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Management of Engineering and Technology, 2001. PICMET '01. Portland International Conference on

Date July 29 2001-Aug. 2 2001

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  • Technology Management in the Knowledge Era [front matter]

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): i - xvi
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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 835 - 836
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IT supported complex technology transfer in high-tech sector

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 431 - 438 vol.2
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    High-tech companies encounter great challenges to transfer their complex technologies to developing and emerging markets due to the characteristics of technology, receiver and receiving country. By utilizing the diffusion of innovation theory and a case study method, a framework for new and innovative IT-enhanced technology transfer is presented which facilitates improved performance of the transfer of complex technology View full abstract»

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  • Technology transfer and succession planning: the relevance of make-or-buy analysis

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 439 - 443 vol.2
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    Replacement of ageing process technologies is an ongoing requirement for manufacturing businesses, raising the opportunity to outsource old technologies for an interim period. A structured approach to this traditional problem is given, utilising a new make or buy framework and methodology, with a case example from the domestic appliance industry View full abstract»

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  • Corporate culture and innovative performance of the firm

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 532 - 535 vol.2
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    It has been observed that performance gaps exist between organizations with almost identical formal organizational structures. This has led to the assumption that cultural differences between organizations may be responsible for these performance gaps. A review of the literature on success factors for innovations reveals that a profound empirical study analyzing the relationship between corporate culture and innovative performance on the firm level is lacking to date. Based on a typology suggested in the literature for measuring corporate culture, a contingency framework is derived to test the relationship between four types of corporate cultures and innovative performance while taking the firm's strategy and its competitive environment into account. In order to test the validity of the suggested typology to measure corporate culture, a multiple informant approach is used. Respondents with different hierarchical and functional positions in 43 organizations are analyzed by means of multi-trait multimethod analyses. It is shown that a severe informant bias reduces the validity of results significantly. This has an impact on the attempt to quantitatively measure corporate culture as well as on assessing the relationship between types of corporate culture and innovative performance View full abstract»

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  • An empirical analysis of differences between sustaining and disruptive technology innovations

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 109 - 116 vol.2
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    A survey of firms engaged in the commercialization of sustaining technologies or of disruptive technologies is analyzed to determine differences in firm characteristics, situational issues and firm history View full abstract»

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  • Project spirit-a strategic concept

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 539 - 544 vol.2
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    The classic approach to explain project success has reached its limits. By introducing a new framework, which is called "strategic project leadership", Shenhar (2000), questions these limits and extends the borders to a modern approach of project management in the new economy. One major dimension of strategic project leadership is "project spirit". Project spirit deals with excitement, passion and enthusiasm, as a driving force, which energizes teams, unleashes talent, and enhances project performance. Our objective is to define the concept of project spirit that includes project culture, commitment, citizenship behavior, and satisfaction and to provide the project manager with guidelines for managing project spirit View full abstract»

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  • Management and policy concerns in the transition to the knowledge driven economy in Japan

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 829 - 834 vol.2
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    In this paper, an analysis is made of the management and policy concerns in the transition to the knowledge driven economy in Japan. A comprehensive viewpoint is taken on what is meant by knowledge driven, embracing more than the new economy, or IT revolution. Japan has been competitive in the old economy, but may be lagging behind in the new economy. The traditional areas of strengths in the old economy is discussed. These strengths are no longer sufficient for meeting mega-competition in the era of the knowledge driven economy. Japanese firms would have to undergo major structural as well as managerial changes in order to face global competition. Japanese corporate weaknesses are linked to the weaknesses in the innovation system. An analysis is made of the weaknesses in the Japanese innovation system such as government policies to strengthen the Science and Technology bases, discussing why they have not been successful. Japan will have to overcome these weaknesses in the innovation system to successfully achieve the transition to the knowledge driven economy View full abstract»

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  • Strategy, structure and performance issues of pre-competitive R&D consortia: insights and lessons learned from SEMATECH

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 715 - 725 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This paper utilizes documentary and primary source research to study the evolution of cooperative research and development in the semiconductor industry, beginning with SEMATECH in the late 1980s and continuing to the present with numerous government-university-industry (GUI) research partnerships. The increase in collaborative activities is viewed as one source of the renewed global competitiveness of the US semiconductor industry. By studying the mechanisms by which SEMATECH facilitated industry-wide collaboration, and the extension of that collaboration to include government laboratories and universities, this paper identifies critical features of collaboration in the semiconductor industry which are relevant to the management of partnerships in other industries. The implications of these findings are then developed into potential "lessons learned" for companies, universities and government agencies which are engaged in similar research partnerships View full abstract»

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  • Front-end idea generation for innovation: empirical evidence from German industrial corporations

