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Sensors Journal, IEEE

Issue 6 • Date June 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 67
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Sensors Journal publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 2047 - 2049
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    Page(s): 2050
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  • Flash Flatness Measurement System Using Digital Dial Gauges

    Page(s): 2051 - 2052
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Batch or mass production of workpiece has raised new challenges for high-efficiency measurement, especially the measurement of flatness, which is a key parameter of machining tolerance. This paper presents a novel flatness test system utilizing array of digital micrometer gauges. The software is developed based on .NET. Experiments on oil coolers are carried out with 20 sampling points, comparison with coordinate measuring machines and the steadiness of both the single gauge and the system is presented, and the results show that the system achieves high measuring speed and high consistency. View full abstract»

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  • An Optically-Interrogated Rogowski Coil for Passive, Multiplexable Current Measurement

    Page(s): 2053 - 2054
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on the design and implementation of a novel hybrid electro-optical sensor for the measurement of electric current. A fibre Bragg grating is utilized to passively interrogate an air-cored coil via a low-voltage piezoelectric multilayer stack. Peak Bragg reflections are strain-tuned by the Rogowski coil/piezoelectric transducer combination, allowing primary current reconstruction to be performed remotely and without active electronics at the sensor. The preliminary embodiment demonstrates long-distance, passive measurement of current for metering and protection relaying applications, and retains the fiber transducer's capability for serial multiplexing. View full abstract»

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  • {\rm NH}_{3} Sensing by p -ZnO Thin Films

    Page(s): 2055 - 2060
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (634 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    AlN and AlAs codoped p -ZnO thin films are fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering for gas sensing applications. For comparison, Al monodoped n-ZnO film is also grown. The conductivity of the films is confirmed by the Van der Pauw Hall effect measurement system. The structural and elemental properties of the films are studied by X-ray diffraction and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Sensitivity measurements are performed with the fabricated p-and n-ZnO films for different concentrations of ammonia (200-1200 ppm) at different operating temperatures (room temperature: 100°C and 150°C). It is found that both p-ZnO films have higher sensitivity than that of the n-ZnO film. Furthermore, both p-ZnO films exhibit lower response and recovery times than n-ZnO film. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature Using a Michelson Fiber Interferometer With a Hi-Bi Fiber Probe

    Page(s): 2061 - 2065
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (855 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new configuration of Michelson fiber interferometer is proposed and demonstrated for refractive index (RI) and temperature sensing. The proposed configuration consists of a 2 × 2 3 dB coupler and a section of high birefringence (Hi-Bi) fiber. The Hi-Bi fiber is spliced to an output of the coupler, and its combining with the other output forms and the interference arms of the interferometer. For the spectral response of the proposed interferometer, the extinction ratio of an interference pattern corresponding to conventional Michelson fiber interferometer is modulated by a larger period induced by Birefringence in Hi-Bi fiber. This sensor shows a capacity for simultaneous measurement of liquid RI and temperature by detecting the fringe contrast variation and the wavelength shift, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • CMOS Sensor Arrays for High Resolution Die Stress Mapping in Packaged Integrated Circuits

    Page(s): 2066 - 2076
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2423 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports the design, calibration and application of multiplexed arrays of piezoresistive field-effect transistor stress sensors fabricated in a standard complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. Two complementary arrays of 256-current mirror sensor cells provide high spatial density stress mapping with approximately 300 pts/mm2 using only a 1.5 μm process. The arrays are sequentially scanned by an on-chip counter, producing efficient stress measurement, and the sensors resolve normal and shear stresses on the surface of the die with resolution below 1 MPa. The CMOS sensor chips have been used to map stress over a large portion of the die in chip-on-beam and encapsulated chip-on-beam samples, as well as a ceramic dual-in-line package with its cavity filled with underfill material. Finite-element simulation results correlate well with the measured stress distributions. The experimental results from these chips are used to validate finite-element simulation models, and the array designs can be used as subarrays in much larger test chips. View full abstract»

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  • Coverage-Enhancing Algorithm Based on Overlap-Sense Ratio in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 2077 - 2083
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2213 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Coverage area and network lifetime are major problems in wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs). In order to optimize the network coverage, we propose a coverage-enhancing algorithm based on overlap-sense ratio. By adjusting the sensing direction of the nodes, the coverage area is increased with the reduction of computational complexity. In addition, a modified strategy is presented to shut off the redundant sensors so that network lifetime is prolonged. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves more effective enhancement on network coverage compared to the existing algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • High-Resolution Touch Floor System Using Particle Swarm Optimization Neural Network

