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Management of Engineering and Technology, 2001. PICMET '01. Portland International Conference on

Date July 29 2001-Aug. 2 2001

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  • Technology Management in the Knowledge Era [front matter]

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): i - xvi
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 835 - 836
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Can innovative R&D performance be managed

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 151 - 159 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (928 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Companies around the world look toward their R&D function for innovative ideas that can be transferred to market for economic gain. Yet, managers often argue that innovative R&D performance is difficult to measure and nearly impossible to control. The findings of a field study into technology-oriented R&D environments show that effective management of innovative R&D teams involves a complex set of variables related to the task, people, and organizational environment. Correlation of these variables to performance suggests that many of the performance variables have their locus outside the R&D organization, however managerial leadership style has significant cross-functional impact and drives R&D creativity. Suggestions for examining leadership effectiveness are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating R&D effectiveness: a study on Chinese practice and trend

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 206 - 213 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article reviews and summarizes the popular theories, methods and tools being used to evaluate R&D performance in China, as well as their limitations and drawbacks. Based on it, and referring to practice abroad, some promising approaches and trends are introduced by which to evaluate R&D performance effectively in the coming knowledge-based economy era View full abstract»

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  • Technology selection in brownfields redevelopment

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 650 - 658 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (768 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sustainable redevelopment of contaminated "brownfields" properties offers many economic and social benefits. However, due to the uncertainties of potential clean up cost, the practicality of available technologies, time constraints, community concerns, as well as additional costs associated with development of brownfields sites, many developers forgo brownfields development. These same uncertainties cause lending institutions to hesitate when making loans for development of projects proposed for contaminated sites. The goal of this paper is to provide a general decision making model that can be utilized in the technology selection for decision makers on proposed brownfields site clean ups View full abstract»

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  • Developing competencies and capabilities through knowledge management: a contingent perspective

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 257 - 267 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1056 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper develops the concept of management capabilities and competencies as a bridge between the current thinking on the resource-based theory of the firm and knowledge management that allows us to propose a model linking management development activities and firm performance through the development of managerial capabilities and competencies. Further, we propose that a consideration of the contingencies requiring different types of managerial capabilities will inform about the required dimensions of management development to achieve competitive advantage View full abstract»

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  • IT supported complex technology transfer in high-tech sector

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 431 - 438 vol.2
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    High-tech companies encounter great challenges to transfer their complex technologies to developing and emerging markets due to the characteristics of technology, receiver and receiving country. By utilizing the diffusion of innovation theory and a case study method, a framework for new and innovative IT-enhanced technology transfer is presented which facilitates improved performance of the transfer of complex technology View full abstract»

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  • Growth modeling for e-commerce firms

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 46 - 49 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Some basic issues of electronic commerce (EC) firms are discussed. A general procedure to model the growth of the EC firms is proposed. A mathematical optimization model to analyze the issues and determine the optimal growth rate is given. Finally, a case model study is presented, and some possible extensions are discussed View full abstract»

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  • TRIZ in the knowledge era: achieving profitable e-commerce

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 15 - 21 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    TRIZ is the data-based creativity method based on the work of G. Altshuller and his colleagues in the former USSR. It is becoming known in the West as a method for systematic innovation that creates useful, innovative concepts fast. Because the TRIZ research was originally based on the world patent database of the 1940s-1980s, there has been some doubt that TRIZ applies to the problems of the 21st century. Applications to e-business situations will demonstrate that TRIZ is a powerful tool for problem solving, technology forecasting, and business development for the emerging knowledge era. Current e-business paradigms include inherent contradictions. The strength of TRIZ as a method for developing creative solutions to problems is the removal of contradictions, rather than the conventional approach of accepting compromises or making tradeoffs. Examples and case studies from e-business illustrate strategies emerging from the TRIZ methods of ideality, the use of resources, trends of evolution and TRIZ-derived inventive principles which may offer means of breaking out of the current loss-making paradigms View full abstract»

