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Information Visualisation, 2001. Proceedings. Fifth International Conference on

Date 25-27 July 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 111
  • Proceedings Fifth International Conference on Information Visualisation

    Publication Year: 2001
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (505 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 767 - 769
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Image based rendering using rational filters

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 311 - 316
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (872 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Image based rendering is a powerful technique for 3D object visualization and representation. Using this approach, arbitrary object or scene views are generated automatically from a small set of real reference images. An algorithm for image based rendering using stereo image pairs is presented. The main goal is to produce a realistic 3D `continuous look-around' effect along the stereo baseline. To minimize the distortion of the reconstructed pixels due to undefined disparity values, a nonlinear interpolator is proposed. It uses the sparse available disparity map to generate a dense field that partially reconstructs original disparity edge information, producing a sharper intermediate view. The identification of occluded and non-occluded areas is also used to aid the view synthesis process. A special treatment for occluded image areas is also considered in the proposed technique. Several computer experiments have been conducted to assess the performance of the presented method View full abstract»

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  • PCIS - a visual decision tool for construction and design management

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 376 - 381
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Demonstrates the potential of PCIS (Piece-based Construction Information System) as a visualization tool for technical cooperation, collaboration and communication by literally aligning the points of view of architectural, engineering and construction methodologies. There is always complexity during an actual construction or assembly, wherein the sequence is mostly always confused, and this leads to wastage of time, materials and manpower. The pictorial database PCIS, as a decision-aid tool, provides information in a sequence that is often forgotten or missed in construction. PCIS has three components. The first is an anatomical model, functionally organized according to ASTM UNIFORMAT II. This programmatic standard means the model can be sequentially constructed and deconstructed according to a standard work breakdown structure that is tailored to the requirements of almost any building. The second component of PCIS is the dataTheater that surrounds the anatomical model. The theater sets up a combination of 2D data planes that can be hypergraphically accessed to view layout dimensions, details and specifications. The third part of PCIS is the dataWorld, with cameras fixed to the intersections of its latitudes and longitudes. The cameras attached to the dataTheater and dataWorld control the visual display of the pictorial information. A software engine polls the cameras and publishes the images in a set of directories as files that are accessed by the hypergraphic interface. The information visible to these cameras can be changed through a standard survey matrix View full abstract»

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  • 4D visualization of construction site management

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 382 - 387
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Construction site management mainly involves the rational layout of site facilities, optimum usage of space and dynamic management of plants. It directly influences security, machine running, material supply and power distribution, as well as construction progress and cost. Applying computers to visual site layout has become a hot topic, attracting many researchers. This paper presents the interactive 4D Construction Site Management System (CSMS). In CSMS, a 4D site management model (4DSMM) is generated, which links a 3D model of construction project with a project activity schedule, each activity suitably annotated with its resource requirements, including material, plant and work space. The system provides a 4D visualization capability for the layout of construction facilities, the use of the site space and intelligent decisions based on a knowledge base. The application of 4D intelligent site management is seen to have considerable potential View full abstract»

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  • Virtual access to landscapes and historic gardens at linked locations

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 645 - 650
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Since 1997 staff at UWE have been exploring the use of underlying spatial databases which may be used to manage 3D modelling and related information. The term spatial database or spatial information system (SIS) is used as more inclusive of different domains than `geographic' information system (GIS), although commercial GIS may satisfactorily serve this and many similar functions. The question of when it is useful to model and when video or high-resolution images may be equally or more useful has also been examined. A new project, `Valhalla', offers the opportunity to test these approaches as a basis for the integration of 3D modelling with real-time video for the online comparative study of landscapes and historic gardens. While the project is based on possibly the most ephemeral and at-risk portion of our architectural heritage it is hypothesized that the approach could be equally applicable to building sites and to archaeological digs View full abstract»

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  • Sens-A-Patch: interactive visualization of label spaces

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 7 - 12
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sens-A-Patch is an interactive visualization technique based on overlapping clusters on a 2D space. It is intended for long-term use of personal label collections and aims at providing a fluent medium for restructuring and serendipitous discovery. Sens-A-Patch implements the principles of spatial meaning, focus+context and tight coupling in a space-efficient way. It is also shown empirically to be usable for broadcast media, such as Web-site index pages. Further developments in managing social information spaces and collecting implicit relevance feedback are outlined View full abstract»