    Page(s): 2084 - 2093
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1607 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A touch floor system, based on force sensitive resistors, capable of identifying user position and motion with high resolution, is proposed in this paper. A particle swarm optimization-based neural network (NN), initialized with the output of a Levenberg-Marquardt-based NN, allows inaccuracy drawbacks of the trilateration method in position estimation due to sensor's nonlinearity to be reduced to one fifth under non-stationary conditions. Furthermore, position-tracking accuracy is improved by a Kalman filter and a motion recognition algorithm is suggested for mimicking computer mouse clicks. Experimental results show non-uniformly sized icons displayed with high-resolution coordinates can be selected on the floor by the participants of diversified weights. This proves the feasibility of a high-resolution touch floor interface scalable for large area, by facilitating digitally mediated human-architecture interactions. View full abstract»

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  • Spatial and Time Patterns Extraction of Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography Using Blind Source Separation

    Page(s): 2094 - 2101
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (911 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT), a new emerging nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) technique, has been applied for a wide range of conductive materials. The acquired image sequences contain valuable information in both spatial and time domain. ECPT techniques mainly use a specific frame to detect and quantify the defects. However, selection of specific frame from transient thermal image video to maximize the contrast of thermal variation and defect pattern from complex geometrical samples remain a challenge. In order to accurately find anomalous patterns from the transient thermal pattern for defect detection and further quantitative NDE, this paper employs a single channel blind source separation algorithm. This method enables spatial and time patterns to be extracted according to the whole transient response behavior without any training knowledge. In this paper, both mathematical and physical models are discussed, and the basis of the proper selection of contrast image is given. In addition, the artificial slot and thermal fatigue natural crack are applied to validate the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Tri-Mode Smart Vision Sensor With 11-Transistors/Pixel for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 2102 - 2108
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2017 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the T-Sensor, a smart vision sensor capable of providing intensity, spatial contrast, and temporal difference images through the pixel level processing. The T-Sensor smart pixel is composed of only 11 transistors, allowing tight integration of different functionalities in a 16×21 μm2 pixel area. Focal-plan processing for temporal difference and spatial contour is implemented with maximum and minimum comparing analog circuits, allowing T-Sensor to provide high-speed imaging with low-power consumption. The sensor array is 128 × 128 pixels, with a fill factor of 42%, and operates at 800 fps and 13M events/s with a power consumption of 1.02 mW. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of Acoustic Wave Sensors With Different Cut {\rm LiNbO}_{3} Working on Pseudo-LFE Mode

    Page(s): 2109 - 2114
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, two pseudo-LFE devices made up of X-cut and (yxl) 21.82° LiNbO3 are investigated and compared. The coupling factors of both devices are calculated and the impedance characteristics are tested by impedance analyzer. The sensitivity and stability of both devices to the electrical property changes of liquid are also tested in isopropanol-water and NaClwater solution. We find that the X-cut LiNbO3 device has a higher piezoelectric coupling factor and better resonance in the deionized water than (yxl) 21.82° LiNbO3 device. The results also show that X-cut LiNbO3 devices are more sensitive to the change of liquid conductivity and permittivity than (yxl) 21.82° LiNbO3 device even with similar stability. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Frequency Noise Characteristics of ZnO Nanorods Schottky Barrier Photodetectors

    Page(s): 2115 - 2119
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A Schottky barrier photodetector with ZnO nanorods is fabricated on a glass substrate and the I-V characteristics are investigated. The ZnO nanorods are synthesized by an aqueous method, which allowed the fabricated Schottky barrier photodetector to be more sensitive in the UV region. Under 370-nm illumination, the photocurrent of the ZnO nanorod Schottky barrier photodetector is 6.56 μA and the UV-to-visible ratio is 780.8 at -1V. In addition, the noise equivalent power and normalized detectivity (D*) of the photodetector are 6.74×10-13 W and 3.29 ×1011 cmHz0.5W-1 at -1V, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Nonuniform Compressive Sensing for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 2120 - 2128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (382 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we consider the problem of using wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to measure the temporal-spatial profile of some physical phenomena. We base our work on two observations. First, most physical phenomena are compressible in some transform domain basis. Second, most WSNs have some form of heterogeneity. Given these two observations, we propose a nonuniform compressive sensing method to improve the performance of WSNs by exploiting both compressibility and heterogeneity. We apply our proposed method to real WSN data sets. We find that our method can provide a more accurate temporal-spatial profile for a given energy budget compared with other sampling methods. View full abstract»

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  • Visual-Based Human Crowds Behavior Analysis Based on Graph Modeling and Matching

