By Topic

Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, 2001. Proceedings EcoDesign 2001: Second International Symposium on

Date 11-15 Dec. 2001

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 216
  • Proceedings Second International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing

    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (845 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Page(s): 1145 - 1150
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (371 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Generic LCA based DfE - a case study of different PWB systems

    Page(s): 335 - 340
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB)  

    A goal of the study is the ecological comparison between ceramic and epoxy based populated printed wiring boards (PWB). All relevant differences of the product systems are taken into consideration. The approach of generic modules is applied to manage the complex product models. Despite the aggregated environmental profiles, the method offers the opportunity to provide transparent results regarding an acceptable time effort for conducting a study. Generic modules offer the link between life cycle assessment (LCA) and design for environment (DfE). The paper demonstrates, based on a description of the different criteria of LCA and DfE, how generic modules allow the implementation of the information and results of a LCA into the modular structure of DfE. This is shown on two examples: an epoxy based PWB and a ceramic based hybrid View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Environmental-economic supply chain management of suppliers, contract manufacturers and recyclers; more than requirements for environmentally hazardous substances and environmental management systems

    Page(s): 702 - 707
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB)  

    This paper presents an environmental-economic supply chain management approach for an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). An OEM procures components such as integrated circuits, connectors, etc. and produces telecommunication and/or consumer products at his own assembly sites or the assembly sites of so-called contract manufacturers. When the products reach their end-of-life phase, the OEM offers to take them back from his customers for recycling. In these supply chains the environmental performance of a supplier's production facility should be a major element. The environmental performance is based on the supplier's production behaviour and is determined using an Environmental Performance Tool. From an environmental-economic perspective, management of suppliers, recyclers etc. using Environmental Performance Tools is about more than the requirements for hazardous substances in products and the use of environmental management systems. Use of Environmental Performance Tools drives the suppliers towards environmentally perfect production, as is illustrated in this paper using the example of the supply chain for printed boards View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Ecological improvement of the vending machine using LCA method

    Page(s): 341 - 346
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (724 KB)  

    "LCA (life cycle assessment)", which can assess the environmental aspect and potential impact associated with a product "from the cradle to the grave" synthetically, has become noteworthy. The software "MieLCA", which can be operated easily on a personal computer to conduct LCA-NETS (Numerical Eco-Load Total Standardization) was composed by employing the LCA method "ESS" (Eco-Load Standardization System). The assessment of various types of industrial products can be performed by applying "MieLCA". On the other hand, the vending machine has just as much to do with the environment as other industrial products. In addition to conducting such an assessment, the ecological improvement was performed by taking account of the concept of reuse etc. As a case study, the evaluation of environmental performance of a vending machine is discussed View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Newly developed real time monitoring system for ionic migration of lead-free solder by means of quartz crystal microbalance

    Page(s): 1064 - 1069
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (447 KB)  

    To investigate the ionic migration, quite a new measurement method has been developed by the authors, which enables real timemonitoring of the growth process of ionic migration using a QCM (Quartz Crystal Microbalance). This research has focused on the QCM method to study the process of ion migration in various types of lead-free solder plating and the effects of the reflow processing and flux residue of soldering processes. In addition, we investigated the anode dissolution characteristics of the elements in each type of solder alloy by measuring the current-potential curve in 0.1 kmol m-3 KNO3 solution. When using Sn-3.5 mass%Ag solder plating reflow processing segregate the stable compound Ag 3Sn layer and Sn layer. The Sn layer selectively promotes the anode dissolution reaction, increasing the occurrence of migration. When using Sn-9 mass%Zn solder plating, the Sn effectively prevents the excessive dissolution reaction of Zn. However, since reflow processing causes each element to separate out, reflow processing lessens the effectiveness of Sn, thus promoting the occurrence of migration. The flux processing of lead-free solders suppresses anode dissolution and effectively prevents the occurrence of migration. However, with Sn-9 mass%Zn, the lowered adhesion between the flux film and the electrodes is a factor in speeding the growth of migration. In the end of this report the ionic migration of lead free solder in severe NOx circumstance will be commented View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • LCA of machine tools with regard to their secondary effects on quality of machined parts

    Page(s): 347 - 352
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (565 KB)  

