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Industry Applications Conference, 2001. Thirty-Sixth IAS Annual Meeting. Conference Record of the 2001 IEEE

Date Sept. 30 2001-Oct. 4 2001

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  • Conference Record of the 2001 IEEE Industry Applications Conference Thirty-sixth IAS Annual Meeting [front matter]

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): i - xxxvii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The effect of silicon avalanche diodes on fuse behaviour in LV power networks

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2119 - 2125 vol.4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1646 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effect of silicon avalanche diodes (SADs) on the behaviour of fuses in low voltage (LV) power networks is shown, as well as the effect of the fuses on the energy dissipation in the SADs. In order to achieve this, an existing model developed for medium voltage fuses was adapted for LV fuses operating in the presence of SADs. A SAD model was also developed. Both models were validated by laboratory measurement. The effects of fault closing angle and fault level on SAD energy dissipation are shown, and a general method for determining the SAD energy rating for any given situation is derived. View full abstract»

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  • Independent power producers (IPP) perspectives on power system voltage stability

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2126 - 2132 vol.4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1278 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With an increasing involvement in power system connections, industrial and IPP engineers are developing interests in system voltage stability studies. This paper initiates discussions to promote the induction of voltage stability concept to the relevant chapter of the IEEE Brown Book. The concept is presented from the perspectives of independent power producers (IPP). The importance of scrutinizing voltage stability and security of industrial and IPP power systems is introduced. Voltage verses angular instabilities are discussed. Critical elements in load and system modeling constraints are introduced. An actual IPP case is presented as an example. View full abstract»

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  • DC traction power system grounding

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2133 - 2139 vol.4
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (161 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper provides a review of the present practice of DC traction power system grounding methods employed in North America. An analysis of equipment grounding, system grounding and their relationships to achieve optimized equipment and personal safety is derived. Generic protective relay schemes commonly used in the DC equipment enclosure grounding are shown. Rail leakage stray current and personnel safety affected by the DC system grounding method are discussed. To enhance personnel/equipment safety, specific recommendations for the design of the DC traction power system grounding are included. View full abstract»

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  • A new modulation method for matrix converters

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2143 - 2150 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (459 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new modulation method for matrix converters based on the indirect modulation model. During the switching period, the proposed modulation method uses a combination of only one active vector and a zero vector in the inversion stage to achieve minimum flux error, while in the rectification stage a single current vector is selected, according to the error of the input current vector angle. This reduces the number of switching sequences in the switching period, improving the accuracy of generating the output voltage vector especially in the low modulation index range. Supplementary, the direct control of the input current vector is implemented. The estimation of the angle of the input current vector is done by applying the inverse transformation, that corresponds to the applied active vector, to the output currents. View full abstract»

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  • Gate drive circuit for zero-voltage-switching half- and full-bridge converters

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2151 - 2158 vol.4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (167 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Resonant techniques like zero-voltage switch (ZVS) and zero-current switch (ZCS) are widely applied to raise the switching frequency and efficiency of converters. An important subclass of converters using resonant techniques, is formed by ZVS half- and full-bridge converters. While different varieties of this subclass of converters have been reported, the gate drive circuit is seldom described. In this paper a new gate drive circuit applicable in ZVS half- and full-bridge converters is proposed. The circuit shows excellent features such as transformer isolation, no ringing of the gate-source voltage of the switches, programmable dead-time, no active components beside one low-side driver, insensitivity to component value variation, negative gate-source voltage at switch-off and low drive power. Moreover the circuit can be used in variable frequency applications. The theoretical results obtained, are verified by experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Digitally-controlled single-phase AC/DC integrated PWM converter

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2159 - 2166 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (345 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents the implementation of a fully digital controller for a boost type integrated AC/DC PWM converter. The considered converter has the following basic features: high power factor, full control of the output DC voltage, high-frequency line filter inductor and insulation transformer. Its main advantage is the complete integration of a rectifier and an inverter stage requiring only four IGBTs and six diodes. The converter is described in detail and the structural limitations of its operation are highlighted. The paper focuses on the converter control strategy describing in detail the implementation, by means of the TMS320F240 digital signal processor, of a fully digital predictive input current control technique. An application specific modulation strategy is also developed that allows simultaneous input current and output voltage control. The control system is finally tested on a 0.5 kVA laboratory converter prototype, so as to validate the design procedure and illustrate the achievable converter performance. View full abstract»

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  • Suppression of harmonic spikes in switching converter output using dithered sigma-delta modulation

