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Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2001. EMC. 2001 IEEE International Symposium on

Date 13-17 Aug. 2001

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  • 2001 IEEE EMC International Symposium [front matter]

    Page(s): i - vii
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  • Exhibitors

    Page(s): 1347 - 1354
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  • Author index

    Page(s): 1366 - 1373
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  • Title index

    Page(s): 1374 - 1381
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  • 4.5 GHz time domain measurement of voltage transition duration due to micro gap discharge as low voltage ESD

    Page(s): 833 - 837 vol.2
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    Very fast transitions duration due to starting of gap discharge were investigated in the time domain. Voltage rising time in positive polarity and falling time in negative polarity were observed with a very wide-band transient digitizer. The gap space was set very small for voltages below 1500 V as a simulation of the CDM ESD and the gap discharge of switch devices. The measurement system consists of a distributed constant line system with a tapered coaxial electrode, which has a matched impedance for the characteristic impedance of the distributed constant line system. The insertion loss of the tapered coaxial electrode was within -3 dB in the frequency range below 4.5 GHz. The atmosphere around the electrode is ordinary air. This experimental system enables to measure the high speed transients of about 100 ps due to gap discharge in time domain. As a consequence of the experiment, the relationship between the discharge voltage and the transition duration were confirmed View full abstract»

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  • Insertion loss as transfer coefficient for the calibration of ESD simulators. Is it sufficient to cope with?

    Page(s): 838 - 840 vol.2
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    Up to now, solely the S21 parameter of the target is used for its characterisation in electrostatic discharge (ESD) simulations. This parameter depends on the source and load impedance and on the network adapting the target input to the coaxial connector of the network analyser. The new draft of the ANSI and IEC standards require a very flat S21 parameter of the target up to 4 GHz. Moreover, these standards introduce a low frequency transfer impedance for the recalculation of the voltage displayed at the oscilloscope to the discharge current. The paper shows that a frequency remastering method applied to the IEC target results in more than 1.6% of the error for the peak value. It is, however, negligible if the S21 parameter of the target changes slightly with frequency View full abstract»

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  • Wavefront characteristics of the lightning current measured at the Toronto CN tower

    Page(s): 997 - 1000 vol.2
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    Lightning strikes to the Toronto CN Tower have been monitored since 1978. In this paper, a detailed description of the current measuring system installed at the Tower in 1990 and extended in 1997 is given. Typical current derivative and current waveforms of CN Tower strikes are presented. Cumulative statistics of the wavefront characteristics of lightning currents (maximum steepness, wavefront peak and risetime) measured at the CN Tower in 1999 are derived. These statistics have led to recommendations concerning instrumentation and techniques for the proper measurement of lightning currents especially for those encountered at elevated objects View full abstract»

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  • Some directivity properties of test objects in the microwave region

    Page(s): 887 - 891 vol.2
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    Use of shielding effectiveness measurements in an anechoic chamber shows both specific and general directivity properties. The measurements have been analysed both in the frequency and directivity domain. Due to the large amount of data, statistical methods have been used. The paper reports these analyses and shows some impact on testing methods View full abstract»

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  • Antenna arrangements for broadband antenna calibration using the Standard Antenna Method

    Page(s): 974 - 979 vol.2
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    Theoretical and experimental studies are made on calibration of EMI biconical antennas and log-periodic dipole array antennas. The method of calibration treated in this paper is the Standard Antenna Method. The errors in the calibration are categorized into two groups, one originated from the theoretical background of the calibration method and the other related to practical calibration measurements. The present paper gives the fundamental formula for the Standard Antenna Method in order to study the former group of errors. The most important error sources are found to be the nonuniformity of the field in which an antenna under calibration is immersed. In addition, serious errors are caused by the close coupling between a transmit antenna and a standard tuned dipole antenna. Based on these investigations, appropriate antenna arrangements are proposed for this calibration method View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of transient radiation of a (traveling) current pulse on a straight wire segment

    Page(s): 849 - 854 vol.2
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    The transient electromagnetic radiation from an electric current pulse traveling along a straight wire segment of finite length is investigated. Explicit time-domain expressions are given for the components of the emitted electromagnetic field anywhere in space in their dependence on the position of observation, the location and the length of the wire segment, and the travel speed and the pulse shape of the electric current. Numerical results are presented for a number of cases for two types of standard EMC pulses View full abstract»

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  • Shielding effectiveness diagnostics using a network analyzer

    Page(s): 719 - 722 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Shielding effectiveness measurements in an anechoic chamber are often too time consuming and expensive to be performed on most product enclosures. A method is proposed to estimate and improve the shielding effectiveness of a metal enclosure that contains no RF absorbing materials, in "real time," on a benchtop, using only a scalar network analyzer. This method uses the input power and the reflection coefficient of the source to estimate the transmission coefficient and the total radiated power View full abstract»