    Machine tools are considered important sources for environmental unconsciousness because of the many environmental emissions during machining operation. However, machine tools are also responsible for the unconsciousness of the parts they produce which we call "the secondary effect of machine tools on environment". We propose a new concept to evaluate the LCA of machine tools with respect to their secondary effects on the quality of machined parts. Through several simulations, it is confirmed that the secondary effects of machine tools are meaningful for eco-design of machining processes and that the proposed method is applicable to LCA of different machine tools View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Service engineering to intensify service contents in product life cycles

    Page(s): 613 - 618
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (567 KB)  

    This paper discusses how to establish service engineering that is intended to intensify service contents of product life cycles. Intensification of service and knowledge contents within product life cycles is considered crucial for dematerialization, in particular, to design optimal product-service systems from the viewpoint of environmentally conscious design and manufacturing in advanced post industrial societies. The paper tries to define service as an activity that changes the state of a service receiver. Service contents of the service is provided by a service provider and delivered through a service channel. Artifacts are either the service contents or the service channel. Service engineering looks at development, design, and production of services and aims at improving the efficiency and quality of the service as well as its delivery. To establish service engineering, the paper then proposes a modeling technique of service View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Synthesis and properties of a novel polyarylate with 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-2,7-dicarbonylate moiety

    Page(s): 382 - 387
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (513 KB)  

    A novel wholly aromatic polyester poly[oxy-1,4-phenylene(1-methylethylidene)-1,4-phenyleneoxycarbonyl(9,10- dihydr o-2,7-phenanthrenediyl)-carbonyl] (I) was synthesized by palladium catalyzed carbonylation-polycondensation with 2,7-dibromo-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene and bisphenol-A. Polyarylate (I) obtained in 95% yield with high molecular weight (polystyrene equivalent Mw=102,600) under optimum conditions, and was highly heat-resistant and soluble in organic solvent such as chlorobenzene, dichloromethane, and chloroform. The initial thermal degradation temperatures of poly arylate (I) are 332-420°C in the air atmosphere and 420-483°C under a nitrogen stream. Activation energy of oxidizing degradation reaction in the air atmosphere was 89 KJ/mol. The intrinsic viscosity of polyarylate (I) was 0.46, and their viscosities under the steady shear flow were 22, 250 and 7200 mPa.s at the concentration of 5, 10 and 20 g/dl, respectively. The tensile strength at break and tensile modulus were 44.5 MPa and 1.23 GPa, respectively: these properties are roughly in the same level as those of conventional unsaturated polyester resin. Polyarylate (I) exhibits the dynamic viscoelastic behavior for like typical amorphous polymer. Dynamic viscoelastic curve showed that the glass transition temperature was about 270°C View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Environmental supply chain management in the electronics industry

    Page(s): 714 - 720
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (586 KB)  

    The environmental segment of Supply Chain Management is currently in a state of turmoil, with each electronics manufacturer having its own set of material requirements that often differ with those of other manufacturers. Due to the large variation in data formats and requirements, as well as the current lack of information from the raw material sources that go into a product, much of the data generated is of suspect quality. This paper describes some of the activities taking place within industry groups such as EICTA (the European Information & Communication Technology Industry Association), EIA (the Electronic Industries Alliance) and IMDS (the International Material Data System) to address these issues and how Motorola's program tries to tie them together View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Cyclic damage of some high strength alloys showing subsurface crack generation in high-cycle fatigue

    Page(s): 426 - 431
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (589 KB)  

    Ti-6Al-4V alloy, austenitic steels and hard steels show subsurface crack generation in the high cycle fatigue regime, especially at low temperature. The cyclic stress-strain behavior of those materials has been studied in this paper. A small plastic strain during cycling was detected. It is concluded that subsurface crack generation involves a strain incompatibility developed between the continuous isotropic elastic strain field and the localized planar slip View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Product's disassemblability evaluation using information entropy

    Page(s): 353 - 359
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (766 KB)  