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  • Knowledge economy in the e-world

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 3 - 11 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (872 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the transition to the third millennium, the world is undergoing a profound shift to a knowledge based economy. Success in navigating this transition will require skills in technology management for both companies and people. In this paper, we provide an introduction to these topics View full abstract»

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  • Technology transfer and succession planning: the relevance of make-or-buy analysis

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 439 - 443 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Replacement of ageing process technologies is an ongoing requirement for manufacturing businesses, raising the opportunity to outsource old technologies for an interim period. A structured approach to this traditional problem is given, utilising a new make or buy framework and methodology, with a case example from the domestic appliance industry View full abstract»

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  • Critical success factors for new product development in Hong Kong toy industry

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 623 - 633 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (800 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hong Kong's manufacturers have become some of the most efficient toy producers in the world and have become the biggest exporter of toys in the world. However, the Hong Kong toy industry is mainly original engineering manufacturing (OEM) and does not invest much in R&D, such as the creation of new toys or development of new toy designs. With the rising competition from mainland China and other Asian countries, it is important for Hong Kong companies to invest more in R&D and to develop their own design capabilities or more value-added edges which cannot be substituted easily by our competitors. The research reported in this paper aims to explore the success factors for new product development in the Hong Kong toy industry. Although there is plenty of research on this issue, critical success factors (CSF) for new product development (NPD) may be country and industry specific. Research on CSF for NPD, especially at the project and functional levels, for toy industry has not been reported. Using the biblical metaphor model, this research identifies a group of critical success factors for each phase of new product development. What is more, the research also reveals what factors have been implemented and what have not. The implications from this search, therefore, are very obvious and companies can easily identify the areas for future improvement. Comparing with previous research, this research is more operational. Since the research is especially designed for Hong Kong toy industry, the results may not be generated to other industries in other countries. However, the research design and the data analysis framework can be used to investigate the same problem in other industries View full abstract»

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  • Organizational changes in product development in various process industries

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 589 - 598 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (904 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses organizational changes in development projects in various process industries due to new product development. What brings this change forward and what kinds of problems need to be solved for the companies so that they can carry out this change? What role does the strategic competence supply play in this organizational change in product development projects? Does an industry's tradition matter in this matter of change? The companies in the study are in various kinds of industries, from ore to dairy industries. The research is based on telephone and personal interviews. The purpose is to give implications of what kind of trend there is today in various industries and what impact this trend has on the organization of product development projects. It is indicated that process-oriented industries like ore, steel, and paper, are heading towards a more customer-oriented view in product development projects. The role of supplier and customer in product development projects has changed today and this influence the role of a product developer and competence requirement to projects View full abstract»

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  • Challenges facing Japanese companies achieving innovative R&D through empowering concept creators

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 124 - 132 vol.2
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    The characteristics of 92 recently successful R&D projects of Japanese technology-based companies are examined. The major finding is that the key factors necessary for success are moving from the realm of the execution people to that of the planning people. Some challenges are identified for Japanese companies to effectively foster and develop concept-creation people View full abstract»

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  • Impacts of EDI on the supplier

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 50 - 59 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the new era of electronic commerce (EC), electronic data interchange (EDI) is continuously playing a critical role for many businesses. EDI can reduce cost and improve service and thus is a valuable tool in enhancing a company's competitiveness. In this paper, we use a simple EDI adoption model to capture a supplier's decision process in adoption of EDI, and to study the impacts of EDI on the supplier. Results show that the supplier may exercise price discrimination towards its downstream buyers, due to EDI adoption and the heterogeneity of each buyer's EDI system. Depending on the supplier's economic behavior and EDI adoption cost, the supplier may benefit the most by adopting all, a fraction, or none of its buyers' EDI systems. As a result, buyers whose EDI systems are not adopted by the supplier may lose their competitiveness. Consequently, the supplier's buyers' base may be reduced due to EDI adoption. This result is consistent with the scenario in the retailing industry observed by Schiller and Zellner (1992), and it is also reported in European Commission (1997) View full abstract»

