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Technology and Society, 2002. (ISTAS'02). 2002 International Symposium on

Date 8-8 June 2002

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 54
  • IEEE 2002 International Symposium on Technology and Society (ISTAS'02). Social Implications of Information and Communication Technology. Proceedings (Cat. No.02CH37293)

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    The following topics are dealt with: information technology; communication technology; social implications; online communities; intellectual property; gender issues; digital divide; technology policy; computer ethics teaching resources; online instruction; electronic documents; privacy; legal issues; free speech; distance education technologies; design issues; virtual harms; and information security. View full abstract»

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  • Author index

    Page(s): 393 - 394
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Choosing passwords: security and human factors

    Page(s): 369 - 373
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    Password security is essential to the security of information systems. Human fallibility makes it nearly impossible to follow all of the recommended rules simultaneously. A user with many different passwords, frequently changing, will be forced to write them down somewhere. Some systems constrain them to have a certain minimum length, or to require them to contain a combination of letters and numbers. Some systems also impose maximum lengths, and some prohibit special characters. The lack of common standards for passwords makes it difficult for a user to remember which password is used for which system. To make matters worse, systems frequently revoke a user's access after a password has been incorrectly entered as few as three times. What is needed, then, is an analysis of passwords that takes both human factors and security into account. We must recognize that what really matters is the security of the total system-offline as well as online. This paper explores the tradeoffs that need to be made to achieve maximum security in everyday use by forgetful users. View full abstract»

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  • Nothing to claim-there is no such thing as intellectual property

    Page(s): 60 - 67
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    The paper follows the history and development of copyright protection and intellectual property. Several examples and arguments demonstrate the impact of copyright on art, science, and society. The paper further analyzes pros and cons of copyright and presents a proposal of how networked and open societies might respond to copyright and intellectual property. View full abstract»

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  • The meaning of an online health community in the lives of its members: roles, relationships and group dynamics

    Page(s): 20 - 27
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    This research is concerned with understanding the role a long established and thriving health bulletin board plays in the lives of its members; the impact of usability and sociability issues on group process, and the membership roles, patterns of social interaction, and group dynamics exhibited in the community. An ethnographic research approach is taken in this study in combination with social network analysis, and Interaction Process Analysis. The paper describes the rational for this research approach and some preliminary findings. It appears that community members have created a mental model of the groups' dynamics that serves as the basis for their attraction and commitment to the community View full abstract»

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  • Virtual harms and virtual responsibility: a rape in cyberspace

    Page(s): 323 - 330
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    Julian Dibbell reported a "rape in cyberspace" in 1993. In this paper we use the case to explore the moral nature of actions in virtual environments. We emphasize the themes of harm and responsibility and conclude with some tentative lessons learned, and extend the analysis to virtual sex. View full abstract»

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  • Providing Web search capability for low-connectivity communities

    Page(s): 87 - 91
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    There are many technical problems that exist in communities other than our own. These problems both deserve our attention and require focused research. We present one example: the TEK Search Engine. TEK is an email-based search engine designed to deliver low-bandwidth information to low-connectivity communities. View full abstract»

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  • Information technology, new organizational concepts and employee participation-will unionism survive?

    Page(s): 202 - 209
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    Information technology changes business processes at all levels. The increasing standardization of the processing, distribution, storage and reproduction of high volumes of information enables previously separated tasks (within the firm) to be reintegrated. Supporting information systems designed to reduce process time are introduced in all functional divisions. Insofar as these changes are accompanied by similar changes in work organization and human resource management they influence labor relations. New organizational concepts (NOC) have been developed to reduce the number of hierarchical layers and to introduce more numerical and qualitative flexibility for the labor force employed. New forms of work alter the conditions of work and employment, especially the wage bargaining process, working time, occupational profiles and skill levels. The reality which emerges in today's labor relations is complex and characterized by the direct participation of core workforces in managerial human resource concepts, flexibilization for the marginal workforce and diversifying policy options for trade unions. View full abstract»