    The paper discusses major important issues in design for remanufacturing and focuses on the significance of disassembly evaluation at the design stage. In the first part of the research, various stages of design are elaborated and investigated, keeping in view the important factors responsible to ensure good remanufacturing. Then, in connection with disassembly, four important factors are identified that need to be evaluated at the design stage to facilitate remanufacturing. Then we formulate a unique evaluation system for all the four factors based on information entropy. Finally, two practical examples from existing printers are used to illustrate that the developed formulation is useful and the quantitative evaluation values are representative View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • 3D environment-conscious design system

    Page(s): 231 - 233
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (514 KB)  

    The demand for designing environment-conscious products, "green-products" in other words, is ever increasing. Fujitsu thus has developed and started application of a three-dimensional virtual product simulator, called "FJVPS/Eco Design," that works in closer cooperation with three-dimensional CAD, to support an environment-conscious design at the design stage. Four functions of Eco Design among extended functions of FJVPS/Eco Design especially contribute to shortening man-hour of environmental conscious design process. The four functions are: 1) LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) evaluation support at the design stage, 2) verification of product disassembling, 3) calculation of a recyclable rate in accordance with environmental law in Japan, and 4) calculation of the total amount of toxic or controlled substance content. These four functions of "FJVPS/Eco Design" are explained in this paper View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Microscopic observation of Pb-free solder joint interface

    Page(s): 1137 - 1140
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (849 KB)  

    Amid the growing concern about global environmental problems, there is a positive movement to reduce the amount of lead contained in the solder that is used for mounting printed circuit boards. Although many researchers have studied alternative solder materials and evaluated their reliability, there are few reports on a minute examination of the interface of solder joint. We considered that in order to evaluate the reliability of solder joint, it was indispensable to study the mechanism of alloy formation at the joint interface. Therefore, we made a microscopic observation of cross sections of solder joint specimens and examined the segregation of Pb from SnPb plating at the joint interface View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Producing eco-value for a recycling-based society by industrial design

    Page(s): 103 - 106
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (641 KB)  

    This paper proposes a new reproduction system model utilizing industrial design methodology. The aim of the system is to create new valuable products out of reclaimed materials or by reusing waste articles and parts. In general, recycled materials are regarded to be inferior in quality and reproduced products are less valuable. But, if this is true, so-called recycling-based society must be a society where everything is gradually loosing its quality and value by reiterating recycling, which doesn't seem to be sustainable at all. The basic requisite for realizing sustainable recycling-based culture is to find a way to produce new value, which is defined as Eco-value in this paper, through reproduction process. Some concrete projects are introduced to help vision for the goal emerge. The largest question is how to design a flexible manufacturing system corresponding to a great variety of materials in a small and middle size quantity View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design and integration of intelligent agents to implement sustainable production systems

    Page(s): 729 - 734
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (613 KB)  

    Many works are in progress for sustaining the global environment, reducing wasted products, decreasing lead times and work in process (WIP), in order to improve acceptability, effectiveness and service of modern production systems. This is particularly true when considering ecology and new e-business constraints. Main problem comes from the structural complexity of such production systems. Multi agent systems (MAS) are enabled to break and manage complexity, offering modularity, flexibility and reactivity to production systems. Intelligent agents constitute the basement of the project PABADIS (Plant Automation Based on Distributed Systems). They allow for decentralization of execution tasks and dynamic reconfiguration of machines associated in a networked community. To support this project, a simulation tool has been developed: VFDCS (Virtual Factory Dynamics Configuration System) is intended to implement new concepts relevant to supply chain management (SCM) and demand flow technology (DFT) View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Environmental benchmark analysis of electr(on)ic products with components consisting of renewable raw materials

    Page(s): 388 - 391
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (422 KB)  

    The objective of this article is to embrace the eco-efficency idea of the WBCSD and the Benchmarking method to promote and to rate the use of renewable raw materials in electr(on)ic products. Especially small and medium sized enterprises spur on the use of renewable raw materials in electr(on)ic products. But as these enterprises are lacking monetary and personnel resources in product development, the need for cooperation and comparison is obvious. Another objective is, by the use of an environmental benchmarking, to promote an ecological quality management in participating enterprices View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Consumer incentives toward construction of supply chain for inverse manufacturing

    Page(s): 721 - 724
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)  

