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Sensors Journal, IEEE

Issue 4 • Date April 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 61
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Sensors Journal publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 929 - 931
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 932 - 934
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  • Fiber Optic Sensor for Liquid Volume Measurement

    Page(s): 935 - 936
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (590 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, we report a novel fiber optic sensor, which will be suitable for precise determination of volume for any type of liquid present inside a container. The sensor uses a circularly bent fiber loops to sense variation of liquid volume by exploiting bending loss phenomenon. Experimental observations have confirmed that the sensor is able to measure liquid volume down to resolution of 71±3.5 μL. View full abstract»

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  • Flexible ISFET Biosensor Using IGZO Metal Oxide TFTs and an ITO Sensing Layer

    Page(s): 937 - 938
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter presents the fabrication details and measured performance of a prototype flexible extended-gate ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) biosensor, manufactured using a metal oxide indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistor and an indium-tin oxide sensing layer on a 125- μm thick flexible plastic substrate. ISFET drain current was shown to respond correctly to the pH buffer concentration with repeatable pH sensitivity observed over multiple cycles. These results demonstrate the initial viability of directly extending flexible plastic substrate organic light emitting diode display technology to the production of low-cost, plastic ISFET biosensors. View full abstract»

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  • Angular Displacement and Velocity Sensors Based on Electric-LC (ELC) Loaded Microstrip Lines

    Page(s): 939 - 940
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (673 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Planar microwave angular displacement and angular velocity sensors implemented in microstrip technology are proposed. The transducer element is a circularly shaped divider/combiner, whereas the sensing element is an electric-LC resonator, attached to the rotating object and magnetically coupled to the circular (active) region of the transducer. The angular variables are measured by inspection of the transmission characteristics, which are modulated by the magnetic coupling between the resonator and the divider/combiner. The degree of coupling is hence sensitive to the angular position of the resonator. As compared with coplanar waveguide angular displacement and velocity sensors, the proposed microstrip sensors do not require air bridges, and the ground plane provides backside isolation. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Biosensor Based on Silver-Enhanced Self-Assembled Radio-Frequency Antennas

    Page(s): 941 - 942
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (419 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, we show that a silver-enhancement technique can be used to self-assemble a radio-frequency (RF) antenna, which then can be used for designing a radio-frequency identification (RFID)-based biosensor. Using the proposed biosensor, the concentration of target analytes or pathogens can be remotely interrogated in a concealed, packaged, or in a bio-hazardous environment, where direct measurement is considered to be impractical. In the presence of the target analytes or pathogens, a silver-enhancement process self-assembles a chain of micromonopole antennas. As the size of the silver-enhanced particles grow, the chain of microantenna segments bridges together to complete a dipole structure that reflects impinging RF signals at a desired frequency. We validate the proof-of-concept for IgG detection and demonstrate that different concentrations of rabbit IgG (ranging from 20 to 60 ng in this letter) can be detected based on the strength of the reflected RF signal received at a 915-MHz COTS RFID reader. View full abstract»

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  • An Experimental Study on the Performance of Piezoceramic-Based Smart Aggregate in Water Environment

    Page(s): 943 - 944
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (441 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A number of smart aggregate (SA)-based monitoring systems have been developed to monitor the early age hydration process of concrete. In these systems, the embedded SAs act as sensors and work in a solid-liquid mixture. However, the influence of water on the performance of SA is still unclear. This letter presents some efforts to study the working performance of SA in water environment. A SA-based monitoring system, with the SA sensors immersed in tap water for various periods, was designed to monitor the variation of sensing signals. The test results show that the influence of water on SA is vital. The amplitude of sensing signals increases greatly for the early hours in water, and is tending toward stability for subsequent time. This can thus explain why the amplitude of sensing signals increases fast during early hours in concrete hydration monitoring process. View full abstract»

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  • Review of 3-D Endoscopic Surface Imaging Techniques

    Page(s): 945 - 960
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1978 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper provides an overview of state-of-the-art 3-D endoscopic imaging technologies. Physical objects in the world are 3-D, yet traditional endoscopes can only acquire 2-D images that lack depth information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and understand the complexity of real world objects. Lack of 3-D information also hinders our ability to quantitatively measure 3-D objects. In both medical imaging and industrial inspection applications, 3-D surface imaging capability would add one more dimension, literally and figuratively, to the existing imaging technologies. Over the past decades, tremendous new technologies and methods emerged in the 3-D surface imaging field. In this paper, we first provide a classification of these technologies. We then describe each category in detail, with representative designs and examples. This overview would be useful to researchers in the field since it provides a snapshot of the current state-of-the-art, from which subsequent research in meaningful directions is encouraged. This overview also contributes to the efficiency of research by preventing unnecessary duplication of already performed research. View full abstract»