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2167 - 2174 vol.4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1173 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, dithered sigma-delta modulation (DSDM) is proposed as an effective modulation scheme for the switching converter, to suppress harmonic spikes. The proposed scheme has a simple configuration, which comprises a 1/sup st/-order sigma-delta modulator and a random dither generator. The 1/sup st/-order sigma-delta modulator produces a switching pulse waveform that has the same low-frequency component as the reference input, while the random dither spreads the distribution of sampling numbers per switching cycle, and thus diminishes harmonic spikes in the output. The relationship between the harmonic spectra and sampling numbers per switching cycle is studied through computer simulations, and performances are confirmed in an experimental setup. View full abstract»

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  • A novel control method of a VSC without AC line voltage sensors

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2175 - 2180 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1433 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The original algorithm to estimate position of line voltage essential for operation of regenerative three-phase PWM controlled VSC is presented. The PI current regulator in D axis of VSC current control is modified to obtain angle error signal. The angle error signal drives the observer (similar in structure to PLL) which provides position or angle of line voltages. To achieve fast and reliable lock with utility system with minimal duration of transients, initial line voltage position is estimated first. The initial line voltage position estimation is done by measuring amount of current change when zero state voltage vectors were applied at the output of the inverter for defined time intervals. After that continuous position estimation by an observer is enabled. To estimate magnitude of line voltage another observer in the q axis is used. The observer is implemented in a synchronous frame of reference and is driven by the q axis current error. Theoretical results are experimentally verified. View full abstract»

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  • A DC link-modulated three-phase converter

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2181 - 2185 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1538 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a DC link modulation method for three-phase inverters that can reduce losses by suppressing phase-leg switching during two-thirds of the fundamental period. The scheme is advantageous for inverters that operate at a high modulation index, such as PWM rectifiers, active filters or UPSs. The method involves clamping the phase-leg producing maximum voltage to the positive rail and the phase-leg producing minimum voltage to the negative rail, while the third phase-leg is pulse-width modulated. A PWM ripple is added to the DC link to allow the output voltage across the two bus-clamped phases to follow the reference command. In effect, each phase leg is clamped to the positive bus for a third of the fundamental period, clamped to the negative bus for another third and modulated only during the remaining third. This is in contrast to a regular PWM inverter where the phase-legs are continuously switched throughout the fundamental period. View full abstract»

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  • Converter nonintegral harmonics from AC network resonating with DC network

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2186 - 2192 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1381 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Integral harmonics come from the switching pattern of the modulation method. Nonintegral harmonics, on the other hand, are initiated by random noise that becomes amplified and sustained by the AC network resonating with the DC network. A comprehensive theory of their origins is presented. Its correctness is justified by digital simulations. It is then shown that an efficient method of predicting their potential occurrences is by eigenvalue analysis. The objective of THD compliance can be met by: (i) avoidance by design of network parameters; and (ii) suppression by active filtering. Some directions of parameter design are given. A simulation result is presented showing that an active filtering method is promising. View full abstract»

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  • Generalization of orthogonality principle to model solenoidal wound multiwinding transformers

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2195 - 2202 vol.4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (638 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel generalization of the orthogonality principle is presented in order to increase model accuracy of the well known 1D-model for eddy current phenomena in multiwinding transformers with mixed conductor configurations consisting of foils, round wires and litz wire. The article presents the mathematical background of the method and its application. It shows the benefits of the approach along with numerous comparisons to measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Improved calculation of core loss with nonsinusoidal waveforms

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2203 - 2210 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (84)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An extension to the Steinmetz equation is proposed, to enable estimation of hysteresis losses in magnetic core materials with nonsinusoidal flux waveforms. The new formulation is shown to avoid anomalies present in previous modified-Steinmetz-equation calculations of loss with nonsinusoidal waveforms. Comparison with experimental measurements in MnZn ferrite shows improved accuracy. The result may be optionally formulated in terms of an effective frequency and an effective amplitude, and options for defining these are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A one-dimensional thermal model for planar integrated reactive modules

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2211 - 2216 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1332 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Thermal management is a key design aspect of planar integrated reactive modules. In this paper, a simple one-dimensional thermal model based on the control volume method is presented, which can be incorporated as an integral part of the design algorithm. It also requires significantly less computing time and resources than numerical software such as Flotherm. The simulation results and the experimental results are presented and compared in a case study. View full abstract»

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  • An alternative planar multi-cell structure integrated reactive module

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2217 - 2223 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1109 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An alternative approach to construct a planar integrated reactive module is presented in this paper. Enclosed in a planar core, a few copper strips plated on both sides of a high permittivity ceramic substrate generate a series of so-called L-C units. Various equivalent circuits may be realized with this chip-like module using different PCB interconnections between the L-C units. The experimental results show its potential as an integrated high frequency resonator. Good correspondence between experimental measurement and first-order simulations is demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • A volumetric optimization of a low pass filter