    This paper presents the concept of the closed-loop supply chain we call Inverse Supply Chain which adds the reverse system to the past supply chain. The life cycle management for consumer products is very difficult, and the cooperation of consumers is indispensable to build the society oriented to recycling of resources. In this paper, the various incentives to the consumer actions contributed to the improvement of QCD control in recycling was discussed. As a system that incentives are given to the consumers, we propose Green Mileage System View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Life-cycle design system for machined parts - linkage of LCI data to CAD/CAM data

    Page(s): 299 - 302
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (455 KB)  

    The authors have proposed a new life-cycle design system specifically applicable to machined parts. The system automatically generates life-cycle assessment (GCA) feedback for the design process through the effective linkage of life-cycle inventory data with computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) data by feature-based modeling. The system is described, and through application to the environmental impact assessment of a mold-machined product, is shown to clearly reflect the change in environmental impact as a result of changes to aspects of the machining process. Specifically, the use of minimum quantities of lubricant system instead of conventional lubrication is shown to reduce the overall environmental impact of the product. By evaluating the machining process in detail, this system provides highly useful information that can be used to improve the machining process, representing a valuable aid to the life-cycle assessment if machined products View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A method to evaluate regional material flow for designing recycling society

    Page(s): 974 - 979
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (598 KB)  

    To maintain sustainable development, it is required to establish new society with low environmental load and low resource/energy consumption, i.e. recycling society. A method to design the recycling society is to raise effectiveness of resource/energy utilization and recycle of waste. The effectiveness is evaluated by regional material flows and to maximize the effectiveness the regional material flows should be optimized. The objective of this research is to develop a system to design the optimum regional material flows. The system is composed of four compartments. 1) Database 2) Analysis of current regional material flow 3) Geophysical information analysis 4) Design of industrial network 5) Optimization of regional material flow This system can propose industrial networks that maximize waste disposal and optimum region size for treatment waste View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Environmental impact evaluation for the full life cycle of products using Pb-free solders

    Page(s): 1079 - 1083
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (511 KB)  

    The electronics industry is heading towards lead-free soldering. But lead-free soldering faces some obstacles, for example cost, resource depletion, energy consumption, and the characteristics of the solder itself etc. The problem of energy consumption is not yet clear. We examined the energy consumption of PWB with lead-free solder comparing to the conventional tin-lead solder. The results show that lead-free soldering will increase the energy consumption. But this increase of energy occupies about only 0.1% of the energy consumption in the electronics industry. Meanwhile, if this increase triggers replacement with a new reflow oven, the energy consumption of PWB with lead-free solder is less than present systems View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Journey to a Sustainable World

    Page(s): 895 - 899
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (493 KB)  

    Environmental attributes are becoming a factor of growing importance at all stages of an electronic product's life cycle from design to end-of-life. The Journey to a Sustainable World is Motorola's theme for its environmental programs. The paper highlights the activities of Motorola's Environmental Technology Programs, focusing on its product goals and activities to achieve these goals. Additional information on Motorola's goals, programs and achievements on the Journey to a Sustainable World are available at http://www.mot.com/EHS/ View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Creating business value by linking industrial ecology with business strategy and product design

    Page(s): 842 - 847
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (538 KB)  

    This paper introduces an approach describing how an organization can use its own improvement methods and tools to develop a customer-driven environmental strategy that enhances its business strategy. The following steps were briefly described. First, key customers who express the environmental voice of the customer are identified and prioritized. Second, this environmental voice is collected and translated into product attributes that are critical to the environment. Third, the Kano technique is used to understand the different customer perceptions of these critical environmental attributes. Fourth, those customer perceptions suggest appropriate pathways for integrating the critical The anticipated result is improved environmental products that add greater perceived value to customers. The Kano technique ties an environmental attribute and how it is perceived to a business strategy thus providing a platform for environmental issues in the product realization process View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • On process planning with multiple agents: environmentally conscious decisions among feasible process plans

    Page(s): 471 - 476
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (658 KB)  

    For many problems involving the choice of a process plan from among those generated by a process planner with multiple agents, the formulation and calculation of an objective function based on utilities or preferences is unnecessary as well as time-consuming and likely to introduce errors or inaccuracies into the analysis. Instead, the decision can and should be based on cost minimization using price data which is readily available to the firm. This paper focuses on the case of tradeoffs among alternative feasible process plans with different environmental effects View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.