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Bioengineering Conference, 2001. Proceedings of the IEEE 27th Annual Northeast

Date 1-1 April 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 55
  • Proceedings of the IEEE 27th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (Cat. No.01CH37201)

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Page(s): 107 - 108
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • E-Racer, a joystick controlled go-kart

    Page(s): 89 - 90
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The E-Racer is an electric go-kart that is controlled through a single joystick, designed for a 13-year old boy who has cerebral palsy. The existing go-kart steering wheel and driving pedals are removed and connected to actuator motors, which are controlled by the joystick and PIC microcontroller View full abstract»

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  • Assessing motion in laparoscopic tools

    Page(s): 39 - 40
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    A laparoscopic test fixture was implemented to quantify motion and control with a surgical instrument, assess tracking skill acquisition, and provide a basis to compare precision and consistency across a variety of test subjects and conditions. A conventional laparoscopic dissector was fitted with a depth sensor, whose analog output is sampled, processed, and stored using a LabView program on a personal computer. Novice users were tested in simple target approach exercises, using both dominant and non-dominant hands over a seven-day period. Analysis of test data indicated no significant difference in overall precision, but significant differences in approach trajectory, especially during retraction. Data also showed significant improvement in time to complete tasks from day one to day seven. The test fixture was seen to be effective in evaluating a variety of facets of instrument movement and control View full abstract»

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  • Bump Around automated bumper car

    Page(s): 91 - 92
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (204 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    “Bump Around” is a project intended to stimulate and entertain children with disabilities by putting them into motion. The bumper car is designed to meet the needs of one individual, but is intended to be versatile enough to accommodate a broad range of children. The bumper car makes life more enjoyable for the underprivileged children that use them. Safety features provided include a system for avoiding collisions with other objects, other students, and walls utilizing ultrasonic proximity sensors. In addition, the car has a Remote Off switch, which is given to the instructor, who has the ability to shut down the car. The vehicle is activated using a toggle switch and is driven by pressing a push-button switch that can be mounted in varying locations to meet the particular needs of the children using the device. An H-Bridge motor control circuit is also presented that has the capability of handling the high currents required for controlling the device View full abstract»

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  • Experimental characterization of bone anisotropic poroelasticity parameters

    Page(s): 41 - 42
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    Outlines anisotropic poroelasticity and develops a method for establishing the level of anisotropy in bone, and for determining anisotropic poroelastic parameters mechanically. This work is part of an ongoing effort in the authors' laboratory. It incorporates tests that have been previously developed and employed to study anisotropic solid and fluid properties in bone. This work incorporates a means for validating the results of both drained and undrained parameters through multiple mechanical tests and the use of ultrasound. The culmination of this work will result in the description of bone anisotropic solid and transport properties as well as tissue density. The authors' work attempts to fill the gap in knowledge of the bone anisotropic material parameters. The data will be useful in the developed of complex FEA models which can describe bone response to mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, the test methods developed can be used to study differences in healthy and diseased bone, the effects of aging and disuse, as well as in the mechanical assessment of engineered bone View full abstract»

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  • Rise and Shine automated Hoyer Lift

    Page(s): 93 - 94
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Rise and Shine is designed to assist its user in accessing a bed and bathtub by a means similar to a standard Hoyer Lift. The boom is raised and lowered by the user as well as turned on its axis. The user can also control the movement of the entire device, bringing the device with him to either the bedroom or bathroom View full abstract»

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  • Novel image reconstruction algorithm for NIR diffusive tomography

    Page(s): 43 - 44
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    Diffusive light through human tissues has been used to investigate the functional status of the human body. Accumulated efforts have been made to bring this technique to a clinically acceptable stage. Here, the authors present a new reconstruction method for near infrared (NIR) diffusive tomography. Its usefulness is manifested by reconstructed images from both simulated and experimental data. The authors conclude that their new algorithm is efficient in translating measured diffusive photon density waves into high quality images of optical properties View full abstract»

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  • An in vitro model for vascular smooth muscle trauma due to angioplasty

    Page(s): 63 - 64
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) has proven to be beneficial to patients in danger of death from myocardial infarction. The major limitation with this modern success in conquering coronary (or any other vessel) obstruction is the phenomenon of restenosis. The pathology underlying restenosis differs substantially from the pathology of the disease leading to the obstruction of the blood vessel, namely, atherosclerosis. PTCA mitigates the consequences of an old disease, atherosclerosis, while at the same time elicits a new pathology, restenosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanical loading conditions that VSM cells can withstand without leading to restenosis. We have designed a device for applying a uniform and isotropic 2-D strain to a flexible cell culture membrane. This device allows precise control of the applied strain and strain rate and quantification of cell responses in terms of cell membrane damage. The determination of the threshold criteria for VSM cell injury has important implications for the possible modification and/or automation of the PTCA technique in order to minimize VSM injury and avoid restenosis View full abstract»

