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Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 2001. IMTC 2001. Proceedings of the 18th IEEE

Date 21-23 May 2001

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  • IMTC/2001 Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference [front matter]

    Page(s): i - xlvi
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  • Author's index

    Page(s): xlvii - lvii
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  • Characterization techniques for temperature-dependent experimental analysis of microwave transistors

    Page(s): 1893 - 1896 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (356 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In our research work the effects of temperature on DC behavior, small signal and noise performance of several low-noise transistors at microwave frequencies were investigated by means of different experimental systems down to cryogenic levels. We here present the results of such an extensive investigation together with the details of the experimental procedures followed. The on-wafer cooling set-up was designed and realized in our lab and it exhibited a very good performance characterized by fast settling times. Clear self-heating effects were observed in DC behavior of on-wafer pseudomorphic HEMT's tested over the 220-320 K temperature range. View full abstract»

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  • Analog signal processing in an AC electromagnetic flowmeter

    Page(s): 2136 - 2139 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    AC electromagnetic flowmeters yield a low-frequency signal whose amplitude is proportional to the average fluid velocity. Typically, the signal amplitude can be below 1 mV and suffers a strong interference from the coils that create the driving magnetic field. This paper provides a novel circuit design to amplify and demodulate the voltage picked up by the electrodes and to minimize interference. The amplifier includes a fully differential front end. The demodulation consists of synchronous rectification and sampling with zero-order hold followed by low-pass filtering. The result is a 0.25 mV/(m/s)/mT voltage insensitive to dc level shifts View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of spurious-related errors on commercial wattmeters

    Page(s): 2140 - 2144 vol.3
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    A procedure for the estimation of digital-wattmeter sensitivity with respect to the presence of spurious components in the acquired signals is proposed in this paper. The procedure allows an analytical estimation of such a sensitivity to be obtained if the spectral-analysis algorithm of the wattmeter under investigation is completely known; otherwise, an experimental estimation is required. Two different procedures are proposed: one approach can be used if the wattmeter is used on an FFT algorithm, while another longer procedure is able to characterize any kind of wattmeters. Both experimental procedures can be performed by employing a simple test-set, which is based on two commercial signal generators and on a Personal Computer View full abstract»

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  • Differential gain and phase testing using joint time-frequency analysis

    Page(s): 2027 - 2030 vol.3
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    An alternative technique for differential gain and phase testing of video ADCs based on the use of joint time-frequency analysis is presented. This technique can lead to a significant improvement in ADC testing time and in the amount of information provided by these specific tests View full abstract»

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  • Strain and temperature sensors using multimode optical fiber Bragg gratings and correlation signal processing

    Page(s): 1463 - 1466 vol.3
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    A novel type multimode fiber optic Bragg grating (MM-FBG) sensor for strain and temperature sensing has been developed for a power-by-light hydraulic valve monitoring system. The Bragg grating sensor was fabricated by the holographic method in 62/125 μm graded-index silica multimode fiber. The sensor has reflectivity of approximately 35% at 835 nm of peak wavelength. The experiment of strain sensing has been tested by apply axial strains from zero to 1000 με and the temperature sensing test has been done for temperatures from -40°C and 80°C. The strain sensitivity of the MM-FBG is 0.55 pm/με and the average temperature sensitivity is approximately 6 pm/°C View full abstract»

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  • Embedded controller software and algorithm development tool

    Page(s): 2105 - 2110 vol.3
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    This paper describes the design and implementation of a flexible tool for use in developing embedded software and software algorithms. This tool is new and novel because of its capability of monitoring variables used in multiple internal processes (tasks) inside a modern micro-controller while simultaneously acquiring digital and analog data from a physical system that the micro-controller is connected to. Many types of analog and digital signals (e.g. thermocouples, strain gauges, speeds, solenoid signals) that are not monitored by the processes inside the controller can Ire acquired. The internal micro-controller data is time aligned with the external digital and analog data so that information, on events and conditions that a control algorithm internal to the controller is subjected to, can be obtained and correlated to the internal state of the process running in the micro-controller. All data acquired with this fool is processed and sent to a host laptop computer via TCP/IP on an Ethernet link and archived directly on the hard-drive of the laptop. Another novelty and new development with this fool is a new file format that accommodates large data files and allows for a post-analysis software package to be used to analyze the data View full abstract»