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  • Strategy, structure and performance issues of pre-competitive R&D consortia: insights and lessons learned from SEMATECH

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 715 - 725 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1112 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper utilizes documentary and primary source research to study the evolution of cooperative research and development in the semiconductor industry, beginning with SEMATECH in the late 1980s and continuing to the present with numerous government-university-industry (GUI) research partnerships. The increase in collaborative activities is viewed as one source of the renewed global competitiveness of the US semiconductor industry. By studying the mechanisms by which SEMATECH facilitated industry-wide collaboration, and the extension of that collaboration to include government laboratories and universities, this paper identifies critical features of collaboration in the semiconductor industry which are relevant to the management of partnerships in other industries. The implications of these findings are then developed into potential "lessons learned" for companies, universities and government agencies which are engaged in similar research partnerships View full abstract»

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  • The correlation between product development strategy and business performance: an investigation of UK SMEs

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 618 - 622 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper reports the outcomes of a study of over 100 small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK manufacturing sector, aimed at examining the relationship between a company's business performance in terms of the success of its new product development activity and the nature of the product and business strategies that are in place within that company View full abstract»

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  • Management of e-technology in China

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 69 - 78 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1048 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    "e" technology is bringing about many challenges for companies, in particular for their managers. This concerns a vast range of business processes in many sectors of the economy and in nearly every country of the world. In rapidly industrializing China, companies and other organizations are actively finding their way by adapting, developing and exploiting new e-technologies. The paper's focus is the identification of the management issues in implementing e-technology in China. The paper reports on research into difficulties of establishing and operating e-business in China. In particular, it discusses management related to e-technology sharing and application. A brief review of literature is followed by the analysis of three recent case studies: an international IT services alliance, a financial services provider and an international manufacturing joint venture. All case companies are applying e-technology in China, but the role of e-technology differs in the three cases: adding a service line to the existing business processes; developing a new business process; and increasing efficiency and effectiveness in business processes. The conclusions present the emerging management issues: cooperation is a key asset in networking; the choice of business models plays an important role; adequate management attention for details such as a training program is required View full abstract»

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  • Requirements-based knowledge discovery for technology management

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 268 - 278 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Exploiting information resources, particularly diverse research and development databases, presents opportunities to enhance technology management. Many such databases (e.g., Science Citation Index, Business Index) offer useful index fields to help access documents. However, these indexes sometimes fail to address the requirements effectively. We present an approach that allows the user to extract and categorize desired information from particular datasets that lack effective indexing for the purpose. We illustrate for a US Patents dataset on lightweight automotive materials View full abstract»

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  • Project spirit-a strategic concept

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 539 - 544 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The classic approach to explain project success has reached its limits. By introducing a new framework, which is called "strategic project leadership", Shenhar (2000), questions these limits and extends the borders to a modern approach of project management in the new economy. One major dimension of strategic project leadership is "project spirit". Project spirit deals with excitement, passion and enthusiasm, as a driving force, which energizes teams, unleashes talent, and enhances project performance. Our objective is to define the concept of project spirit that includes project culture, commitment, citizenship behavior, and satisfaction and to provide the project manager with guidelines for managing project spirit View full abstract»

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  • The role of small and medium-sized enterprises in developing Egypt's tourism industry using e-Commerce

