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Electron Devices Meeting, 2002. Proceedings. 2002 IEEE Hong Kong

Date 22-22 June 2002

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  • Proceedings 2002 IEEE Hong Kong Electron Devices Meeting [front matter]

    Page(s): I - IX
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Proceedings 2002 IEEE Hong Kong Electron Devices Meeting (Cat. No.02TH8616)

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • RF/microwave transistors: evolution, current status, and future trend

    Page(s): 5 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (457 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most applications for radio frequency/microwave (hereafter called RF) transistors had been military oriented in the early 1980s. Recently, this has changed drastically due to the explosive growth of the markets for civil wireless communication systems. This paper gives an overview on the evolution, current status, and future trend of transistors used in RF electronic systems. Important background, development and major milestones leading to modem RF transistors are presented. The concept of heterostructure, a feature frequently used in RF transistors, is discussed. The different transistor types and their figures of merit are then addressed. Finally an outlook for expected future developments and applications of RF transistors is given. View full abstract»

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  • Application of shape memory alloy as detector material for far-infrared imaging transducers

    Page(s): 59 - 61
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    Based on the thermo-mechanical deformation property of shape memory alloys (SMAs), a nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi SMA) is used to construct an infrared imaging device. The NiTi SMA device is in the form of a thin film cantilever pixel. The absorption of energy from the impinging infrared radiation changes the horizontal tilt of the pixel due to the reverse martensitic transformation of NiTi SMA. The tilt angle change can be detected by illuminating the cantilever using a laser beam. One can therefore generate an IR image by monitoring the optical reflection from the thin film cantilever pixel. The possibility of realizing a practical low-cost infrared imaging device operating under room temperature conditions is envisaged. View full abstract»

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  • Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance imaging sensors

    Page(s): 55 - 58
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (313 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a differential phase imaging technique applied to optical surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors is presented. The technique makes use of the s-polarisation as the reference beam to interfere with the p-polarisation, of which the phase has a close relationship with the change of SPR conditions at the sensor surface. As a trial experiment, the SPR phase shift between water and air has been measured. Our results suggest a measurement accuracy of 5×10-2 rad. View full abstract»

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  • High-current injection in Spreading-Resistance Temperature sensor on SOI

    Page(s): 69 - 72
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A high-current injection phenomenon was found in Spreading-Resistance Temperature (SRT) sensor on SOI. Simulation and experiment of the sensor with different silicon-film thicknesses and doping concentrations were conducted to demonstrate this phenomenon, which can be explained by the conductivity modulation model normally used in LIGBT. This study is very helpful for designing the operating current of SRT sensor on SOI. View full abstract»

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  • A simple model of short channel MOSFET including velocity overshoot

    Page(s): 87 - 90
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    In this paper, a simple model for short channel MOSFET including velocity overshoot is proposed. The model is developed based on the velocity overshoot model obtained from the solution of energy balance equation under the assumption of displaced Maxwellian distribution. The resulting velocity model is the augmented drift-diffusion velocity model and all parameters involved are physical parameters. The model also includes the effects of the mobility degradation, channel length modulation, drain induced barrier lowering and parasitic drain source resistance. The theoretical predictions of the model are compared with the experimental data and shown to be in good agreement over a wide range of bias conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Approaches and options for modeling sub-0.1 μm CMOS devices

    Page(s): 79 - 82
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    This paper attempts to provide a general guideline to develop a practical model for MOSFETs in the sub 0,1 μm generations. It starts by giving an overview of the different modeling approaches and options including charge based approach, surface potential based approach, and conductance based approach. Their relative advantages and weaknesses will be discussed. The evolution of the BSIM models from its first generation to the most recent release will be used as an example for the development of a practical device model. It will be followed by a discussion on how the accelerated technology development may impact the traditional modeling approaches. A new paradigm to incorporate modem software engineering methodology to shorten model development cycle will be presented. View full abstract»

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  • Design of multi-finger HBTs with a thermal-electrical model

    Page(s): 95 - 98
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    Temperature distribution on the emitter fingers of heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) is studied with a three-dimensional thermal-electrical model. Using this model, multi-finger HBTs is designed with non-uniform spacing. An efficient design procedure is presented. The calculated results show significant temperature reduction on non-uniform spacing devices. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical study of one-fold coordinated oxygen atom in silicon gate oxide

    Page(s): 39 - 42
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    The capturing properties of nonbridging oxygen hole centers with unpaired electrons ≡SiO· and hydrogen defects ≡SiOH in silicon oxide have been studied using the ab initio density-functional method. It was found that the ≡SiO· defect is an electron trap and should be the responsible candidate for better hardness against radiation for the metal-oxide-semiconductor gate oxide produced by wet oxidation. On the other hand, the ≡SiOH defect, which was proposed to be an electron or "water trap" in the oxide (A. Hartstein and D. R. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 631, 1981), could not be an electron trap according to the present calculation results. View full abstract»