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  • A travelling standard for the calibration of data-acquisition boards

    Page(s): 1625 - 1629 vol.3
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    The large use of measurement systems based on data-acquisition boards makes the traceability-chain assurance a tricky problem, due to the difficulty in consistently calibrating such boards. In this paper the authors describe a travelling standard, which call be used for the calibration of many commercially available acquisition boards. By employing such a travelling standard, the calibration procedure can be remotely exercised by a calibration laboratory through the PC which hosts the board that has to be calibrated. In such a way the calibration results refer to environmental, software and hardware conditions that exactly match the board operating conditions. Furthermore, the board unavailability time is drastically reduced, with a consequent economic advantage for the board owner. The travelling standard embeds a micro-controller, which is responsible for the communication with the PC that hosts the board and for the board-stimulus generation, and a digital multimeter, which acts as a reference standard View full abstract»

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  • ADC histogram test by triangular small-waves

    Page(s): 1690 - 1695 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A histogram-based method for quasi-static test of analog-to-digital converters has been proposed for standardization aims. The test exploits the use of small-amplitude triangular waves. Different signal offset values are used to fully stimulate the converter input range. The reduced amplitude and slope of the input triangular wave with respect to the converter range and slew rate, respectively, lead to quasi-static test conditions. The test allows (i) linearity constraints of function generators to be relaxed, and (ii) experimental burdens to be reduced. In this paper, after a brief recalling of the test procedure, analytical relations for designing an efficient test are provided. Numerical and experimental results of a comparative analysis with the IEEE 1057-standard static test highlight its better performance View full abstract»

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  • Extending the servo-loop for ADC transition level measurements under dynamic input conditions

    Page(s): 2031 - 2036 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (476 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For high-resolution Nyquist-rate ADCs, testing the linearity of the transfer characteristic at all-codes becomes very time consuming as the number of codes increases exponentially with resolution. Previously, a model-based test approach has been proposed based on measurements using a servo-loop. With the servo-loop, the ADC linearity is tested under static input conditions by measuring only a small subset of code transition levels. Adopting this short-codes approach, we propose a faster settling servo-loop implementation. We extend the servo-loop and the model-based short-codes test to linearity testing under dynamic input conditions View full abstract»

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  • Acoustic emission and vibration for tool wear monitoring in single-point machining using belief network

    Page(s): 1541 - 1546 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an implementation of calibrated acoustic emission (AE) and vibration techniques to monitor progressive stages of blank wear on carbide tool tips. Three cutting conditions were used on workpiece material type EN24T, in turning operation. The root-mean-square value of AE (AErms) and the coherence function between the acceleration signals at the tool tip in the tangential and feed directions was studied. Three features were identified to be sensitive to tool wear AErms, coherence function in the frequency ranges 2.5-55 kHz and 18-25 kHz. Belief network based on Bayes rule was used to integrate information in order to recognise the occurrence of worn foot. The three features obtained from the three cutting conditions and machine time were used to train the network. The set of feature vectors for worn tools was divided into two equal subsets: one to train the network and the other to test it. The AErms in term of AE pressure equivalent was used to train and test the network to validate the calibrated acoustic. The overall success rate of the network in detecting a worn tool was high with low error rate View full abstract»

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  • Application of an intelligent dielectric sensor for soil water content, electrical conductivity and temperature

    Page(s): 1817 - 1822 vol.3
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    This paper describes prospective applications of an intelligent dielectric sensor for measuring water content, electrical conductivity and temperature in soil. The sensor incorporates an application specific integrated circuit for dielectric measurement. It has an embedded micro-processor which handles calibration, data processing, control and communication as well as rewritable memory for storing calibration data. The sensor can be used in agricultural practices for continuously monitoring water related parameters in soil and growing substrates in which field-busses or digital networks are used to read-out multiple sensors. A prototype of the sensor was tested in a LONWORKS(R) network environment View full abstract»