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  • The development of a prototype device for motorsensory activation studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Page(s): 105 - 106
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    The complete system consists of a pair of PC-controlled pneumatically driven, MRI-compatible hand modules, an electropneumatic interface box, and a PC. The device provides experimenter-selectable, subject-independent, temporally accurate, robust stimulation to fingers and thumbs. The device should find applications in studying the motorsensory functions of patients whose motor skills are compromised, and in presurgical planning of patients with lesion(s) in the motor area. The device will also be useful in fMRI pulse sequence development by providing motorsensory stimulation repeatable across study sessions, subjects, and in MR pulse sequences under comparison View full abstract»

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  • The feasibility of atomic force microscopy as a cytodetachment technique to quantify osteoblastic adhesion with implant surfaces

    Page(s): 5 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The preliminary data acquired for the roughness parameter (Ra) demonstrate that there is a clear difference between the 4 different surface preparations studied. Based on previous work it can be expected that once each sample has been seeded with cells, there will exist strong variations among the cellular activity on each disk surface. While it is not the goal of this project to quantify differences among the levels of cellular activity, it is believed that they can be inferred from differences in adhesive strength as well as visual differences among the images produced by the AFM. It is expected that differences in extracellular matrix production will be chiefly responsible for not only differences in cellular phenotypes among samples but also differences in adhesive strengths View full abstract»

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  • Validation of a vibrotactile stimulation system to treat apnea of prematurity

    Page(s): 13 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Apnea is a cessation of respiration. A system that uses vibrotactile stimulation to treat apnea in neonates was modified. Traditional (hand) stimulation, where the nurse stimulates the baby by hand contact, is compared to vibrotactile stimulation (VTS). Modifications and methods of conducting the clinical study are described View full abstract»

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  • Design and validation of a system used to determine the physiological effects of noise and whole body vibrations on rats

    Page(s): 21 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A system was developed to evaluate the physiological effects of whole body vibration and noise on rats. The system design consists of a closed loop feedback method of ensuring the vibration generated matches the experimental parameters for vibration. Preliminary experimentation verifies that mechanical properties of the platform table will not alter the intended magnitude and frequency of vibration. This system holds promise for future studies for whole body vibration and noise research View full abstract»

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  • Shoulder joint mechanics during concentric and eccentric rehabilitative exercise

    Page(s): 95 - 96
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    Previously, kinetic and kinematic data were collected during a shoulder exercise using an impulse-momentum exercise system. This device utilizes inertial loads created by a weighted shuttle (22.2 N) traveling on a rail system and assimilates repetitive concentric-acceleration and eccentric-deceleration throughout the exercise. In the current study, the objective was to quantify the shoulder joint mechanics resulting from this instrumented exercise system when used as a rehabilitative tool. Inverse dynamic relationships were used to quantify the forces and moments acting on the shoulder joint throughout the exercise. Work and power were also compared between shoulder function and shuttle motion View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of the mechanosensitivity of tactile receptors using multivariate logistical regression

    Page(s): 65 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors' initial objective was to establish a framework for modeling afferent mechanoreceptor behavior under dynamic compressive loads using multivariate regression techniques. A multivariate logistical model of the system was chosen because the system contains continuous input variables and a singular binary output variable corresponding to an “all-or-nothing” nerve action potential. Subsequently, this method was used to quantitatively assess the sensitivity of rapidly adapting afferents in rat hairy skin to the stimulus metrics stress, strain, and their time derivatives. In-vitro experiments involving compressive stimulation of isolated afferents using pseudorandom and non-repeating noise sequences were completed and an analysis of the data was performed using multivariate logistical regression View full abstract»

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  • Design of a simple ultrasound/CT fusion image fusion solution for the evaluation of prostate seed brachytherapy

    Page(s): 57 - 58
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (140 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of this project is to devise a solution that will enable physicians, medical physicists and dosimetrists to quantitatively evaluate the success of prostate brachytherapy procedures. It is proposed that a simple ultrasound/CT image fusion solution can be developed and implemented to improve the current post-surgical evaluation process View full abstract»

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  • Novel epileptic seizure detection system using multiple single neuron recordings