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  • An Interdigital Capacitive Sensor for Nondestructive Evaluation of Wire Insulation

    Page(s): 961 - 970
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1740 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A capacitive sensor has been developed for measuring the permittivity of wire insulation materials. The sensor consists of interdigital electrodes deposited on a thin polyimide substrate that conforms to the surface of the insulated wire or cable. The test piece was modeled theoretically by assuming a perfectly conducting cylindrical rod coated with two concentric dielectric layers. Constant potential difference V between the electrodes was assumed. The method of moments and Green's function solution to the cylindrical Poisson equation were utilized to determine the charge distribution on the electrodes and hence the total charge Q, from which the capacitance was calculated from the relation C=Q/V. To validate the model, calculated capacitance was compared with that obtained from benchmark experiments performed on a set of three brass rods insulated with acetal copolymer, PTFE, and acrylic. The permittivity of these three polymers was measured independently and provided to the model. The mean difference between calculated capacitance and that measured experimentally was found to be . Furthermore, a handheld prototype sensor suitable for clamping to aircraft wire was designed and measurements of capacitance were made on M5086 aircraft wire. This consists of tin-coated copper strands insulated with flexible PVC, a glass fiber braid, and finally coated with Nylon 6. After exposure to various common aircraft fluids (cleaner, deicer, distilled water, hydraulic fluid, isopropanol, and jet fuel), the measurements showed significant changes in measured capacitance, correlating well with the results of accelerated aging experiments on pure Nylon 6. View full abstract»

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  • A Passive Wireless Humidity Threshold Monitoring Sensor Principle Based on Deliquescent Salts and a Diffusion Based Irreversible State Change

    Page(s): 971 - 978
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (9406 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Passive RFID transponder applications that require integrated sensors can greatly benefit from unconventional sensing strategies especially in situations where there is a need to continuously monitor environmental properties without having access to an integrated source of electric energy or an omnipresent reader station within communication range. Since, in many cases, information about the violation of a threshold value is of interest, alternative sensing strategies exploiting irreversible phenomena not considered or even avoided before, have the potential to find successful use in low-cost (e.g., chip-based sensor RFIDs) or lowest cost (e.g., chipless sensor RFIDs-either with or without transistors) wireless sensor applications. In this paper, a stand-alone, simple, passive, wireless humidity threshold sensor concept, and its realization are presented. This exploits the deliquescence phenomenon of salts. Based on a double planar coil arrangement, for which an electric model is given and a transfer function has been deduced, an oscillating circuit is formed. Its resonance frequency changes irreversibly, if a threshold relative humidity is exceeded for a certain exposition time. The sensor principle is demonstrated by the example of sodium chloride. Various measurements demonstrate the feasibility of the presented sensor approach. Sensor solutions based on a threshold activated irreversible state change might be a promising approach in order to monitor environmental parameters without a permanent supply of electric energy. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple-Model Linear Kalman Filter Framework for Unpredictable Signals

    Page(s): 979 - 991
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2430 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents sensor fusion techniques for systems where the process model is a function of the human input and, therefore, unpredictable. The system consists of free and user-driven motion regimes. The free regime can be modeled as a damped sinusoidal waveform, while the driven regime and the transitions between regimes do not respect any sort of probability, pattern, or sequence. The quantity of interest is the deflection of a clamped beam, measured using three sensor technologies: 1) strain gages; 2) infrared; and 3) Hall effect sensors. Experiments using infrared-based motion capture as reference measuring system show that: 1) none of the sensors present optimal performance for both motion regimes and 2) measurement errors of each sensor differ significantly according to the motion regime. These findings suggest the use of sensor fusion techniques with low processing cost, compatible with real-time embedded applications. Our solution is based on a multiple-model linear Kalman filter in combination with motion segmentation. The motion segmentation discriminates gestures according to the knowledge of their process model. This allows a more predictive estimation during periods of free motion, while relying on a less predictive approach for unknown user-driven signals. In addition, we propose a framework on evaluation and selection of process models for unpredictable signals. The implementation was compared with single-sensor and single-model filter designs. Results based on human subject data reveal that the proposed method improves the error covariance of the estimate by a factor of 2.2 for driven motions and 12.7 for free motions in comparison with single-sensor filter design. View full abstract»