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  • Efficiency of ADC linearity estimators

    Page(s): 1858 - 1861 vol.3
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    The paper presents an analysis of the statistical efficiency of the sinewave histogram test used for estimating the unknown transition levels of an analog to-digital converter. Accordingly, at first a closed-form determination of the Cramer-Rao bound is derived under the assumption of a noiseless stimulus signal. Both unbiased and biased versions of the bound are described in order to account for the eventual bias introduced by commonly employed estimators. Then, additive Gaussian noise is assumed and comments are made about its effects on the maximum achievable accuracy View full abstract»

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  • Training data reduction for optimisation of fuzzy logic systems for dynamic modeling of robot manipulators by genetic algorithms

    Page(s): 1418 - 1423 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper reports a novel method for the choice and reduction of the training data set for dynamic modeling of robotic manipulators (RMs) by fuzzy logic systems (FLSs) that are evolved by a genetic algorithm (GA). A multi-population, multi-objective GA is used for structure evolution and optimisation of the FLSs and constants for the precise approximation of the dynamic model (DM) and the simplicity of the FLSs and the complete DM. The initial large set of training data is considerably reduced without decreasing its representative quality View full abstract»

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  • Sensitivity study on the measurement of the reflection coefficient in a short-circuited rectangular waveguide filled with a liquid

    Page(s): 1747 - 1749 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An optimization method is presented for the calibration of waveguides. For the de-embedding up to the level of interest, a precise calibration determines the accuracy of the final result. Based on a simple model with well-chosen standards, we have determined an optimized method to reduce the possible errors when calibrating a rectangular waveguide View full abstract»

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  • Stereo based navigation in unstructured environments

    Page(s): 2038 - 2043 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper a stereo vision method is described developed for autonomous vehicle navigation in unstructured terrain. The disparity between the stereo image sequences is calculated with subpixel accuracy. Robust distance values are obtained by adding a continuity criterion term in the evaluation criterion and by using confidence measures for the found disparities. From the disparities a height map is calculated. Path planning is based on these height maps avoiding negative and positive obstacles. The viability of the approach is shown from real stereo image sequences of unstructured terrain View full abstract»

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  • Silicon dew point hygrometer model

    Page(s): 1823 - 1837 vol.3
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    The paper presents a new complex model of silicon dew point hygrometer. Construction of fabricated hygrometer is briefly shown. Next the set of model equations is presented. The model describes: behavior of water vapor contained in measured gas (saturated vapor partial pressure, sub cooled water phenomenon), water mass transport (condensation and evaporation processes), heat transport across measurement head, silicon dew detector and regulator characteristics. The numerical dew point hygrometer model realized in SIMULINK environment is presented. Finally, comparison of measured data and model responses is discussed View full abstract»

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  • Harmonic analysis of current waveforms using optical current sensor

    Page(s): 1863 - 1865 vol.3
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    This work reports on the research and development of an optical current sensor for harmonic analysis within the electricity supply network. The device has a measurement capability, limited by the sampling frequency of the A/D converter, to around 20 kHz. We report on experimental verification of these measurements up to the 80th harmonic (4 kHz) View full abstract»

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  • Distributed intelligent hierarchical system for heat metering and controlling

    Page(s): 2123 - 2128 vol.3
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    A key factor of rational energy consumption management is the accurate measurement. Measuring and charging heat consumption are rarely worked out in the prevalent warm-water heating systems. The developed modern heat-meter device, which includes micro-controller, is self-calibrating and self-testing. It uses several correction algorithms in order to increase accuracy after authentication. The discrete devices are connected to a local concentrator via M-bus. The concentrator collects calculated data from measured values and information about the state of the heat-meter. Consumption data and information about the work-state events are logged and stored by the measuring unit. The concentrator is connected to the central supervisory system through mobile communication channel (GSM). In this system, the meter devices respond to arising failures on the one hand with the help of their own algorithms, on the other hand based on information from the concentrator and from the center. The center is able to collect information about measuring and usage, based on requested information. This solution highly increases the speed and the accuracy of the system View full abstract»