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  • Why NFPA 780, Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems is inadequate

    Page(s): 786 - 788 vol.2
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    NFPA 780, Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems, formerly known as NFPA 78, The Lightning Protection Code, is an industry wide standard that has been revised numerous times since the first revision in 1904. Recent articles about the theories of lightning have cast serious doubts about the validity of the basic technology and science underlying traditional lightning protection systems. The articles claim that the science underlying traditional lightning protection systems violate basic physics. Therefore, NFPA 780, as it is written, may be a liability rather than an asset for the lightning protection industry View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic fields and transmission characteristics of a filter composed of transmission lines

    Page(s): 1111 - 1116 vol.2
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    When two transmission lines (TLs) such as microstrip lines are set in the neighborhood, coupling or crosstalk fields may be generated between them. To investigate fields caused by passive circuits, coupled printed-circuit traces are focused upon. The fields can be obtained by estimating vector potentials of currents in the line and the terminal sections, where the terminals are fabricated like a configuration as "via". The filter performance characteristics and the fields at frequencies of pass and stop bands of the filters are measured and calculated; the results show that the currents at the line terminals cause serious effects, and the fields exist even at frequencies of the stop band View full abstract»

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  • Transient analysis of vertical electric dipole radiation with two-layer lossy media

    Page(s): 855 - 857 vol.2
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    In this paper, the authors use a new approach to determine the early time response of a impulsive vertical electric dipole over two-layer lossy media. An efficient numerical method is also presented View full abstract»

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  • Achieving medical device EMC: the role of regulations, standards, guidelines and publications

    Page(s): 1298 - 1303 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many organizations around the world are working to improve EMC of electrical and electronic medical devices. Anecdotal evidence indicates that medical device manufacturers and healthcare providers are becoming increasingly knowledgeable and diligent regarding medical device EMI and EMC. Existing and new wireless services and other sources of electromagnetic disturbance (EMD) continue to proliferate; however at the same time, there is continuing development of regulations, standards, guidelines and publications that are intended to help prevent EMI and promote EMC and that can be applied to the safe use of RF sources and medical devices in hospitals. This paper provides a critical overview of the impact of such regulations, standards, guidelines and publications and their role in minimizing EMI malfunctions in healthcare. It also provides a bibliography that lists many of these important works View full abstract»

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  • Screening pulsing magnetic fields by the use of a circular cylindrical shell

    Page(s): 723 - 727 vol.2
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    This paper explores the problem of definition of screening efficiency by the use a circular cylindrical shell, which can be a hull of ship, a shell of the electronic equipment, wave-guides etc. The acting magnetic field is supposed parallel plate, i.e. in each fixed instant its quantity is identical to all points of any cross section of the cylinder, but is various for points of two next cross sections. At action on a shell of monochromatic magnetic field the screening activity is defined by calculation of a shell screening function. At action of a pulsing field the calculation of screening efficiency will be carried out with use of a shell screening pulsing function, which are defined, radiating from the previously obtained functions of screening of a monochromatic field. In the paper the results of calculation are compared with experiment View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of electronic packaging on the performance of SAW devices

    Page(s): 1236 - 1241 vol.2
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    Electronic packaging has a significant influence on the performance of surface acoustical wave (SAW) devices for frequencies over 500 MHz. To precisely design the SAW devices, the packaging structure must be considered concurrently in the design process so that the overall performance of both the SAW device and the packaging structure satisfies the design specifications, In this paper, two methods have been investigated to design the SAW device packaging structure. One is the circuit method, which extracts an equivalent lumped element model for the packaging structure. It allows the analysis of the package and the SAW device together in SPICE environment. Another is the field method, which uses a full wave simulation. The effectiveness and limitations of the two methods are discussed. The results of the simulations match those of the measurements very well, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the authors' methodology View full abstract»

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  • Volumetric 1.9-GHz fields in a hospital corridor: electromagnetic compatibility implications

    Page(s): 1131 - 1134 vol.2
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    The current draft of the next medical-equipment EMC standard, IEC 60601-1-2, will recommend usage of free-space minimal separations (between RF sources of given power and medical devices of given immunity) to minimize EMI malfunction of medical equipment. We have previously reported that such separations were useful in most hospital corridors, but such reports were based on mid-corridor measurements. We now describe preliminary three-dimensional 1.9-GHz extensions of these reports. We found that mid-corridor path loss was less than that at corridor walls. Path loss near floors was much less then that at higher locations. Because medical devices are rarely placed on the floor, our previously reported minimum-separation recommendations are still likely to apply at most corridor locations View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of positive effects on human organism with action of noise radiation of IMPATT diode and low energy He-Ne laser