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  • Development and Investigation of Thermal Devices on Fully Porous Silicon Substrates

    Page(s): 992 - 997
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2260 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For thermal sensors and devices, porous silicon is a comparably novel alternative to standard materials such as thin glass substrates or silicon nitride membranes. These materials are primarily characterized by their thermal conductivity and heat capacity, as well as temperature stability and mechanical fragility. In this paper, we present details of the porous silicon technology for full wafer porosification as well as static and dynamic device and material characterization. The reduction of thermal conductivity is estimated with the dynamic 3ω technique and compared with pure silicon and silica glass wafers. Thin film microheaters have been deposited on the samples as proof of concept for the characterization and comparison of thermal insulation, heat capacity, as well as thermal and mechanical stability. View full abstract»

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  • Homogeneous Features Utilization to Address the Device Heterogeneity Problem in Fingerprint Localization

    Page(s): 998 - 1005
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Building context-aware services in pervasive computing environments have enabled the wide development of wireless local area network-based indoor positioning systems. In fingerprint localization, radio frequency (RF) signal strengths from access points (APs) are annotated with location labels to build the map of RF fingerprints. However, the newly received signal strength (RSS) variation due to device heterogeneity, which may cause RSS pattern mismatch, could jeopardize positioning accuracy. Solutions based on extra manual calibrations of RSSs for new, individual devices could address the problem. However, they are laborious and unpractical for real-world deployment. In this paper, an indoor positioning algorithm that utilizes two homogeneous features of different devices is proposed to solve the problem of device heterogeneity in fingerprint localization. The features of RSS order and linear dependency between RSSs measured by different devices are extensively investigated. The experimental results show that the proposed positioning algorithm solves the device heterogeneity problem without requiring extra manual calibration for diverse devices. View full abstract»

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  • Quantification of Individual Gases/Odors Using Dynamic Responses of Gas Sensor Array With ASM Feature Technique

    Page(s): 1006 - 1011
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1120 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is a continuation of our previous work in which a new feature technique called average slope multiplication (ASM) was proposed to classify the individual gases/odors using dynamic responses of sensor array. The ASM method is used to quantify the individual gases/odors in this paper. Back propagation algorithm based two different neural network architectures (NNAs) called NNA1 and NNA2 are used to assess the ability of the ASM technique for quantification. The proposed method thus utilizes the newly developed feature method in the first stage and the specially designed neural quantifiers in the next subsequent stages. The ability of the proposed method has been insured by applying it on the published dynamic responses of the thick film gas sensor array. When the raw data were directly fed to the neural quantifiers, the results were 69% and 63% accurate for NNA1 and NNA2, respectively. The principal component analysis preprocessed version of raw data provided 74% and 67% quantification accuracy with the aforementioned architectures respectively. The performances of the ASM data were found to be 100% using both the network architecture without need of further preprocessing, with relatively less number of epochs and without any hidden layer. Thus, the proposed method can be utilized in electronic nose for classification/quantification purpose. View full abstract»

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  • Micro Shear-Stress Sensor for Separation Detection During Flight of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using a Strain Gauge

    Page(s): 1012 - 1019
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1569 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A micro shear-stress sensor (MiSS) for real-time detection of flow separation in unmanned aerial vehicles was presented. The direct method was selected for the MiSS, and movement of its floating element was measured using a simple and highly reliable piezoresistive scheme. To realize the MiSS, a polysilicon strain gauge of the piezoresistor type with a very low temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) and high gauge factor was first developed. These two characteristics were adjusted by varying the boron concentration during fabrication. The strain gauge was also designed to evaluate the effect of size (width) on these characteristics. The TCR was almost zero and the gauge factor was 32 at a boron concentration of 1.5×1019 cm-3. The characteristics were unaffected by its width (in the tens of micrometer range). The MiSS was designed and fabricated using the developed polysilicon strain gauge, and its performance was evaluated using a NACA0012 airfoil section in a wind tunnel. At a 0 ° angle of attack (AOA), the resistance of MiSS increased with the flow. At a 20 ° AOA, the resistance did not change owing to detachment of the flow caused by separation. In the real-time separation detection test, the resistance of MiSS decreased as soon as separation occurred. Hence, the separation detection ability of the developed MiSS using a polysilicon strain gauge was verified. View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of Front-Crawl Energy Expenditure Using Wearable Inertial Measurement Units