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 60 - 68 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the world moves into the information age, consumers' expectations are being radically altered with the advent of the Internet and the flow of information and knowledge it provides to the global community. Moreover, with the continuous development of e-Commerce, businesses of different sizes and from various industries can enhance its productivity and profitability in ways deemed almost impossible a decade ago. For small and medium sized enterprises, that represents a challenge as well as an opportunity for growth and development, especially in a growing global digital economy where the world becomes the market place. One such industry that can benefit from the application of e-Commerce is tourism. Tourism, travel and cultural exploration emerged as a strong industry over the last two decades and with the advent of the Internet and e-Commerce, the industry will grow more exponentially, which will represent a great opportunity for countries with tourism and culture attractions such as Egypt; land of the world's oldest and greatest civilization. This paper addresses the concerns of how local individual organizations, especially SMEs, can utilize the advantages offered by today's information and communication technology to better compete for incoming tourism and improve its profitability because only those organizations that will capitalize on available ICT tools will succeed in the fierce competition existing in the tourism industry. The paper demonstrates the case of the King Hotel in Cairo, showing how local small and medium sized hospitality businesses in Egypt can prosper from emerging information and communication technology and how it can affect its business process and its strategies development and implementation both on the short and medium terms View full abstract»

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  • A tool for measuring the performance in the R&D organizations

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 160 - 167 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of this work is to measure the performance of public research organisations (universities, federal labs, etc.) with a quali-quantitative approach. The method built, called Syn, is similar to the Delphi procedure; it proposes some topics to a group of researchers in order that they may offer quantitative estimates on the performance of each research activity carried out in their institutes. The main feature of the general performance is captured with some average values and a learning process in rounds. The score of method is used to classify the structures in ranks. The final classification shows in the top, the institutes with a high performance, while in the down the research structures with a low performance: this is the signal of an organisational problem due to, for example, a poor work involvement and satisfaction. Moreover, the statistical analysis on estimates shows like: (1) the researchers of different bodies have dissimilar visions (perception) of research activities carried out inside; (2) the estimates are concentrated around value higher than arithmetic mean: the researchers overestimate the performance of their research institute but these results do not change the positions in the classification. The methodology has been tested on the institutes of Italian National Research Council located in Piemonte, a highly industrialised region in the North West of Italy. The R&D performance, measured with a quali-quantitative method, can be used in the analysis of the behaviour's institutes and it is useful to the management for increasing the efficiency of their organisations View full abstract»

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  • The challenge and response of Japan's corporate research institutes in the 21st century

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 197 - 205 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the authors attempt to clarify and explain the mission of Japanese corporate research institutes in the 21st Century. Their discussions focus on the important problem of "experience economy" in the development of new business models, information technology (IT) all companies should have, and the problem of knowledge creation location. They also describe some of the measures introduced by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) to create the practical knowledge necessary for the company's continued existence in the IT era View full abstract»

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  • Using information structures to gain competitive advantage

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 681 - 692 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Successful organisations need, amongst other things, to be able to store, manage and control information both within the organisation and, increasingly importantly, between strategic partners. With the increasing popularity of extended enterprises, the use of advanced technology has taken over from traditional "paper-based" forms of communication and information sharing within and between organisations. This paper describes the results of a preliminary study concerning a product data management (PDM) introduction project in an engineer-to-order (ETO) company operating within an extended enterprise environment. One of the main aims was to formulate an overall plan for the introduction of PDM in the given company while considering the imperatives dictated by the company's strategic intent and the business trends of extended enterprises. To achieve this an investigation of how technology is changing the way in which organisations do business, both as autonomous organisations and as members of extended enterprises, was conducted View full abstract»

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  • Study on the competitiveness of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry based on Porter's typology

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 693 - 703 vol.2
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (968 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate how the strategies chosen by the firms inserted in the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry within the period 1995-1998 have influenced their strategic positioning and consequently affected their performance. Based on Michael Porter's theory on competitive strategies, the study presents the pertinent strategies for firms operating in the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry and identifies the strategic groups formed by the firms components of the industrial segment under analysis. The research was implemented by means of gathering a data bank comprising 50 laboratories. The database contains information on the strategic behavior of those firms based on eleven variables concerning the strategies pursued as well as on four variables concerning performance. Data were then statistically analyzed through the use of the following tools: factor analysis; cluster analysis; and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The results obtained suggest that the differences in the average performance among the strategic groups identified may be explained by the different strategic decisions taken by each firm of the sample View full abstract»

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