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  • Shape control of cubic B-spline and NURBS curves by knot modifications

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 63 - 68
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Presents shape control methods for cubic B-spline and NURBS curves by the modification of their knot values and by the simultaneous modification of weights and knots. Theoretical aspects of knot modification are also discussed, concerning the paths of points on a curve and the existence of an envelope for the family of curves resulting from a knot modification for curves of degree k View full abstract»

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  • Spatial representation in product modelling

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 651 - 656
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An unambiguous definition of space is necessary before any attempt is made to develop product or process models for concurrent engineering in the AEC Industry. The ambiguity is the result of different and even conflicting approaches to its definition in the various phases of the building life cycle for different stakeholders, e.g. architects, engineers, and building services engineer etc. Some researchers consider space as an abstract property of things, while others consider it as a thing itself. Regardless of the definition, the space can be referred to as a collector of material objects and also as an object itself. This paper investigates the existing concepts and criteria of definition in various phases, compares the factual and ontological meaning, and specifies conceptual schemas for representation of space, geometry, and buildings View full abstract»

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  • Visualized construction process on virtual reality

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 684 - 689
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (412 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The proposed construction process visualization system (4D-VR, 4 Dimension Virtual Reality) is applied to a large and complicated project that requires milestone schedule management and detailed activity control. The 4D-VR has a software structure with five modules, which are 3D CAD modeling, virtual reality modeling, schedule data processing, linking graphic data with schedule data, and visualization output modules. A field application has been carried out on 4D-VR for a 27-story complex building project for an apartment and commercial store in Korea. After analyzing the case, we conclude that the 4D-VR system can enhance communication between managers and workers, and help a project manager to reasonable decision making for establishing the schedule. Moreover, 4D-VR is effective for shortening the schedule, showing the exact construction process and making various presentations to co-workers related to the project. This paper shows the status of 4D-VR technology in Korea and how to use it in a real project View full abstract»

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  • View morphing using sprites with depth

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 323 - 328
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently there has been a great deal of interest in morphing techniques to produce intermediary images between two images. These techniques combine 2D interpolations of shape and color to make realistic special effects. The authors simulate view morphing, using sprites with depth about a pair of partially occluded images based on the epipolar geometry. The epipolar constraints improve the accuracy of the estimated disparity maps. To compute a depth map between two images, we use use a simple stereo system. Depth can be estimated from the disparity of corresponding points and is inversely proportional to disparity, used when sprites are composed. A sprite is an image with the standard three-color components (red, green, blue) and an additional channel that encodes the image's shape. In the case of a pair of partially occluded images, whether there should be decomposed sprites to an image is the reason for attributing to reduce two problems (folds and holes), in the view morphing procedures View full abstract»

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  • Interactive tool visualising and optimising building envelope performances during the architectural sketch design

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 205 - 212
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1036 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The PC software AMCE provides building actors (owner, project authors…) with a multiple criteria decision aid (MCDA) procedure to optimise the building envelope cost and energy performance, during sketch design, when most important choices are fixed. Two main modules are linked: (i) the first manages parameters describing the project requirements; (ii) the graphic pen-based module allows one to draw the sketch, it calculates geometric parameter values and puts them back in the first module. Informed about foreseeable performances, the user can, at any time, search for the optimal scenario giving the best satisfaction (monoactor optimisation) or most preferred compromise (multiactor optimisation), he is given a lot of graphs illustrating the performance sensitivity to parameter variations, as well as an optimisation procedure using a genetic algorithm to find the most efficient parameter set View full abstract»

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  • A study of three browser history mechanisms for Web navigation

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 13 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1008 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Finding a previously visited page during Web navigation is a very common and important process. Although most commercial browsers incorporate a history mechanism, when accessing pages that were recently visited, users still rely mainly on the “Back” button. In this paper, we studied the effectiveness of visually enhanced history browser mechanisms on Web navigation. We used three different history mechanisms as the experiment treatments. 21 college students were the subjects of the experimental trials. With a between-subject design, three experimental groups were equally divided according to subject profiles. Users read and completed the given scenario. A quiz was given to measure user performance on the tested mechanism. At the end of the quiz, a subjective questionnaire was given to measure user satisfaction. The results showed that there is a significant statistical difference among the three mechanisms. The more visually enhanced history mechanism provided to be more effective in Web browsing View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive fairing of surface meshes by geometric diffusion