    Page(s): 1020 - 1027
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1127 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Energy expenditure measurement is crucial to understand the biophysics of any kind of human locomotion. Despite the promising application of inertial measurement unit (IMU) for quantification of the energy expenditure during human on-land activities, it has never been deployed before to calculate the aquatic activities energy expenditure. Wearable IMUs were used in this paper to capture biomechanically interpretable descriptors of swimming. These descriptors were fed as inputs to a Bayesian linear model for estimation of the energy expenditure. To enhance generalization capacity of the estimator, a non-linear adjustment of the Bayesian model was devised using swimmer's anthropometric parameters. We used a set of four waterproofed IMUs worn on forearms, sacrum, and right shank of eighteen swimmers to extract the main spatiotemporal determinants of the front-crawl energy expenditure. The swimmers performed three 300-m trials at 70%, 80%, and 90% of their 400-m personal best time. At the end of each 300 m, the reference value of energy expenditure was measured based on indirect calorimetry and blood lactate concentration. The assessment of the proposed model on the test data shows a strong association between the estimated and reference energy expenditure (Spearman's rho=0.93, ) and a high relative precision of 9.4%. The backward elimination of model parameters with minimum rms error criterion shows that by excluding the features extracted from forearm sensors, i.e., using only two IMUs, we can still achieve an error of 0.9±11.3%. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed Detection in Coexisting Large-Scale Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 1028 - 1034
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1140 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper considers signal detection in coexisting wireless sensor networks. We characterize the aggregate signal and interference from a Poisson random field of nodes and define a binary hypothesis testing problem to detect a signal in the presence of interference. For the testing problem, we introduce the maximum likelihood (ML) detector and simpler alternatives. The proposed mixed-fractional lower order moment detector is computationally simple and close to the ML performance, and robust to estimation errors in system parameters. We also derived asymptotic theoretical performances for the proposed simple detectors. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to supplement our analytical results and compare the performance of the receivers. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Machine Learning Approach Toward Quality Assessment of Sensor Data

    Page(s): 1035 - 1047
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3588 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel machine learning approach to assess the quality of sensor data using an ensemble classification framework is presented in this paper. The quality of sensor data is indicated by discrete quality flags that indicate the level of uncertainty associated with a sensor reading. Depending on the domain and the problem under consideration, the level of uncertainty is different and thus unsupervised methods like outlier detection fails to match the expectation. The quality flags are normally assigned by domain experts. Considering the volume of sensor data, manual assignment is a laborious task and subject to human error. Given a representative set of labelled data, a supervised classification approach is thus a feasible alternative. The nature of sensor data, however, poses some challenges to the classification task. Data of dubious quality exists in such data sets with very small frequency leading to the class imbalance problem. We thus adopt a cluster oriented sampling approach to address the imbalance issue. In addition, it is beneficial to train multiple classifiers to improve the overall classification accuracy. We thus produce multiple under-sampled training sets using cluster oriented sampling and train base classifiers on each of them. Decisions produced by the base classifiers are fused into a single decision using majority voting. We have evaluated the proposed ensemble classification framework by assessing the quality of marine sensor data obtained from sensors situated at Sullivans Cove, Hobart, Australia. Experimental results reveal that the proposed framework agrees with expert judgement with high accuracy and achieves superior classification performance than other state-of-the-art approaches. View full abstract»

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  • A Battery-Assisted Sensor-Enhanced RFID Tag Enabling Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 1048 - 1055
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    This paper presents the design, realization, and experimental validation of a battery-assisted radio frequency identification (RFID) tag with sensing and computing capabilities conceived to explore heterogeneous RFID-based sensor network applications. The tag (hereafter called mote) features an ultra-low-power ferroelectric random-access-memory microcontroller, a LED, temperature and light sensors, three-axis accelerometer, non-volatile storage, and a new-generation I2C-RFID chip for communication with standard UHF EPCglobal Class-1 Generation-2 readers. A preliminary RFID mote prototype, fabricated on a printed circuit board using low-cost discrete components and equipped with a small 225-mAh coin battery, provides an estimated lifetime of 3 years when sensing and computing tasks are performed every 30 s. In addition, the reliable RFID communication range up to 22 m achieved in an indoor scenario represents, to the best of our knowledge, the longest distance ever reported for similar sensor-enhanced RFID tags. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Opto-Mechanical Current Sensor Based on a Mach-Zehnder Fiber Interferometer