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  • Seeking community on the Internet: ethnocultural use of information communication technology

    Page(s): 5 - 12
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    This brief sampling of findings indicates that statistically significant differences in online behaviour exist between the selected groups and the population average. The data show that not only are immigrants and ethnocultural minorities in Canada more active on the Internet than the general population, but that their online behaviour is significantly more likely to include elements of ethnocultural community building as identified in the qualitative phase of the study. The "maintenance" hypothesis is strongly supported, albeit indirectly, with these variables. Online behaviour of first generation Canadians, however, is found to approximate the population average. This latter finding tends to degrade the qualitative findings of a young, eager "exploration" grouping identified in the qualitative phase View full abstract»

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  • EHAS program: rural telemedicine systems for primary healthcare in developing countries

    Page(s): 31 - 36
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    The Biomedical Engineering and Telemedicine Group of the Technical University of Madrid (UPM in Spanish) and the non governmental organization Engineering Without Frontiers (ISF in Spanish) are leading the "Hispano-American Health Link" program (EHAS in Spanish), to develops low-cost telecommunication systems and information services specially designed for rural primary health care personnel of isolated areas in developing countries. The EHAS program has five lines of work: 1) Research on the communication and information needs of rural health personnel in developing countries, 2) R&D on voice and data communication systems designed according with conditions of rural areas, 3) R&D on information services systems suited to the needs of health personnel, 4) Deployment of those services and systems through pilot projects, and 5) Evaluate the impact of these telemedicine systems on health services. This paper presents the results of each line of work, specially those results verified from fieldwork, and the future plans of the EHAS program. View full abstract»

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  • "Daddy, daddy, my computer has a fever!" Children and communication technologies in everyday life

    Page(s): 186 - 189
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (361 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Media and communication technologies are an organic part of the everyday lives of ever younger people. In Finland, alongside mobile communication, the Internet has become a central medium that enables children and youth to engage in versatile content production and independent creation of culture. Children and young people are a group with their own usage cultures and communication patterns that differ from those of adults. In my paper, I will present empirical research on children's relationship to new communication technologies. The work is largely based on a material of thematic interviews. I will examine children's relationship to technology as a cultural concept: what kind of a cultural symbol does children's relationship to communication technology constitute, and what are the prevailing attitudes towards technology as a part of children's everyday life? More than 1000 people, including children and their parents, have been interviewed for the study since 1997. In 2002, the research group is coordinating an international comparative study assessing the communication cultures in Finland, Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany View full abstract»

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  • Ethical hacking: the security justification redux

    Page(s): 374 - 379
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    The state of security on the Internet is bad and becoming worse. One reaction to this state of affairs is a behavior termed "Ethical Hacking" which attempts to proactively increase security protection by identifying and patching known security vulnerabilities on systems owned by other parties. Ethical hackers may beta test unreleased software, stress test released software, and scan networks of computers for vulnerabilities. Previous work has emphasized ethical hacking as an altruistic behavior but we find ethical hackers act rationally, in self-interest, to secure systems that are within their own community (sometimes for pay)-networked systems are only as secure as the weakest system within perimeter defenses. View full abstract»

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  • Information and communications technology for poverty reduction. lessons from rural India

    Page(s): 93 - 99
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    Information and communications technology (ICT) can reduce poverty by improving poor people's access to education, health, government and financial services. ICT can also help small farmers and artisans by connecting them to markets. It is clear that in rural India, as well as in much of the developing world, realization of this potential is not guaranteed. Low-cost access to information infrastructure is a necessary prerequisite for the successful use of ICT by the poor, but it is not sufficient. The implementation of ICT projects needs to be performed by organizations and individuals who have the appropriate incentives to work with marginalized groups. As this paper attests, these intermediaries are best suited to promote local ownership and poor people's participation, as well as the availability of content that responds to the most pressing information needs of the community View full abstract»