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  • High-speed mixed signal and RF circuit design with compact waffle MOSFET

    Page(s): 103 - 106
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    A compact waffle MOSFET layout scheme is used to fabricate high-speed mixed-signal circuits and RF circuits. Due to the compactness of the waffle MOSFET, it saves more than 30% of chip area. The extracted parameters indicate a 20-40% reduction in source/drain diffusion capacitance and gate resistance. This reduction results in more than 10% improvement in the propagation delay of buffer circuits and an increase in the unity-gain frequency and phase margin of a high-speed two-stage operational amplifier. An active inductor designed with compact waffle MOSFET also gets higher Q value. View full abstract»

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  • High-temperature quasi-saturation model of high-voltage DMOS power devices

    Page(s): 83 - 86
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    This paper reports the analysis of the high-temperature (300 K-400 K) quasi-saturation behavior of high-voltage DMOS devices using a closed-form quasi-saturation model. Based on the analytical model, at the higher temperature, the quasi-saturation behavior occurs at a smaller gate voltage due to the smaller saturated velocity as verified by the MEDICI results. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Nb concentration on photo-electrical properties of Sr1-xLaxNbyTi1-yO3 thin-film resistor

    Page(s): 21 - 25
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Strontium lanthanum titanate-niobate (SrLaNbxTi1-xO3) thin-film resistors are fabricated on SiO2/Si substrates by an argon ion-beam sputtering technique. Measurements show that the thin-film resistor has superior sensitivity for visible light. Moreover, the effects of Nb concentration on the photo-electrical properties of Sr1-xLaxNbyTi1-yO3 thin-film resistors and frequency effects on the photosensitivity performance are extensively investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Planar optical waveguide amplifiers

    Page(s): 11 - 14
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    Progress in erbium doped waveguide devices has been significant over the past few years, and commercial products are now available. In this paper, planar rare earth doped waveguide amplifiers, including Er3+ doped and Er3+/Yb3+ codoped waveguide devices, for telecommunication applications are reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis and characterization of SrTiO3 thin films by a modified metalorganic decomposition technique

    Page(s): 15 - 19
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    High quality strontium titanate thin films on platinized Si(100) have been synthesized using non-poisonous inorganic solvent and a layer-by-layer annealing technique at different temperatures. The films have shown good structural and electrical properties. The dielectric constant and dissipation factor at a frequency of 100 MHz are 230 and 0.05, respectively, for a 80 nm thick film annealed at 650°C. The capacitance versus applied voltage characteristic shows that the capacitance is almost independent of the applied voltage. The leakage current density is found to be in the order of 10-7 A/cm2 for the film in an applied electric field of about 100 kV/cm. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of high quality hafnium oxide gate dielectric

    Page(s): 43 - 46
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    Hafnium oxide (HfO2) was investigated as an alternative possible gate dielectric. A MOS capacitor using HfO2 as dielectric was fabricated and studied. The HfO2 film was formed by direct sputtering of Hf in O2 and Ar ambient on to a Si substrate and post-sputtering rapid thermal annealing (RTA). XPS results showed that the interface layer formed between the HfO2 and the Si substrate was affected by the RTA time within the 500°C to 600°C annealing temperature. The interface layer was mainly composed of hafnium silicate and had high interface trap density. Increase in RTA time was found to lower the effective barrier height of the layer and the FN tunneling current. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical characteristics of stressing for silicon oxynitride thin film

    Page(s): 47 - 50
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    Capacitors using thin oxynitride films as dielectric layer were fabricated. I-V measurements and constant current stressing to the samples of oxynitride capacitors were done. C-V measurements to the samples were also carried out. By applying constant current stressing to the samples, characteristics of oxynitride samples after stressing could be observed. The stressing current to the samples could be thought as continuous usage current to a non-volatile memory device. The results in this paper revealed the effect of the charge trapping of a non-volatile memory device. View full abstract»

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  • Raman spectroscopy study on free-standing GaN separated from sapphire substrates by 532 nm Nd:YAG laser lift-off

    Page(s): 111 - 115
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    Gallium nitride (GaN) thin films grown on sapphire substrates were successfully lifted onto silicon wafers using a laser lift-off (LLO) process induced by a 532 nm, Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Although the photon energy (2.33 eV) is much lower than the band gap of hexagonal GaN (3.41 eV), free-carriers absorption can heat up and consequently causes detachment of the GaN film from the sapphire substrate. Raman measurement conducted before and after LLO showed that the surface structure of the lifted GaN changed from hexagonal to a cubic structure. View full abstract»

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  • The gate misalignment effects of the sub-threshold characteristics of sub-100 nm DG-MOSFETs

