential, and members will be provided with an easy-to-use, pay-per-use service. View full abstract»

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  • A comparative study of different color spaces for foreground and shadow detection for traffic monitoring system

    Page(s): 100 - 105
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    Segmenting foreground objects of interest in real time is an important step in many applications of video surveillance, vehicle tracking and traffic monitoring. Background subtraction is a method very often used to segment moving objects in image sequences. In this paper we present a fundamental unbiased study of different color spaces for detecting foreground objects and their shadows in image sequences. Different color spaces show different efficiency in detection of foreground objects and their shadows. This empirical study was done with the motivation of determining, which color space is best for foreground segmentation and shadow detection. This study of the quality of foreground and shadow detection as a function of color space is unique kind and especially relevant to color image sequences. Our study includes five color spaces "RGB", "XYZ". "YCrCb", "HSV" and the normalized "rgb". We use an empirically substantiated model of shadows formulate the detection scheme for each color space. We use a statistical technique to model the background pixels. The results are compared in terms of true detection, misses and false detection of pixels and also detection of the moving foreground objects as blobs. The results show that "YCrCb" is the best color space for optimal foreground and shadow detection. View full abstract»

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  • A new approach to compute minimum time path trees in FIFO time dependent networks

    Page(s): 485 - 490
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    We consider the problem of finding one to all minimum time paths for all departure times in a FIFO time dependent network with discrete arc travel times. We suggest that the problem can be viewed as a series of reoptimization of shortest path trees in static networks. This is accomplished via the concept of projection. We propose an algorithm which utilizes these projections to solve the one to all shortest path problem in a dynamic network. This algorithm is unique from an operational perspective as it only requires minimum data in advance. View full abstract»

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  • Inter-vehicle communication and ranging system using FH/SS technique

    Page(s): 313 - 317
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    In recent years, ITS (intelligent transport systems) are studied and developed for safe driving supports, etc. In many systems for ITS, inter-vehicle communication systems and ranging systems are very important. Therefore, the inter-vehicle communication and ranging system using spread spectrum technique called SS Boomerang Transmission System has been proposed. Using this system, a vehicle (vehicle-A) can know the information of a target vehicle (vehicle-B) and range distance between two vehicles at the same time. In the conventional reports for the SS Boomerang Transmission Systems, they used direct sequence spread spectrum (DS/SS) technique. In this paper, inter-vehicle communication and ranging system using frequency hopping spread spectrum (FH/SS) technique called FH/SS Boomerang Transmission System is proposed. From computer simulations, it is confirmed that the proposed system is better than the conventional DS/SS Boomerang Transmission System when interference waves exist. View full abstract»

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  • Smart pre-trip plan assistance system with vehicle health monitoring approach

    Page(s): 594 - 599
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    Traveler information plays a critical role in supporting safety, security, mobility, and in improving the reliability of travel. In the present work, authors are proposing an electronic cascaded controller making use of knowledge based system and fuzzy control. This will alert driver about possibility of completing journey successfully, considering number of the factors like journey condition, journey classification, vehicle condition, vehicle characteristics, optimum distance to be traveled and status of the driver. The cascaded fuzzy logic controller is designed to improve the efficiency of the vehicle. This system will be helpful for the travelers where long journey is to be commenced and also can be used where cost of traveling matters. Authors have also explained the function of black box system. This black box system will be very useful for historical comparison in future journey. Moreover in case of accident crash or insurance claim, it will help the police and insurance surveyor for determining the reason of mishap. View full abstract»

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  • Shock wave elimination/reduction by optimal coordination of variable speed limits

    Page(s): 225 - 230
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    We present a model predictive control (MPC) approach to optimally coordinate variable speed limits for highway traffic. The basic idea is that dynamic speed limits con create traffic conditions where shock waves can damp out faster. The control objective is to minimize the total time that vehicles spend in the network. For the prediction of the evolution of the traffic flows in the network we use an adapted version of the METANET model that takes the variable speed limits into account. The coordinated control results in a network with less congestion, a higher outflow, and a lower total time spent. In addition, the receding horizon approach of MPC results in an adaptive, online control strategy that automatically takes changes in the system parameters into account. View full abstract»

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  • Real-time image tracking for traffic monitoring

    Page(s): 1 - 6
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    This paper presents an image tracking system and its application to traffic parameter estimation at a road intersection. An active contour model is adopted to obtain vehicle locations of motorcycles as well as automobiles. Image location measurement is further incorporated with Kalman filter techniques to track the individual vehicle motion. To initialize image tracking at a junction, we propose a design based on the concept of contour growing. Traffic parameters such as vehicle speed and numbers of vehicles can be calculated with satisfactory accuracy. Actual CCD camera images of a busy junction were employed to verify the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Stop and go vehicle longitudinal model

    Page(s): 206 - 209
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    In this paper a vehicle longitudinal model targeted towards tow velocity adaptive cruise control systems Is presented through a review of conventional models. The vehicle model obtained has two inputs, namely the engine input and the brake input. Also it is described by the composite of the power-train system model, the brake system model and the drive-train model. The response of the proposed model is examined through numerical simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamical route-planning for vehicles based on global traffic information and communication

    Page(s): 538 - 543
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    In this paper, we propose an effective transport system using global information VICS and local information IVC. The VICS (vehicle information and communication system) which is one of the intelligent transport systems, has been developed to release the traffic jam. The VICS is able to give real-time global information to drivers and help drivers to find the fastest route. However, a spatial oscillation of traffic jam will happen, known as hunting phenomena. On the other hand, IVC (inter vehicle communication) is a developing technology which enables cars to give and receive various information by optical communication, millimeter electromagnetic waves and so on. We first investigate the relationship between hunting phenomena and the VICS user ratio, and then realize an effective transport system, in which each car selects a different route and communicate with others by IVC. View full abstract»

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  • Preliminary assessment of the operation of a personal rapid transit system in Eindhoven

    Page(s): 428 - 433
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    Although various personal rapid transit systems (PRT-systems) have been proposed and investigated by different companies and different researchers over previous decades, yet no PRT-system has come to practical operation that is confined to the definition of a PRT. From a literature review it was found that limited attention has been given to the relationship between PRT design variables and performance indicators-such as the (average) waiting time for passengers and the network capacity. The paper investigates, by means of micro-simulation, the feasibility of a circular PRT-system that connects the campus of the Technical University Eindhoven with the main railway station. The features of the applied simulation tool are described, as well as the performance indicators used. For two alternative boarding concepts the planned PRT-system is analyzed. The analysis shows the impact of the different concepts on the quality and efficiency of the system. The conclusion is that there is a trade-off between user quality (expressed as average waiting time at stops) and the system efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Immersion reality: combining microsimulation modelling and probe vehicles in traffic studies

    Page(s): 610 - 615
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    A Paramics micro-simulation model of an Adelaide radial road corridor has been constructed. The corridor includes a novel one-way reversible direction expressway equipped with an advanced traffic management system (ATMS). The modelled area included two alternative radial routes: an arterial road and the expressway. The model was used to analyse the performance of the corridor when an incident occurred on the expressway, in terms of traffic conditions and greenhouse gas emissions. Real world data was collected on both routes using an instrumented vehicle which records vehicle engine, positional and emissions data in real time. Paramics allows a representation of the probe vehicle to be introduced into the simulations. The paper describes the modelled results when this vehicle was immersed in the simulation modelling on incidents and the responses of the corridor's ATMS, with particular regard to the estimation of the emission impacts of ATIS and INMS. View full abstract»

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