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  • Cell phone usage: an analysis of users' subjective responses in the adoption

    Page(s): 171 - 177
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    Cell phones are a pervasive new communication technology today, especially among college students. This paper examines college students' cell phone usage from a behavioral and psychological perspective. Utilizing both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (survey) approaches, the study suggests these individuals use the devices for a variety of purposes: to help them feel safe, for financial benefits, to manage time efficiently, to keep in touch with friends and family members, et al. The degree to which the individuals are dependent on the cell phones and what they view as the negatives of their utilization are also examined. The findings suggest that people have various feelings and attitudes toward cell phone usages. This study serves as a foundation on which future studies will be built. View full abstract»

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  • Blackboard: a Web-based resource in the teaching of a multi-disciplinary/multi-institutional computer ethics course

    Page(s): 126 - 131
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    This paper will focus on the use of a commercially available collaborative learning management tool (CLMT), Blackboard and how it has been used to enhance the teaching of professional issues in a large cohort given at the University of Limerick in Ireland and a small writing-based senior ethics course given at Sacred Heart University. This study details the various facilities offered by Blackboard, some of the ways in which the tools were used to enhance learning and critical thinking and some reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the tool. A prospective design and implementation of an international collaboration between the two classes will be explained along with the objectives and outcome assessment methods. View full abstract»

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  • Preparing to teach ethics in a computer science curriculum

    Page(s): 121 - 125
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    At Towson University, the Computer and Information Sciences Department is preparing newer faculty members to teach courses in computer ethics. There are two separate ethics courses, which are identified as Professionalism and Computer Ethics (a 1 credit course) and Social and Ethical Issues (a 3 credit course). This paper will provide several types of resources available for preparing a new faculty member to teach computer ethics. In addition, this paper will cover the following topics from the new faculty perspective: (1) identifying available resources; (2) which ethical theories to implement in an ethics course; (3) the major topics to be covered; (4) identifying the desired student outcomes; and (5) the students' perception of the course content. View full abstract»

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  • Anti-circumvention misuse, or, how I learned to stop worrying and love the DMCA

    Page(s): 244 - 251
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    The anti-circumvention provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act grants owners of technologically protected content a new right of access entirely separate from the protection of content under copyright law. This new right of access, which some commentators have dubbed "paracopyright," has already been employed in litigation arguably calculated to suppress competition in uncopyrighted items related to the sale of copyrighted works. Such use of the anti-circumvention statute reaches well beyond the Congressional purpose of preventing unauthorized copying. In the past, such leveraging of patent rights or of copyright has been curbed by the equitable doctrine of misuse. An extension of the misuse doctrine to "paracopyright" may be the proper remedy to curtail overreaching uses of the anti-circumvention right. View full abstract»

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  • Information ethics in the design, creation and use of metadata

    Page(s): 197 - 201
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (362 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Just as information contains the explicit and implicit values of its creators, so does the metadata that represents these objects. This paper discusses issues of fair representation in the ethical design, creation and use of metadata, data about data. Ethical issues arise in the planned design of metadata, the creation of surrogates as representative of data or text, as well as in the use and ownership of the metadata in electronic environments View full abstract»

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  • Electronic commerce and its socio-economic implications in Brazilian small and medium enterprises

    Page(s): 45 - 50
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    The paper examines the experience of Brazilian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in relation to electronic commerce looking at the perceived barriers and catalysts to its adoption with focus on the socio-economic implications. The study combined quantitative and qualitative methods with the aim to gain a detailed and in-depth knowledge of the experience of adopting e-commerce over time and to accompany the SMEs developments in the use and implementation of ICT. According to the participant SMEs, e-commerce is "a reality that is here to stay" and while the main drive behind its adoption was stated as being economic, it was pointed out that the social implications, mainly internal, were quicker to arise and be felt. The study also highlights the finding that the adoption of e-commerce at this early stage does not imply abandoning more traditional communications technologies such as the phone and the fax in favor of more modern ones such as the email. Instead, different functions seem to be attributed to the respective communication mediums allowing for their co-existence within the one business process. View full abstract»