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 117 - 123 vol.2
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    For outstanding company performance, successful new product development is essential. Prior research in innovation and technology management has concentrated on success factors of new product development. Especially on the project level, a wealth of empirical evidence has been presented on how to manage an innovation process effectively. While these later stages of the innovation process have been subject to intensive studies, the early stages of the innovation process are rarely investigated. To access this front end of the innovation process we examine the "ignition" for the innovation process, and present empirical evidence for the existence of qualitative types of initiatives. The authors employ a multivariate analysis of cross-sectional data on German industrial corporations applying for the "Innovationspreis der Deutschen Wirtschaft" in 1999. They identify three types of initiatives which are determined by combining the degree of front end idea specification and final realization measured along five dimensions. These types of initiatives are related to different issues of the innovation process (e.g. degree of innovativeness). Implications for future research and management of innovation are drawn View full abstract»

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  • Organizing for e-business: the implementation of management principles in electronic commerce

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 22 - 28 vol.2
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    This paper reviews some key structural and design dimensions of organizations and how they apply to electronic business and the virtual organization. The paper reviews the relevant literature on design of electronic commerce organizations. Although few studies have dealt with these issues, the paper highlights some research questions that emerge from the literature, and examines selected dimensions, such as formalization, departmentation, and inter-organizational relations. The paper concludes that electronic commerce organizations are faced primarily with design issues, so that conventional knowledge of structural dimensions is highly applicable to this new business phenomenon View full abstract»

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  • Virtual collaborative design environments: a review, issues, some research, and the future

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 726 - 735 vol.2
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    Innovative private and public sector organizations are now using virtual collaborative design environments (VCDEs) to develop new products and weapon systems as part of their technology management initiatives. This paper reviews several commercially available virtual technologies, operational and research issues, empirical testing results comparing a CAVE automatic virtual environment (CAVE) to a traditional concept design review, and identifies future needs View full abstract»

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  • Profiting from innovations in digital information goods: the role of intellectual property rights

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 471 - 480 vol.2
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    Advances in digital technology have substantially reduced the costs of reproducing and distributing digital information goods such as computer programs and games, documents, and works of music. Yet while abuses of intellectual property rights are difficult to trace, and infringement suits are expensive and uncertain to prosecute, innovation in these goods has continued unabated. This paper asks: How do firms appropriate the rents from their investments in R&D in digital information goods? To a certain extent, developments in digital technology fundamentally challenge commonly accepted precepts of how firms profit from investments in R&D. Yet software firms have made extensive use of traditional intellectual property rights like patents, copyrights, and trademarks. They have also adopted other approaches to appropriability, including cooperation with academic researchers, first-mover advantages, technical methods to restrict access such as encryption, cross-subsidization, price differentiation, and exploiting network externalities. Given the complexity of appropriating the rents from digital information goods, how effective are the different approaches, and what is the role of intellectual property rights? View full abstract»

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  • Biostatistics: the hidden path to life science innovation

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 610 - 617 vol.2
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    This exploratory paper investigates the infrastructure for life-science-based new product development. The practice of biostatistics has long been seen as a crucial element of the regulatory process for approving the release of new drugs and medical devices, but the authors hypothesize that it serves a larger role in the new product development process in pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms. To this end, they focus on the management of Biostatistics and related know how such as data mining in the discovery, testing, and commercialization of new products. Their results are drawn from a number of in-depth case studies of biostatistical practices in a variety of firms engaged in life-science product development. The findings point to the importance of biostatistics in providing both technical and strategic information. To the extent that Biostatistics is managed as a learning system, it is critical for building core capability and enabling resource configurations that create value View full abstract»

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  • The value of project risk management

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 570 - 576 vol.2
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    Managing project risk costs money. This paper considers the bottom-line justification for project risk management and the question of whether there is some optimal level of investment in this activity. Few guidelines exist as to how an appropriate balance between risks and rewards can be achieved. This paper develops a simple model based on utility theory which can be used to compare the benefits of risk-reduction with its costs. An expected utility measure is more appropriate than expected value because it reflects the risk attitude of the organisation involved. The relevance and application of the concepts of the value of information and the value of control are also examined in the context of project risk management View full abstract»

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  • Study on the competitiveness of the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry based on Porter's typology