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 731 - 737
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (808 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In triangulated surface meshes, there are often very noticeable size variances (the vertices are distributed unevenly). The presented noise of such surface meshes is therefore composite of vast frequencies. We solve a diffusion partial differential equation numerically for noise removal of arbitrary triangular manifolds using an adaptive time discretization. The proposed approach is simple and is easy to incorporate into any uniform timestep diffusion implementation with significant improvements over evolution results with the uniform timesteps. As an additional alternative to the adaptive discretization in the time direction, we also provide an approach for the choice of an adaptive diffusion tensor in the diffusion equation View full abstract»

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  • A boundary representation technique for three-dimensional objects

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 397 - 403
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (364 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The marching cubes algorithm of W.E. Lorensen and H.E. Cline (1987) is a method that is used frequently in 3D object visualisation. The underlying concept of the technique is to form piecewise planar approximations to surfaces, for which pre-determined normals are used for shading purposes. It should be noted that these approximations are precisely as accurate as the data given; there is no loss in quality or error introduced. The approach of using these cubes to represent data can also be used to fully describe the piecewise planar approximation to the surface. Problems arise however, in terms of the storage space required for the representation of large objects, and it is this issue that is addressed in this paper. We present an algorithm that transforms pixel-wise data into a boundary representation that has potential for large reductions in storage. The algorithm does not involve any further approximation of the surface of the object than that given as input. The algorithm also provides a structure that makes surface analysis and matching very simple View full abstract»

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  • A software repository for education and research in information visualization

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 257 - 262
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper argues for the creation of a software repository for research and education in information visualization (IV). It starts with an introduction and overview of IV online resources and software repositories. Next, we introduce the code repository that we have created and demonstrate how it was used in the IV course which one of the authors teaches. Sample implementations by students are presented as well. We conclude with a discussion of ways to grow and maintain the software repository and invite contributions View full abstract»

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  • Visualisation of a simple beam under a load in virtual environment

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 589 - 591
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Visualisation is generally considered to be a problem in structural design. Being an iterative process, structural design is time consuming for engineers, and results are difficult for clients to visualize. Current numerical methods have slow dynamic visualisation capability, which is usually separate from the calculation phase. The paper investigates whether an analogue virtual reality (VR) model of a structure can integrate calculation and visual representation. Early results of this research show that it is possible to have analogue virtual reality models of structures capable of real time user interaction. The paper shows how the user can interact with a VR analogue model of a simple beam, move a concentrated load along the length of the beam, change the value of the force, and visualise deflection of the beam using the analytical solution of the problem View full abstract»

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  • A conceptual framework for a decision support system for colour selection and use in the design of the built environment

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 213 - 218
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Computer visualisation is a common tool within modern architectural design to improve productivity and communication. Whilst this may be the case, there is evidence that architects are abusing these new tools in the provision of new designs. Colour representation is a major factor within architectural design, but appears neglected within the development of computer technology. This paper outlines the conceptual framework for a decision support system devised to improve the validity of colour representation in computer visualisation and improve architect-client interaction in the design process, whilst addressing the co-variables which affect the perceptual process of colour and computerised architectural design View full abstract»

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  • A helix metaphor for customer behaviour visualisation

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 22 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Describes approaches to the visualisation of customer behaviour and proposes an innovative metaphor for information visualisation. The helix metaphor is adopted as a technique to render behavioural temporal data in a user interface design incorporating a 3D representation. The helix metaphor extends the conceptual model of a spiral representation along a linear perspective, and accommodates the visualisation of temporal data by exploiting the cyclical nature of the data. A set of user task requirements was identified, and a brief informal series of task-based user trials revealed that these tasks were supported by the helix representation. Requirements for further design iterations of the helix representation are also proposed View full abstract»

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  • A visualization method for the morphological exploration of tensegrity structures

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 523 - 528
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Tensegrities are a special type of tensile structures that offer a viable alternative to conventional space covering structures. The morphology of tensegrity networks is uniquely and directly related to their structural and mechanical properties. Geometric and topological complexity is a characteristic of the morphology of tensegrity structures and accounts for significant difficulties in the study of their initial configuration, and possibly, for their limited application in building design. In this paper a computer visualization method that involves animation procedures is proposed as a tool for the exploration of their form. The method is based on a graphical approach to the solution of their complex 3D geometry that combined CAD tools with descriptive geometry procedures. The display of the tensegrity structure as an animation of moving parts allows designers to assess the effect of a given geometric parameter on their architectural form View full abstract»

