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Open Architectures and Network Programming Proceedings, 2002 IEEE

Date 29-29 June 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • COMAN: a multiple-language active network architecture enabled via middleware

    Page(s): 129 - 140
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In conventional data communication networks, the basic network components are passive, where routing decisions are made solely on the basis of packet header information. In contrast, active networks allow added computation within the network through user-defined routing and processing instructions, providing the on-demand installation of powerful software-based network services. As an adaptation of previous active networks, this paper introduces an architecture based entirely in middleware. By utilizing middleware services, the architecture resolves authentication, memory-management, and interconnectivity issues otherwise assumed as inherent, and enables a highly functional multiple-language interface for the deployment of dynamic protocols. After describing the architectural design, an empirical system evaluation is presented with comparisons to both conventional network protocols, and a wellknown existing active network architecture. Results indicate performance improvements over the existing architecture, and demonstrate the feasibility of a multiple-language active network infrastructure implemented entirely in middleware. View full abstract»

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  • Author index

    Page(s): 191
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (178 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Topology discovery service for router-assisted multicast transport

    Page(s): 14 - 24
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many existing proposals for introducing network support for multicast transport require the establishment of signaling paths among adjacent active routers in a session. We present a general-purpose, lightweight protocol to establish a signaling overlay among sparsely deployed active nodes. The resulting overlay is tied to the underlying multicast route and adapts to changes in its topology. In addition, we make this overlay available to other protocols by means of efficient communication primitives to provide reliable signaling between neighboring active routers. Our protocol and associated services can serve as a building block for a variety of active multicast services and greatly simplify their development. We describe its applicability for implementing several previously proposed services. View full abstract»

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  • The potential of just-in-time compilation in active networks based on network processors

    Page(s): 79 - 90
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (277 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Byte-code representations in active networks provide architectural neutrality and code compactness; however, the resulting execution speed is typically poor due to interpretation overhead. This paper shows that the performance of capsule-based active networks can benefit from compiling active network programs into native network processor instructions at traversed routers (just-in-time compilation). A key aspect of the paper is to demonstrate that just-in-time compilers for active networks can be fast and small enough for applicability in the datapath of network processors. The approach has been implemented based on the SNAP active network framework for the PowerNP network processor. View full abstract»

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  • A framework for efficient and programmable sensor networks

    Page(s): 117 - 128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (330 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ad hoc wireless networks of deeply embedded devices such as micro-sensors and microactuators have emerged as one of the key growth areas for wireless networking and computing technologies. So far these networks/systems have been designed with static and custom architectures for specific tasks, thus providing inflexible operation and interaction capabilities. Various architectures are currently trying to make sensor networks programmable and open to transient users. Most of these schemes though, promote algorithms that are too centralized and/or too interactive (i.e. the user is involved in the control loop most of the time), losing the efficiency these highly resource-limited systems need. Our approach employs active networking concepts in the form of lightweight and mobile control scripts that allow the computation, communication, and sensing resources at the sensor nodes to be efficiently harnessed in an application-specific fashion. The replication/migration of such scripts in several sensor nodes allows the dynamic deployment of distributed algorithms into the network. Although these mobile control scripts have similarities to mobile agents for traditional data networks, a framework to support them has different considerations than its traditional data network counterpart. The paper discusses these considerations and design choices, and describes SensorWare, our implementation of such a framework. View full abstract»

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  • Global flow control for wide area overlay networks: a cost-benefit approach

    Page(s): 155 - 166
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (618 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a flow control protocol for multi-sender multi-group multicast and unicast in wide area overlay networks. The protocol is analytically grounded and achieves real world goals, such as simplicity, fairness and minimal resource usage. Flows are regulated based on the "opportunity" costs of network resources used and the benefit provided by the flow. In contrast to existing window-based flow control schemes, we avoid end-to-end per sender or per group feedback by looking only at the state of the virtual links between participating nodes. This produces control traffic proportional only to the number of overlay network links and independent of the number of groups, senders or receivers. We show the effectiveness of the resulting protocol through simulations and validate the simulations with live Internet experiments. View full abstract»