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 693 - 703 vol.2
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate how the strategies chosen by the firms inserted in the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry within the period 1995-1998 have influenced their strategic positioning and consequently affected their performance. Based on Michael Porter's theory on competitive strategies, the study presents the pertinent strategies for firms operating in the Brazilian pharmaceutical industry and identifies the strategic groups formed by the firms components of the industrial segment under analysis. The research was implemented by means of gathering a data bank comprising 50 laboratories. The database contains information on the strategic behavior of those firms based on eleven variables concerning the strategies pursued as well as on four variables concerning performance. Data were then statistically analyzed through the use of the following tools: factor analysis; cluster analysis; and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The results obtained suggest that the differences in the average performance among the strategic groups identified may be explained by the different strategic decisions taken by each firm of the sample View full abstract»

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  • Science and technology roadmapping to support project planning

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 637 - 649 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Disciplined science and technology roadmapping provides a framework to coordinate research and development activities with project objectives. This case-history paper describes initial project technology needs identification, assessment and R&D ranking activities supporting characterization of 781 waste tanks requiring a 'hazardous waste determination' or 'verification of empty' decision to meet an Idaho State voluntary consent order View full abstract»

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  • The role of small and medium-sized enterprises in developing Egypt's tourism industry using e-Commerce

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 60 - 68 vol.2
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    As the world moves into the information age, consumers' expectations are being radically altered with the advent of the Internet and the flow of information and knowledge it provides to the global community. Moreover, with the continuous development of e-Commerce, businesses of different sizes and from various industries can enhance its productivity and profitability in ways deemed almost impossible a decade ago. For small and medium sized enterprises, that represents a challenge as well as an opportunity for growth and development, especially in a growing global digital economy where the world becomes the market place. One such industry that can benefit from the application of e-Commerce is tourism. Tourism, travel and cultural exploration emerged as a strong industry over the last two decades and with the advent of the Internet and e-Commerce, the industry will grow more exponentially, which will represent a great opportunity for countries with tourism and culture attractions such as Egypt; land of the world's oldest and greatest civilization. This paper addresses the concerns of how local individual organizations, especially SMEs, can utilize the advantages offered by today's information and communication technology to better compete for incoming tourism and improve its profitability because only those organizations that will capitalize on available ICT tools will succeed in the fierce competition existing in the tourism industry. The paper demonstrates the case of the King Hotel in Cairo, showing how local small and medium sized hospitality businesses in Egypt can prosper from emerging information and communication technology and how it can affect its business process and its strategies development and implementation both on the short and medium terms View full abstract»

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  • Supply chain management-conception of a collaborative planning approach in case of short-term requirements alteration

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 736 - 740 vol.2
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    The optimisation of the entire supply chain becomes ever more important due to increasing competition and a stronger customer orientation. In this context, new future solutions are expected by production planning and control systems that enable a fast and flexible planning and control on an inter-company collaborative basis. For this purpose, a paradigm change regarding the cooperation with preceding and following supply chain partners will be necessary. One-sided local optimisation at the expense of other supply chain partners will be replaced by inter-company collaboration in the planning and execution sector. For the sector of short-term requirements alteration a conception of inter-company planning processes based on collaboration and win-win-situations for all partners is presented in this paper. The basic of the model is formed by an in-company optimisation tool. It enables companies to gain necessary flexibility and data transparency to react to short-term requirements alterations. The optimisation process results in an in-company profit-maximising action, which enables the company to get in touch with customers and suppliers in the next phase of the inter-company coordination processes. Both, the in-company optimisation as well as the inter-company coordination model are designed in such a way that the alternatives of action converge to an optimum in the entire supply chain View full abstract»

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  • Charting a course for science and technology: who is the pilot?

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 813 - 820 vol.2
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    South Africa is an anomaly on the African continent. It is the only country that generates significant amounts of nuclear power (and has the bomb), accounts for 40% of continental GDP, and has produced a number of Nobel laureates in science, medicine, literature and peace. Like other States, it displays huge disparities of wealth, and, after Brazil, has the second highest recorded Gini coefficient. Under apartheid, mission-oriented research received generous funding and was paralleled by generous individually focussed allocations that allowed the pursuit of personal research agendas. This may be interpreted as a dual strategy-on the one hand to prosecute warlike aims, and on the other to maintain an atmosphere of normality. The transformation since 1994 has taken the country along a new path, and unsurprisingly the role, position and management of state-funded science and technology development is also an evolving and contested area. This paper considers how the S&T research agenda is being shaped and managed with reference to the conceptual frame of a national system of innovation. It uses the newly created Innovation Fund to mirror the transformation of the system and shows the limits of such intervention when budget is politically contested and small to begin with View full abstract»

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  • A tool for measuring the performance in the R&D organizations