    Page(s): 7 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Approximately 20% of people diagnosed with epilepsy cannot be treated effectively. Consequently, there exists a significant need for alternative types of treatment. To aid in the effort of solving this problem, the authors have developed a prototype system that will monitor neuron activity to detect a seizure and terminate seizures in their initial stages. The system consists of 3 blocks: a data acquisition system, a seizure detection unit, and a stimulation device. The data acquisition system includes a detector implanted in the brain. This detector collects raw electrical waveforms that are filtered for the presence of neural action potentials by special signal processing equipment. The quantity and frequency of these neural action potentials is sent to the seizure detection unit, which employs a specially designed algorithm to detect pre-seizure activity in single neuron firing patterns. If the presence of pre-seizure activity is discovered, the seizure detection unit sends a signal to the stimulation device, which emits an electrical signal into the brainstem, thereby preventing a full seizure. This prototype is tested in rats treated with pentylenetetrazol (PZT) a known seizure inducing drug View full abstract»

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  • CuraSelect: mining complex cDNA libraries for gene specific targets

    Page(s): 3 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to accelerate the process of identifying and characterizing genes, a rapid method for gene isolation is essential. One approach is to isolate cDNA clones from a plasmid library. Described here is a process referred to as CuraSelect which uses a small amount of known sequence data from an otherwise unknown gene to target and specifically recover it from a complex cDNA plasmid library. Following this rapid isolation process, the gene of interest is available for sequencing and further characterization studies View full abstract»

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  • Multi Remote appliance controller

    Page(s): 87 - 88
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    The Multi Remote is a project that is made to ease the life of the user by taking away some of the daily tasks that burden them. The Multi Remote is a system that automates the blinds of a window and a coffee maker though voice activation and infrared via remote control View full abstract»

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  • Feature-based, parametric modeling of striated muscle tissue viscoelastic optimization of the lateral rectus

    Page(s): 77 - 78
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Describes the design and development of a parametric, feature-based solid model of the lateral rectus extraocular muscle. By supporting driven kinematic and force-based dynamic simulations in 3-D, the length-tension and force-velocity characteristics of the model can be optimized in relation to the viscoelastic properties associated with striated muscle tissue View full abstract»

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  • Imaging of fluid flow velocity using Doppler optical coherence tomography: preliminary results

    Page(s): 55 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (Doppler OCT) is a technique combining Doppler velocimetry with optical coherence tomography to measure fluid flow velocity at discrete spatial locations. Doppler OCT is an accurate method for the characterization of high resolution (<1 mm/s) fluid flow velocity. Some modifications on current OCT systems have been performed to realize Doppler OCT. Preliminary results on spatial profiles of fluid flow velocity in transparent plastic conduits are presented View full abstract»

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  • Building a mathematical model of the head-neck system; modeling and simulation of the 6-degree of freedom head movement

    Page(s): 81 - 82
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (120 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The head carries most of the sensory systems that enable us to function effectively in our 3-dimensional environment. Without adequate head movement control, efficient special orientation and motor responses to visual and auditory stimuli could not be carried out. In order to fully understand and predict the head trajectory in the 3-dimensional space, three-dimensional and mathematical models of the head-neck system were developed. The mathematical model was used in the simulation process. This project is an effort to take a two-dimensional head rotation model of the head-neck system, which was described by many authors and researches in various forms, to three-dimensional movement View full abstract»

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  • The development of non-sticking, passively cooled electrosurgical instruments

    Page(s): 11 - 12
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    An undesired side effect of electrosurgery includes tissue charring, smoke generation and the adhesion of tissue to electrodes. These effects prolong surgery and interfere with effective coagulation. New instruments are described that remove heat from the tips thereby maintaining their temperature below the sticking temperature. These cooled instruments cauterize normally but eliminate sticking and reduce char and smoke formation. These instruments are fabricated using heat pipes that passively dissipate heat along their length via natural convection. Infrared imaging is used to characterize performance and optimize electrode heat transfer surface area. In-vivo animal testing demonstrates excellent haemostasis while eliminating sticking. These new instruments may speed surgery and enable new applications for electrocautery View full abstract»

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  • LED directed, headswitch controlled, motorized wheelchair

    Page(s): 85 - 86
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The LED Directed Motorized Chair (LDMC) is a manual wheelchair that is converted into a motorized wheelchair. The design of the wheelchair implements a control system different from the typical joystick control system on the market today. The control system is based on an LED display that works in tandem with a head switch. 5 LED's are used representing 5 available directions that the chair travels. When the LED corresponding to the desired direction of travel that the user wishes to go, the user compresses the head switch and the chair performs the action View full abstract»

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  • Development of an anatomically correct mechanical model of the bladder

    Page(s): 71 - 72
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (228 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Viscoelastic models of bladder function have been in existence for many years. Often, such models are referred to either a simple spherical geometric model of the bladder, or to a analytic (but still simplified) model. Here, the authors describe the application of an older viscoelastic model to an anatomically accurate geometry derived from the Visible Human dataset View full abstract»

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