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2224 - 2231 vol.4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1798 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The low pass filter is a fundamental component of many power electronic systems, for example the output filters of DC to DC converters. The volume of the two components, that constitute the low pass filter, contribute a majority of the final system's volume, thus effecting the overall power density of the system. To be able to reach the high power densities that are required nowadays, the packaging of these components needs to be addressed. A new packaging approach is considered where the main criteria is to increase the packaging density of the low pass filter. The filter is considered volumetrically and the minimum possible volume is derived. The construction and losses of such a filter are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Design of planar integrated passive module for zero-voltage switched asymmetrical half bridge PWM converter

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2232 - 2237 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1817 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Integrated L-L-C-T (inductor-inductor-capacitor-transformer) technology has been the subject of intensive research over the last few years. Its application to resonant power electronic converters has been reported by many previous publications. This paper presents the application of a planar L-L-C-T module to the integration of passive module for a zero-voltage-switched asymmetrical half bridge PWM converter for application in distributed power systems. Two output transformers, two current doubler inductors, the ZVS resonant inductor and the transformer DC decoupling capacitor are integrated into a single module. The design procedure is discussed and some special considerations of the L-L-C-T module in nonresonant applications are addressed. A 1 kW 300 V-400 V input, 48 V output asymmetrical half bridge PWM converter (AHBC) employing the L-L-C-T module is constructed. A comparison of the AHBC using the integrated passive module and the same circuit using discrete components is given. View full abstract»

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  • The bipolar charge aerosol classifier

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2241 - 2248 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3963 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of the paper is to briefly review some of the methods used to obtain aerosol bipolar charge distribution and to describe a novel instrument developed at Brunel University. The bipolar charge aerosol classifier (BCAC) is an improved version of the authors' previously published bipolar charge measurement system (2001), eliminating some of his technical limitations. The BCAC is dedicated for characterizing aerosols exiting in the form of short duration, high velocity plumes with a relatively wide angle of particle dispersion delivered from the dispensing device. The instrument incorporates a front-end cylindrical arrangement consisting of ten well-insulated sections. Each of these sections is comprised of a cylindrical capacitor with a coaxial wire electrode maintained at a DC potential. Experimental tests were carried out with unipolarly and bipolarly charged aerosols of narrow size distribution. The preliminary results show that proposed technique can be successfully utilized for obtaining not only bipolar charge aerosol fractions but also indicate electrical mobility distribution. View full abstract»

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  • Electrostatic separation of muscovite mica from feldspathic pegmatites

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2249 - 2255 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1465 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents laboratory experiments for concentrating muscovite mica from feldspathic pegmatites in a high-intensity electric field. The experiments have been carried out on a roll-type research electroseparator and a (0.16...0.4) mm sample. Four separation procedures were tested: (1) DC electrostatic separation with thermal conditioning of the sample; (2) AC electrostatic separation at ambient temperature; (3) DC corona separation using a metallic-surface rotating electrode; and (4) DC corona separation using a dielectric-surface rotating roll. The best quality of mica has been obtained in the last procedure by a three stages separation experiment: 46.11% SiO/sub 2/, 33.64% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 11.1% (K/sub 2/O+Na/sub 2/O). In all four procedures, the grade of mica concentrate fulfils the requirements of several industrial applications such as welding wires manufacturing. View full abstract»

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  • Corona guns with ring electrodes: reduction of free ion concentration for back corona control in powder coating

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2256 - 2261 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (618 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a powder coating process with corona guns, only a small fraction (6-10%) of the total ions generated during the electrostatic discharge contribute to powder charging. Most of the remaining free ions deposit on the powder layer on the grounded workpiece and increase the charge-to-mass ratio (Q/M), contributing to the early onset of back corona. To reduce the number of free ions reaching the powder coated work piece, two different ion traps made of copper ring electrodes were tested. The first ring had a smooth surface and the second ring had 11 sharp points for concentrating electric field lines. Adding the sharp points was found to provide self-cleaning properties from powder deposition. By increasing the distance from the ring electrodes to the corona gun electrode, or by increasing the powder flow rate, it was possible to control the amount of QIM acquired by the powder. By adjusting the position of the ring electrodes, QIM could be controlled from -0.15 to -0.65 /spl mu/C/g. However, the application of a ring electrode decreased the powder first pass transfer efficiency (FPTE) while expanding the angle of the conical powder flow pattern. The electric field modifications, due to the grounded ring electrodes, were simulated by using Lorentz 2D software and are considered to be the cause of FPTE reduction and the expansion of conical powder spray pattern. The electrical field intensity distributions around the corona electrode and the target panels are presented along with the experimental data on ion currents for different applied voltages to corona gun and the ring electrode position. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of electrostatic separation processes using response surface modeling