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 160 - 167 vol.2
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    The purpose of this work is to measure the performance of public research organisations (universities, federal labs, etc.) with a quali-quantitative approach. The method built, called Syn, is similar to the Delphi procedure; it proposes some topics to a group of researchers in order that they may offer quantitative estimates on the performance of each research activity carried out in their institutes. The main feature of the general performance is captured with some average values and a learning process in rounds. The score of method is used to classify the structures in ranks. The final classification shows in the top, the institutes with a high performance, while in the down the research structures with a low performance: this is the signal of an organisational problem due to, for example, a poor work involvement and satisfaction. Moreover, the statistical analysis on estimates shows like: (1) the researchers of different bodies have dissimilar visions (perception) of research activities carried out inside; (2) the estimates are concentrated around value higher than arithmetic mean: the researchers overestimate the performance of their research institute but these results do not change the positions in the classification. The methodology has been tested on the institutes of Italian National Research Council located in Piemonte, a highly industrialised region in the North West of Italy. The R&D performance, measured with a quali-quantitative method, can be used in the analysis of the behaviour's institutes and it is useful to the management for increasing the efficiency of their organisations View full abstract»

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  • The triple helix model in Korean mobile communications technology innovation

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 139 - 147 vol.2
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    The aim of this research is to analyze the success factors of Korean telecommunications industry in CDMA technology development. It is mainly based on the close triple cooperation of the government, government sponsored-research institutes and private companies that enables Korea to provide the public service of CDMA technology for the first time in the world. The rapid worldwide growth of CDMA markets can be regarded as another factor of its success. The Korean government has not only chosen CDMA as the technological standard to decrease the confusion and uncertainty in telecommunications technology and its market development, but has also executed new policies to support the development with raising its research fund. The government sponsored-research institute with government subsidy had concentrated on the development of CDMA technology in cooperation with overseas companies and domestic private companies, and the private companies have tried to commercialization of the service for the first time in the world View full abstract»

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  • Innovation processes within the healthcare industry: determining critical success factors aligned to product strategies

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 133 - 138 vol.2
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    Modern day healthcare companies are becoming increasingly circumspect with regards to providing sufficient levels of R&D investment that will enable the continuous introduction of new products to the marketplace. Hence many firms deliberately pursue product strategies that can be viewed as "late entrant", as opposed to "pioneering", to avoid the risks and costs associated with breakthrough products. With this in mind, this paper attempts to illustrate the impact of differing product strategies on product innovation processes pursued by healthcare firms. Two in-depth case studies with healthcare firms were carried out and a set of innovation success factors has since emerged for both pioneers and late entrants. These factors were originally grouped together on a framework developed from literature that was subsequently tested empirically. The findings from the study are far from conclusive and need to be treated with some caution. However there seems to be some evidence that in defining themselves as pioneers or late entrants, firms (in some cases unknowingly) are also defining the processes they use for innovation View full abstract»

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  • Relationship among individual-level computerization, organizational commitment, and job performance

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 510 - 520 vol.2
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    In spite of enormous improvements in IT, the benefits of IT have not been found in aggregate output statistics. This study examined relationship among individual-level computerization, organizational commitment and job performance of sales representatives at IT enterprises in Japan. Multiple regression analysis indicate that individual computerization is positively correlated with overall job performance. However, negative correlation is observed between computerization and job performance if organizational commitment is low View full abstract»

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  • Task-centered manufacturing information system: structure and application

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 240 - 249 vol.2
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    Demands on manufacturing industry to provide flexibility and to reduce costs have put pressures on manufacturing companies to improve productivity. These demands, coupled with computer hardware and software advances, have encouraged manufacturing information system (MIS) development. As a result the role and importance of a MIS within the manufacturing environment has changed dramatically in recent years. An understanding of the new requirements is essential. In particular, traditional ways of providing manufacturing information to the shop-floor has not necessarily been task related. Rather, general information were made available but needed to be found or located as and when required. Although this has satisfied the requirements of normal operations, there are a number of problems associated with this form of documentation and display. The physical separation of the processes and their descriptions, the procedures, the poor user friendliness, the high maintenance efforts and the inability of the documentation systems to effectively capture process "know how" are some of the key problems. These have placed limitations on the use of traditional approaches. As an attempt to improve the situation, this paper discusses the structure of a task-centered, multi-media (TCMM) manufacturing information system which aims to provide a working environment to help the user collect, select and present manufacturing data according to the specific needs of managers/operators. With a task-centered user interface and an integrated computer-based training (CBT) module, such a system can be used at various levels within the organization both as: A reference library to provide information such as products data and operational procedures; A task-centred, interactive system to help carry out on-line operations, and; A computer-aided training tool to train the company's managers/operators. Furthermore, its structure as a "knowledge repository" should lend itself to grow and adoptive, as the company's product ranges and manufacturing processes progress through time. A number of intranet-based TCMM implementation are also discussed to illustrate its industrial application View full abstract»

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