    Page(s): 1058 - 1060 vol.2
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    This paper presents results of investigations of positive biomedical effects on human organism by such sources of radiations as impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) diode and He-Ne laser. In particularly, it considers questions of correction of a human immune system with noise mm-range and low energy He-Ne laser radiations. This paper describes constructive and functional particularities of combined multifunction biostimulator of human organism, which had been designed for experimental research. The possibility of using this effects for various medical applications that had been used in clinical practise is also discussed View full abstract»

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  • Effectiveness evaluation of shielding material for reducing electromagnetic interference of cardiac pacemaker by portable information terminals

    Page(s): 1054 - 1057 vol.2
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    A shielding technique is an effective means to protect implanted cardiac pacemaker users from portable information terminals, whereas no evaluation methods for this aim have been established. In this paper, an FDTD model for predicting EMI levels in the pacemakers was introduced for numerical shielding effectiveness evaluation. In the model the pacemaker acted as a receiving antenna, which resulted in that the open-voltage at the pacemaker connector can be used as an appropriate index for EMI prediction. With this model the effectiveness of a magnetic rubber sheet and a resistive film was evaluated for reducing the EMI level in the pacemaker by portable information terminals. The results have shown that the resistive film has an excellent shielding effect so that even if the distance between the antenna and the human body is as close as 1.5 cm, the resistive film enables one to secure an effective distance longer than 22 cm being specified in the guideline of the Pacemaker Committee of Japan View full abstract»

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  • The least time/maximum probability theories of lightning propagation and lightning protection

    Page(s): 841 - 844 vol.2
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    The least time-maximum probability (LT-MP) principle is the basis for a statistical theory of lightning propagation. The theory explains why lightning travels in a tortuous path, how branching occurs, why all channels are not equally bright, and most importantly, where lightning may strike next. The least time-maximum probability principle is a rule for selecting lightning channels. Without such a selection rule, there cannot be a theory of lightning protection. In Paper #27-TC8-4, the authors essentially recommended withdrawal of NFPA 780-1997 (as written) because it does not have the technical or scientific basis for a Standard, and because in some applications, the recommended lightning protection systems in the Standard are dangerous. They recommend that the least time-maximum probability theory be considered as a candidate for the scientific basis for an industrywide Standard for lightning protection systems View full abstract»

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  • A comparison of methods used to reduce radiated emissions

    Page(s): 1169 - 1173 vol.2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study compares the emissions from several different printed circuit board assemblies. Each printed circuit board assembly had different techniques applied to reduce the radiated emissions. The printed circuit boards were tested in an anechoic chamber to measure the emissions. The results of these tests were evaluated to determine if there were any differences in measured emissions. Two criteria were compared: number of signals and average magnitude of the signals View full abstract»

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  • Verification and validation of the least time / maximum probability theories of lightning propagation and lightning protection

    Page(s): 1021 - 1026 vol.2
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    The authors present the verification and validation of the least time-maximum probability theories of lightning propagation and lightning protection. Supporting evidence includes test data, natural lightning and verification by correspondence View full abstract»

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  • A proposed set of specific standard EMC problems to help engineers evaluate EMC modeling tools

    Page(s): 1335 - 1340 vol.2
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    As the complexity of high-speed electronic system packages increase, engineers and designers are required to take control of more and more aspects of electrical and mechanical engineering early in the design cycle. In order to achieve the objective of faster time-to-market and to be cost effective one needs to be able to predict the electromagnetic radiated emission noises of the system design by using full-wave simulation tools. Modifications and improvements of the design can be easily tested with simulators to reach the best possible compromise between EMC requirements and cost/thermal/etc considerations. The key contribution of this work is to provide a collection of a set of four standard problems faced by any typical system designer and example solutions from different tools by different users. The proposed standard problems include a power/ground plane decoupling problem, a printed circuit board with a microstrip trace which runs over a split in the ground reference plane, a heatsink emissions problem, and a shielding effectiveness problem. In this paper, each of these problems is described, and an example result provided View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous effect of crosstalk coupling and external EM wave on the functioning of logical components

    Page(s): 943 - 947 vol.2
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    The paper deals with effects involved by electromagnetic interference (EMI) occurring on digital electronic components. The aim of paper is to show mechanisms of addition of disturbances due to the cross talk coupling and electromagnetic coupling of high frequency sources working in the vicinity of these circuits. To point out these phenomena, some experiments are carried out on a test bench and comments about the results of these measurements are proposed View full abstract»

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