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  • PAMcast : programmable any-multicast for scalable message delivery

    Page(s): 25 - 36
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The rapid growth of the Internet has led to much interest in communication paradigms that support scalability, including multicast and anycast. In this paper, we propose a new message delivery service - Programmable Any-Multicast (PAMcast) - which generalizes both anycast and multicast, by providing a message delivery service to m out of the total n group members, where 1 < m < n. Such a service has potential applications in a number of areas, including fault tolerant repositories, parallel cache queries, and parallel server downloads. Our architecture is based on a shared tree and managed by a group management protocol with similarities to IGMP. To explore what is possible with limited state and computation at the routers, we consider the implementation of two specific modes of delivery that control how the m receivers are selected. Our balanced mode aims for equal distribution of messages over receivers over time. We find that with relatively little state and computation we can achieve this goal. Our closest mode aims to deliver a packet to the m group members closest (by hop count) to the root of the distribution tree. We find that with modest state and computation we can achieve a probabilistic form of the closest mode. View full abstract»

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  • NetBind: a binding tool for constructing data paths in network processor-based routers

    Page(s): 91 - 103
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (422 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is growing interest in network processor technologies capable of processing packets at line rates. In this paper, we present the design, implementation and evaluation of NetBind, a high performance, flexible and scalable binding tool for dynamically constructing data paths in network processor-based routers. The methodology that underpins NetBind balances the flexibility of network programmability against the need to process and forward packets at line speeds. Data paths constructed using NetBind seamlessly share the resources of the same network processor. We compare the performance of NetBind to the MicroACE system developed by Intel to support binding between software components running on Intel IXP1200 network processors. We evaluate these alternative approaches in terms of their binding overhead, and discuss how this can affect the forwarding performance of IPv4 data paths running on IXP1200 network processor-based routers. We show that NetBind provides better performance in comparison to MicroACE with smaller binding overhead. The NetBind source code described and evaluated in this paper is freely available on the Web (comet.columbia.edu/genesis/netbind) for experimentation. View full abstract»

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  • CALM: congestion-aware layered multicast

    Page(s): 179 - 190
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (249 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper demonstrates the flexibility and utility of two lightweight, general-purpose network services (Emphemeral State Processing and LightWeight Processing modules) by showing how end-systems can use these services to obtain timely and accurate information about the location of congested links and their level of congestion. Although accurate congestion information is useful to a wide range of network services, here we illustrate its benefits to layered multicast systems. In particular, we show how these services can be used to overcome well-known problems with layered multicast, including the desire to reduce router state, the need to drop layers quickly (i.e., within one RTT), the problem of coordinating receivers, and the desire to support fine-grained layering without thrashing between layers-even in the face of join experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Opus: an overlay peer utility service

    Page(s): 167 - 178
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Today, an increasing number of important network services, such as content distribution, replicated services, and storage systems, are deploying overlays across multiple Internet sites to deliver better performance, reliability and adaptability. Currently however, such network services must individually reimplement substantially similar functionality. For example, applications must configure the overlay to meet their specific demands for scale, service quality and reliability. Further, they must dynamically map data and functions onto network resources-including servers, storage, and network paths-to adapt to changes in load or network conditions. In this paper, we present Opus, a large-scale overlay utility service that provides a common platform and the necessary abstractions for simultaneously hosting multiple distributed applications. In our utility model, wide-area resource mapping is guided by an application's specification of performance and availability targets. Opus then allocates available nodes to meet the requirements of competing applications based on dynamically changing system characteristics. Specifically, we describe issues and initial results associated with: i) developing a general architecture that enables a broad range of applications to push their functionality across the network, ii) constructing overlays that match both the performance and reliability characteristics of individual applications and scale to thousands of participating nodes, iii) using Service Level Agreements to dynamically allocate utility resources among competing applications, and iv) developing decentralized techniques for tracking global system characteristics through the use of hierarchy, aggregation, and approximation. View full abstract»

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  • Network layer support for overlay networks