    Page(s): 1056 - 1060
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (861 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new optical sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, constructed with single mode optical fibers operating at 1.55 μm has been proposed and studied. The current sensing is obtained by mechanical perturbation applied to one of the single mode fiber, which constitutes the interferometer. This disturbance leads to an optical interference detected in the output of the interferometer and it is proportional to the magnitude of the current in the driver, measured with a reference sensor. The sensor has been tested with ac (60 Hz) up to 110 A. The obtained calibration curve presents a sensitivity between 0.8 and 1.54 mV/A. With a variation on the experimental arrangement, the sensor can be used in the monitoring of low and high amplitude currents. This new sensor can be efficiently used for monitoring the alternating electrical current in both small and large electric power suppliers and consumers. View full abstract»

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  • High Temporal Accuracy for Extensive Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 1061 - 1068
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1581 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) has developed a versatile, low power, and networked sensor interface design suitable for use with a wide range of sensors. The sensor interfaces consist of: 1) core hardware and software that is the same for any sensor and 2) sensor specific hardware and software. The core software provides basic communications routines and manages a simple file operating system. These files constitute the software for interfacing and control of the hardware for specific sensors. The whole system is implemented on the low power Texas Instruments MSP430 series of microcontrollers and results in a consistent interface to a data logging or network control system, no matter what sensor is in use. A network approach has been adopted to reduce the wiring requirements for large numbers of sensors. However, networking introduces complexity, especially in regards to time synchronization of medium-to-high speed sensors, considered here as sensors requiring measurements rates in the range 100-5000-Hz range, such as strain gauges and accelerometers. In these applications, it can also be useful to only acquire data when there is interesting activity to avoid collecting large amounts of essentially zero valued data points and thus reduce the data storage requirements. This paper covers the software and hardware design considerations to achieve temporally correlated measurements from a widely distributed sensor network based on the DSTO sensor interface. The ultimate performance of the DSTO implementation is investigated and experimental results are compared with the predicted response. View full abstract»

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  • A Miniature Fabry–Pérot Interferometer for High Temperature Measurement Using a Double-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Page(s): 1069 - 1073
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (878 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A miniature Fabry-Pérot interferometer is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for high temperature measurement. The device is fabricated by alignment splicing a short section of double-core photonic crystal fiber (DC-PCF) to the lead-in single mode fiber. Due to the optical path difference of reflective light from splicing region and end-face of DC-PCF, a well-defined interference spectrum is obtained based on ~ 72.3 μm-long cavity. Experimental results indicate that the proposed sensor has a considerable temperature sensitivity of 13.9 pm/°C in the measurement range of 30 °C-900 °C. The proposed sensor has advantages of small size and high stability, and so on, making it a good candidate in harsh high temperature environment with limited-space. View full abstract»

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  • On the Design of Microfluidic Implant Coil for Flexible Telemetry System

    Page(s): 1074 - 1080
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2294 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the realization of a soft, flexible, coil fabricated by means of a liquid metal alloy encased in a biocompatible elastomeric substrate for operation in a telemetry system, primarily for application to biomedical implantable devices. Fluidic conductors are in fact well suited for applications that require significant flexibility as well as conformable and stretchable devices, such as implantable coils for wireless telemetry. A coil with high conductivity, and therefore low losses and high unloaded Q factor, is required to realize an efficient wireless telemetry system. Unfortunately, the conductivity of the liquid metal alloy considered-eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn)-is approximately one order of magnitude lower than gold or copper. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that despite the lower conductivity of liquid metal alloys, such as EGaIn, compared with materials, such as copper or gold, it is still possible to realize an efficient biomedical telemetry system employing liquid metal coils on the implant side. A wireless telemetry system for an artificial retina to restore partial vision to the blind is used as a testbed for the proposed liquid metal coils. Simulated and measured results show that power transfer efficiency of 43% and 21% are obtained at operating distances between coils of 5 and 12 mm, respectively. Further, liquid metal based coil retains more than 72% of its performance (voltage gain, resonance bandwidth, and power transfer efficiency) when physically deformed over a curved surface, such as the surface of the human eye. This paper demonstrates that liquid metal-based coils for biomedical implant provide an alternative to stiff and uncomfortable traditional coils used in biomedical implants. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Sensors Journal is a peer-reviewed, monthly online/print  journal devoted to sensors and sensing phenomena

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Krikor Ozanyan
University of Manchester
Manchester, M13 9PL, U.K.