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2262 - 2267 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (924 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The efficiency of electrostatic separation processes depends on a multitude of factors, including the characteristics of the granular mixtures to be sorted, the feed rate, the configuration of the electrode system, the applied high-voltage, the environmental conditions. In a previous paper the authors demonstrated the possibility of optimizing the operation of industrial electrostatic separators using rather simple computed-assisted experimental design techniques. The aim of the present work is to analyze the peculiarities of application of a more sophisticated group of response surface experimental design techniques that make use of quadratic functions for modeling the electrostatic separation process. The 11 electrostatic separation tests, corresponding to a central composite design, were carried out on samples of chopped electric wire wastes. The CARPCO laboratory roll-type electrostatic separator employed for this study enabled a rigorous control of two factors: the applied high-voltage level and the speed of the rotating roll electrode. The objective was to maximize the benefits from the recycling of both constituents of the binary copper-PVC granular mixture. The optimum operating conditions computed with the quadratic model derived from the experimental results were in good agreement with the data of pilot-plant tests. The response surface methodology can be easily applied to most of the industrial applications of electrostatic separation technologies. View full abstract»

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  • Application of boxer charger for charging polymer powder without free ion current

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2268 - 2271 vol.4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (475 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Boxer Charger developed by S. Masuda is a potential option for electrostatic powder coating applications that require charging polymer powder without generating the free ions that can cause destructive back corona effects. In a boxer charger, powder particles moving through the charging zone are bombarded alternately from two sides by ions of the same polarity, resulting in unipolar charging without free ion current. The boxer charger is a versatile charging device with high-performance charging efficiency up to 53% of the Pauthenier limit. Industrial epoxy powder was charged to an average charge-to-mass (Q/M) of +0.50 /spl mu/C/g when charging positively and -0.61 /spl mu/C/g when charging negatively, in good agreement with the calculated 53% Pauthenier limit based on the particle size distribution. Powder deposition on the walls of the charging unit was minimized by using high flow rate sheath air at the powder inlet and ozone generated by the charging unit was suppressed to below the OSHA maximum permissible exposure level by implementing an ozone trap of activated charcoal at the powder outlet. View full abstract»

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  • Extended cross-field theory of the tapped-winding capacitor motor, including iron loss and alternate connections

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2275 - 2279 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (154 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an extension of the cross-field theory of the tapped-winding capacitor motor originally published by Puchstein and Lloyd (1935). It includes (1) the incorporation of separately-calculated iron losses by means of three separate resistors of variable value, two in the main-field axis and one in the auxiliary-field axis; and (2) the application of the basic theoretical model to a wide range of tapped-winding configurations by means of connection transformations. The theoretical model is nonlinear and requires an iterative solution. It is compared with test results on a fractional-kW motor, in which all the main trends are modelled with acceptable accuracy as the tap ratio changes. View full abstract»

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  • Parameter estimation of single-phase induction machines

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2280 - 2287 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1475 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper sets forth the development of the q-d model of single-phase induction machines, which is then simplified and used for the estimation of the machines' electrical parameters. In simplifying the model equations of the machines, two transformations are used-the stationary reference frame and the turn ratio transformations, following which the harmonic balance technique is then applied to develop a steady-state model for the parameter determination. The electrical parameters of a 1 hp single-phase induction motor were determined and were shown by confirmatory experimental results to accurately predict both the machine steady-state characteristics and waveforms when the single-phase machine operates in both motoring and generating modes. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical analysis of vibrations of squirrel-cage induction motors based on magnetic equivalent circuits and structural finite element models

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 2288 - 2295 vol.4
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (257 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method for computing the magnetic forces acting on the stator of a squirrel-cage induction motor and the ensuing vibrations. For the magnetic field and force calculation, a magnetic equivalent circuit, coupled with an electrical circuit, is used. In this paper the different effects which determine the modal contents of the forces are taken into account: the spectrum of the applied voltage (in case of inverter supply), the winding arrangement, stator and rotor slotting, static and dynamic rotor eccentricity and saturation. Besides the calculation of the exciting magnetic forces, a structural analysis of an induction motor by means of the finite element method is presented. On the basis of this combined electromechanical analysis the vibrations and noise of squirrel-cage induction motors can be predicted and analysed. View full abstract»

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