    Page(s): 91 - 94
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, simulation results of the gate misalignment effects on the sub-threshold characteristics of asymmetric (ADG) and symmetric (SDG) double-gate MOSFET (DG-MOSFET) in the sub-100 nm regime are presented. Gates alignment in DG-MOSFETs becomes more and more difficult as devices are scaling down in non-self-aligned double-gate processes. The results show that gate misalignment effects are not as serious as generally expected and 60-80% misalignment is considered to be tolerable in some circuit applications. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced reliability for gate dielectric of low-temperature polysilicon thin-film transistors by NO-plasma nitridation

    Page(s): 35 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (329 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Polysilicon thin-film transistors (poly-Si TFTs) fabricated solely by low-temperature processes (under 600°C) are treated with nitridation using NO plasma. Their properties are investigated at room temperature under high-field stress. It is found that the plasma is effective in improving the gate-oxide hardness against stress-induced damage, with the nitrided device showing a smaller shift in threshold voltage, a smaller decrease in peak transconductance and a smaller increase in subthreshold slope after the stress. This result shows that plasma nitridation has positive effects on the reliability of low-temperature-fabricated poly-Si TFTs, which play an important role nowadays in low-cost flat-panel display systems on glass. View full abstract»

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  • Feasibility of 50-nm device manufacture by 157-nm optical lithography: an initial assessment

    Page(s): 31 - 34
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    The normalized process latitude (NPL) is used to assess the feasibility of 50-nm device manufacture by 157-nm optical lithography. A first NPL quantification assuming steady improvement of processing technology shows that 157-nm optical lithography is infeasible. A second NPL quantification investigates the amount of technology acceleration required to make 50-nm manufacture possible. It is concluded that photolithography is a viable lithography technique for the 50-nm technology generation only with significant improvements in focus control, photomask making, photoresist contrast, as well as aberration levels. View full abstract»

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  • Application of spectral surface plasmon resonance for gas pressure sensing

    Page(s): 73 - 77
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (365 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A pressure sensor based on the spectral response associated with the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) occurring on a 50 nm gold surface is described. The operation of the device relies on the fact the refractive index of a gas changes with pressure. Since the conditions for SPR is extremely sensitive to refractive index variations, the pressure of the gas exposed to the sensor surface can be detected. In our spectral SPR sensor, such refractive index change leads to a shift in the spectral dip in the SPR curve. Experiments performed on nitrogen gas at room temperature has demonstrated that our trial setup has a sensitivity threshold of 8.33×10-4 RI units, which corresponds to a pressure change of 6.3 psi. We expect that further improvement may be possible if we use better spectral signal processing algorithm to locate the spectral dip with higher degree of accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Sensitivity improvement of the surface plasmon resonance optical sensor by using a gold-silver transducing layer

    Page(s): 63 - 68
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (337 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is well established that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical sensor based on a metal-dielectric configuration can provide high sensitivity for many applications such as chemical and biological sensing. In fact the gold-dielectric configuration is most commonly used in the SPR sensor because of the fact that the thin gold layer can provide stable performance and good chemical resistance. In this paper, the characteristics of spectral SPR sensors that use composite silver/gold films for the transducing layer have been studied by using Fresnel formulas. Our simulations indicate that the optimal layer configuration for spectral SPR sensors should be gold(2 nm)-silver(48 nm)-dielectric for achieving best sensitivity. View full abstract»

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  • Optical storage disc based on the frequency up-conversion effect from rare earth ions

    Page(s): 117 - 120
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (326 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The application of infrared-to-visible upconversion in rare earth (Ho3+/Yb3+) co-doped TeOx sol-gel thin film for optical storage has been investigated. Optical discs with the storage layer made from rare-earth co-doped TeOx sol-gel thin films have been studied in terms of minimum bit-size and up-conversion efficiency. The possibility of a multi-layered architecture has also been investigated. The choice of using TeOx thin films is based on the higher up-conversion efficiency in the rare earth doped chalcogenide glasses. The nonlinear properties of the up-conversion effect lead to the possibility of reducing the 'effective' spot size of the signal region, smaller than that limited by diffraction, hence leading to super-resolution in the storage layer and increased storage density. View full abstract»

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  • The fringing electric field effect on the short-channel effect threshold voltage of FD SOI NMOS devices with LDD/sidewall oxide spacer structure

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (330 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the fringing electric field effect on the short-channel effect threshold voltage of fully-depleted (FD) SOI NMOS devices with the lightly-doped drain (LDD)/sidewall oxide spacer structure. It is based on a closed-form analytical model derived from the 2D Poisson's equation and using the conformal mapping technique. Based on the analytical model, as verified by the experimental data and the 2D simulation results, with a lower n-LDD doping density, the fringing electric field effect in the sidewall oxide spacer lowers the short-channel effect. View full abstract»

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