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  • AC-DC current transfer step-up calibration and uncertainty calculation

    Page(s): 1435 - 1440 vol.3
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    New AC-DC current transfer standards are built for the current range from 0.3 mA to 20 A and the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. A 3-dimensional PTB-Multijunction Thermal Converter (MJTC) with a heater resistance of 27 Ω is the basic standard for the AC-DC current transfer at currents from 20 mA to 50 mA. At lower currents, planar MJTCs (PMJTCs) with heater resistances from 90 Ω to 960 Ω are used in a step-down procedure. Coaxial current shunts in parallel with PMJTCs extend the current range up to 20 A. The standard measurement uncertainties are in the range from 0.2 μA/A at 25 mA and 1 kHz to 50 μA/A at 20 A and 100 kHz. The high sensitivity of the PMJTC allows bigger steps in the step-up calibration and some smaller steps between these steps. Calibration of all these steps leads to an overdetermined system to check for the validity of the assumptions made in the step-up procedure, This results in reduced uncertainties at the different current levels compared to the old method View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of a calorimetric measurement facility for determining losses in electrical machines

    Page(s): 1785 - 1790 vol.3
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    The measurement of the total losses of electrical machines is of most interest to designers for verifying their calculations. These measurements can be done in various ways, however, some lead to more accurate results than others. We will show why the conventional input-output procedure does not result in accurate loss figures, An alternate method is proposed. For this purpose a calorimetric measurement facility was designed and implemented. This paper is intended to present the calibration procedure for this facility, as well as results of tests performed on a 10 hp induction motor View full abstract»

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  • Runtime support for reconfigurable real-time embedded systems

    Page(s): 2111 - 2116 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the embedding environment becomes more and more complex so does the embedded system itself. An aspect of the complexity, the demand for robust and fault tolerant embedded solutions is ever increasing. Consequently the embedded system design and development face new challenges including modeling, representation, execution and implementation issues. These issues cannot be addressed adequately without a matching underlying system architecture. Model integrated computing (MIC) architectures relying on multi-aspect modeling and variety of models of computation are proven to be promising alternatives for designing and generating manageable complex computing systems for various application domains. With respect to implementation one of the substantial questions is how the MIC based (self-) adapting design can be mapped into a (reconfigurable) distributed hardware platform. The paper presents a novel middleware supporting execution of adapting/reconfigurable real-time programs. The main features of MIC and its relation to adaptivity and computation model based programming are overviewed. A minimal set of functionalities, which enables to construct real-time program structures serving as an integration framework for various models of computation is presented. The design principles of the runtime environment are summarized View full abstract»

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  • Experimental determination of synchronous machines reactances from DC decay at standstill

    Page(s): 1954 - 1957 vol.3
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    Estimating parameters of high power synchronous machines from steady state or transient AC operational tests requires a great deal of electrical power. This paper presents a procedure and its implementation for the determination of synchronous machines parameters from DC decay time-domain data acquired from standstill test measurements. The direct-axis and quadrature-axis reactances are indirectly found by processing the response of a synchronous machine at standstill to a step signal. This testing technique reduces the required power and minimizes the testing time, but presents a limited precision. The accuracy of the estimation of the machine parameters is improved by using floating-point quantization. Experimental results of a synchronous machine are finally presented to illustrate the applicability of this method View full abstract»

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  • Future perspectives of automotive control

    Page(s): 1510 - 1518 vol.3
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    In the last decade, many control and comfort functions have been introduced into our vehicles. Air-fuel ratio control, idle speed control, knock control, exhaust gas recirculation control as well as ABS and vehicle dynamic control are standard features today. Under the pressure of tightened legal standards and of market competition, automatic control will be employed to an even larger extent in the future View full abstract»

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