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  • Educators and pornography: the "unacceptable use" of school computers

    Page(s): 340 - 344
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    More companies are requiring their employees to sign acceptable-use policies for Internet computers. Some employees are unaware of the implications of the policies, and do not realize the extent to which their activities can be monitored by computer technicians. In academia, three important cases of "unacceptable use" are those of Dean Ronald F. Thiemann, Professor Eric Neil Angevine, and Superintendent Robert Herrold. All three lost, or resigned from, their positions after pornography was discovered on their employer-owned computers. Several issues regarding "acceptable use" are common to all the cases, including privacy rights, the right of the institution to control its equipment, and who might see what is stored on that equipment. This paper explores these questions, and suggests guidelines for employers and employees. View full abstract»

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  • Gender Equity and the use of Information Communication Technologies in the knowledge economy: taking a feminist poststructuralist approach

    Page(s): 71 - 76
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    This paper questions the UK government's initiatives to solve the recognised gender divide in the use of ICT's in British Society. In doing so the paper looks to feminism and poststructuralist theory to critically analyse the problem. Poststructuralist theory is offered as a means to question the cultural norms and beliefs in UK society around the use of ICTs, Offering a possibility to challenge the current situation and therefore giving possibility for change. View full abstract»

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  • Cyberstalking: moral responsibility, and legal liability issues for Internet service providers

    Page(s): 331 - 339
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    The study examines a range of moral issues associated with recent cyberstalking cases. Particular attention is centered on the Amy Boyer/Liam Youens case of cyberstalking, which raises a host of considerations that we believe have a significant impact for ethical behavior on the Internet. Among the questions we consider are those having to do with legal liability and (possible) moral responsibility that Internet service providers (ISPs) have for stalking crimes that occur in their "space" on the Internet as well as issues of moral responsibility for individual online users to determine their obligation to inform persons who are targeted by cyberstalkers, when it is in their power to do so. View full abstract»

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  • Multiplying the wisdom at grassroots: leveraging on information technology

    Page(s): 359 - 366
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    The multifarious projection of information technologies in our society pleads a winning case for extending the benefits of information to grass root levels. Following a critical view of development through macro agencies like national governments and international organisations, the paper analyses experimental attempts by macro and micro agencies towards helping rural citizens in leveraging their knowledge. The paper finally proposes a model to develop knowledge workers through information technology that can reverse the process of exteriorised human existence as well as the increasing knowledge gaps. View full abstract»

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  • Policy debate on the Internet: panelists evaluate the process

    Page(s): 219 - 223
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    The 2001 North Carolina Citizens' Technology Forum provided a unique opportunity to study policy deliberation by average citizens using the Internet. Loosely based on the Danish-style consensus conference, all group work was conducted entirely online. Nine of the 13 citizen members responded to an open-ended questionnaire about their experiences. Four members of the content expert panel also offered their impressions. Despite some of the drawbacks of online communication, overall, citizens had favorable reactions. The average rating was 7.9 on a ten-point scale. Ratings provided by the experts were lower; the average score was 6.5. This may be related to the difficulty of presenting scientific information online. Both agreed that Internet forums have the potential to open up the policy debate by increasing opportunities for citizens to participate in the process. Findings of this evaluation will assist in the design of future online citizen panels. View full abstract»

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  • "Secondary effects", digital technology, and free speech: the Internet and the First Amendment

    Page(s): 229 - 235
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    Digital technology is challenging established legal doctrine concerning sexually-oriented expression, an area of relative stability for the past thirty years. This paper examines The Child Online Protection Act and the viability of "community standards" to assess obscenity, and The Child Pornography Prevention Act and the emergence of the "secondary-effects" doctrine as rational for censoring sexual expression. It identifies the fundamental implications these two cases pose for the First Amendment. View full abstract»

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