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  • Skeletal implicit surface reconstruction from sections for flexible body simulation

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 723 - 728
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)  

    We describe an automatic surface reconstruction technique from a set of planar data points organised in parallel sections. The reconstruction employs skeletal implicit surfaces. Two key points in this study are: calculation of the 3D skeleton by establishing a correspondence between each paid of the 2D Voronoi skeleton of two neighbouring sections; and the use of a uniform field function necessitating the introduction of the notion of “weighted skeleton”. Another key point of this work is the proposition of an animation methodology by transforming the skeleton into a deformable mass/spring system. This work has been used in the context of a medical project to simulate the dynamic behaviour of organs during the conformal radiotherapy treatment View full abstract»

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  • Visualising data using the ActionMapper: a proposed interactive event logger for user interface evaluation

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 147 - 154
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The proposed ActionMapper tool extends previous work on the generic KeystrokeMapper tool to provide an efficient method of logging and visualising a novice user's interaction with a dynamic interface. For any specified task the ActionMapper could generate a graphic representation of both the designer's conceptual model (represented by an Optimum path) and an indication of the user's mental model (represented by the actual path navigated by the user). In this study, the results from two usability experiments have been analysed using the KeystrokeMapper concept. From this a refined version of the tool, referred to as ActionMapper, is outlined. It is argued that the future implementation of the ActionMapper concept as a computer-based tool, which includes the automatic analysis and visualisation of numerous usability metrics, will substantially enhance the evaluation process. By adding event recording functionality in a prototype for a small handheld device, effective usability evaluations could also be conducted in a mobile context View full abstract»

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  • Capturing outline of fonts using genetic algorithm and splines

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 738 - 743
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to obtain a good spline model from large measurement data, we frequently have to deal with knots as variables, which becomes a continuous, non-linear and multivariate optimization problem with many local optima. Hence, it is very difficult to obtain a global optima. We present a method to convert the original problem into a discrete combinatorial optimization problem and solve it by a genetic algorithm. We also incorporate a corner detection algorithm to detect significant points which are necessary to capture a pleasant looking spline fitting for shapes such as fonts. A parametric B-Spline has been approximated to various characters and symbols. The chromosomes have been constructed by considering the candidates of the locations of knots as genes. The best model among the candidates is searched by using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The method determines the appropriate number and location of knots automatically and simultaneously. Some examples are given to show the results obtained from the algorithm View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic queries and brushing on choropleth maps

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 757 - 764
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1176 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Users who must combine demographic, economic or other data in a geographic context are often hampered by the integration of tabular and map representations. Static, paper-based solutions limit the amount of data that can be placed on a single map or table. By providing an effective user interface, we believe that researchers, journalists, teachers, and students can explore complex data sets more rapidly and effectively. This paper presents Dynamaps, a generalized map-based information visualization tool for dynamic queries and brushing on choropleth maps. Users can use color coding to show a variable on each geographic region, and then filter out areas that do not meet the desired criteria. In addition, a scatterplot view and a details-on-demand window support overviews and specific fact-finding View full abstract»

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  • Improving the retrieval performance of content-based image retrieval systems: the GIVBAC approach

    Publication Year: 2001 , Page(s): 659 - 664
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The retrieval performance of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems still leaves much to be desired, especially when the system is serving as an interface to an image collection covering many different topics. The problem of missing semantical information about the images leads to great numbers of false matches because of misleading similarities in the visual primitives that are retrieved. This paper introduces an approach called GIVBAC, that tries to reduce the number of false matches in query result sets. It relies heavily on user feedback on retrieval results with regard to user-definable thematic groups. Feedback is used globally, i.e. the feedback of one user has influences on the behaviour of the whole system. The weight of individual votes is a parameter of GIVBAC so that it can be adjusted to the level of trust the user base is given, i.e. higher values in a closed user group and lower values in an open group with anonymous users. The paper presents results of an evaluation comparing the performance of an unmodified CBIR system with a system that is modified so that it uses GIVBAC as an interface to the users View full abstract»

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