    Page(s): 3 - 13
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (231 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Overlay networks represent a flexible and deployable approach for applications to obtain new network semantics, but they suffer from some efficiency concerns. To support overlay networks efficiently, two new primitives are proposed for implementation in the network layer. Packet Reflection allows end hosts to request short-circuit packet routing and duplication in nearby routers. Path Painting allows multiple end hosts to determine where their disparate paths to a rendezvous point meet, in order to facilitate overlay topology building. Both primitives are incrementally deployable. Numerous applications of these primitives are considered to demonstrate their utility: application level multicast systems with various semantics, an extended Resilient Overlay Network with greater latency benefits, and a hierarchy of web caches. View full abstract»

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  • Safe kernel programming in the OKE

    Page(s): 141 - 152
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (227 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the implementation of the OKE, which allows users other than root to load native and fully optimised code in the Linux kernel. Safety is guaranteed by trust management, language customisation and a trusted compiler. By coupling trust management with the compiler, the OKE is able to vary the level of restrictions on the code running in the kernel, depending on the programmer's privileges. Static sandboxing is used as much as possible to check adherence to the security policies at compile time. View full abstract»

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  • Modular components for network address translation

    Page(s): 39 - 50
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (555 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a general-purpose toolkit for network address translation in Click, a modular, component-based networking system. Network address translation, or NAT, was designed to allow disparate address realms to communicate. The components of our toolkit can be combined in a variety of ways to implement this task and many others, including some that, superficially, have nothing to do with address translation. Our NAT components are more flexible than monolithic alternatives. They concern themselves solely with address translation; separate components handle related functions, such as classification. The user can choose where network address translation takes place in relation to other router functions; combine multiple translators in a single configuration; and use NAT in unintended, surprising ways. We describe our design approach, demonstrate its flexibility by presenting a range of examples of its use, and evaluate its performance. Our components have been in use in a production environment for over eighteen months. View full abstract»

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  • Forwarding without loops in Icarus

    Page(s): 63 - 75
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Packets trapped in a forwarding loop can rapidly saturate network links and disrupt communications until they are removed by the IP Time-To-Live (TTL) mechanism. This does not pose a significant problem when loops are rare, as is the case with mature routing protocols such as OSPF and BGP. However, in newer and more experimental settings, such as peer-to-peer overlays, active networks and multicast, routing faults are more likely. In these cases, a greater degree of protection against the effects of forwarding loops is desirable. This paper presents Icarus, a framework for detecting forwarding loops in experimental protocols. Our key insight is to add a small Bloom filter to the packet header to probabilistically detect looping behavior. We have implemented Icarus inside the ANTS active network toolkit. We find that the scheme is simple, efficient and widely applicable like a TFL, yet ensures significantly earlier loop detection. View full abstract»

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  • APE: fast and secure active networking architecture for active packet editing

    Page(s): 104 - 113
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an architecture for active network nodes, called Active Packet Editing (APE). The design of APE focuses on accelerating the functions that are essential to active network operation, such as packet classification and NAT. The twofold architecture of APE combines a software active packet processor with an efficient packet editor based on flexible hardware. Based on preset rules (pattern, action), the packet editor classifies and modifies, to a limited extent, packets that pass through the node. Upon the receipt of active packets, the software active packet processor dynamically configures the packet editor. To prevent interference among active applications, and thus ensure security, cryptographic techniques are used to distribute a flow specific key string, which is used to authenticate succeeding packets in the same flow. We are developing a prototype APE node. View full abstract»

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  • A comparative study of extensible routers

    Page(s): 51 - 62
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (219 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Motivated by the demand for routers with new capabilities, researchers have been building extensible routers that aid in the design and development of network protocols and services. This paper evaluates and compares three such systems: (1) Princeton's Scout-based Extensible Router, (2) MIT's Click router, and (3) Washington University's Router Plugins. To provide a framework in which these three systems can be studied, the paper also presents a simple model of an extensible router based on four primitive objects: queues, classifiers, forwarders, and schedulers. By composing these primitive objects it is possible to model everything from a standard, best-effort IP router to an application-level proxy. The paper also briefly discusses the role that extensible routers play in the construction of active, programmable, and overlay networks. View full abstract»

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