    Page(s): 2129 - 2138
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Modeling human crowds is an important issue for video surveillance and is a challenging task due to their unpredictable behavior. In this paper, the position of an isolated region that comprises an individual person or a set of occluded persons is detected by background subtraction. Each isolated region is considered a vertex and a human crowd is thus modeled by a graph. To construct a graph, Delaunay triangulation is used to systematically connect vertices and therefore the problem of event detection of human crowds is formulated as measuring the topology variation of consecutive graphs in temporal order. To effectively model the topology variations, local characteristics, such as triangle deformations and eigenvalue-based subgraph analysis, and global features, such as moments, are used and are finally combined as an indicator to detect if any anomalies of human crowd(s) present in the scene. Experimental results obtained by using extensive dataset show that our system is effective in detecting anomalous events for uncontrolled environment of surveillance videos. View full abstract»

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  • Volume Strain Sensor Based on Spectra Analysis of In-Fiber Modal Interferometer

    Page(s): 2139 - 2145
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    An optical in-fiber modal interferometer-based volume strain sensor for earthquake prediction is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing element is formed by wrapping a multimode-singlemode-multimode fiber structure onto a polyurethane hollow column. Due to the modal interference between the excited guided modes in the fiber, strong interference pattern could be observed in the transmission spectrum. Theoretical analysis verifies that the resonant wavelength shifts as a result of the volume strain variation caused by the column deformation with square root relationship. Sensitivity > 3.93 p, / με within the volume strain ranging from 0 to 1300 με is also experimentally demonstrated. By taking the response of bidirectional change of volume strain and the sluggish character of the employed sensing material into consideration, the sensing system presents good repeatability and stability. View full abstract»

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  • Vapor Discrimination With Single- and Multitransducer Arrays of Nanoparticle-Coated Chemiresistors and Resonators

    Page(s): 2146 - 2154
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (531 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study explores whether arrays of vapor sensors assembled from two different types of transducers provide greater response diversity than arrays of a single transducer (ST) type. Calibrated sensitivities to five vapors of four chemiresistors (CRs) and four thickness-shear mode resonators (TSMR) coated with matching interface films of four different thiolate-monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (MPNs) were considered. Test vapors consisted of toluene, nitromethane, 2-butanone, $n$-propanol, and $n$-octane. The pooled set of 40 vapor-sensor sensitivities was analyzed using principal components regression models in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the classification performance with different levels of error superimposed on the sensor responses. Recognition rates (RR) were estimated for the individual vapors and their binary mixtures with virtual arrays consisting of all possible combinations of MPNs and transducer types. The best overall performance was obtained with a multitransducer (MT) array of $n=4$ sensors, which provided average RRs of 99.7% for individual vapor discrimination and 74.7% for discrimination of the 10 binary mixtures from their components, both with 5% superimposed error. MT-array RR values did not improve for $n>4$. The corresponding average RRs for the all-CR and all-TSMR 4-sensor ST arrays were both ${sim}97%$ for the individual vapors and both ${sim}69%$ for the binary mixtures, respectively. Results demonstrate that MT arrays can provide modestly greater diversity than ST arrays of similar dimension. View full abstract»

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  • Miniature Fabry–Perot Fiber Optic Sensor for Intravascular Blood Temperature Measurements

    Page(s): 2155 - 2160
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (834 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a miniature fiber optic sensor for intravascular blood temperature measurements. Based on the Fabry–Perot interferometric principle, the sensor is fabricated by using chemical etching and thermal deposition. Before the animal test, static temperature calibration experiments are performed to characterize the sensor's sensitivity, linearity, and hysteresis. A swine model is selected to perform the in-vivo experiment. During the in-vivo experiment, the swine intravascular blood temperature is measured at different locations in coronary arteries to demonstrate the sensor's performance. The sensor's usage in the thermal angioplasty application is successfully presented by capturing the rise and drop of local intravascular blood temperature variations. View full abstract»

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  • An Efficient Hybrid Classification Approach for Land Use/Land Cover Analysis in a Semi-Desert Area Using {\rm ETM}{+} and LISS-III Sensor

    Page(s): 2161 - 2165
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1393 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Land-use and land-cover (LU/LC) studies help in assessing and monitoring the status of the natural resources, detecting the changes in spatial and temporal scale and predict them for the future. Due to changing environments and increasing anthropogenic pressures, the demand for a LU/LC database at the global level is increasing. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of LU/LC at both local and regional scales is important since it plays a pivotal role in socioeconomic development and global environmental changes. There are many approaches for LU/LC analysis such as supervised classification, unsupervised classification and onscreen digitization but simplest and most popular approach on IRS LISS-III and Landsat-ETM+ satellite data revealed a serious problem in some semidesert areas caused by spectral confusion because of the similar radiometric response like scrub land with harvested land, built-up with bare hills and many other. Present study suggests hybrid classification approach for LU/LC classification, which is found highly useful in achieving high accuracy for areas where spectral classes of images are inseparable. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed Clustering With Directional Antennas for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 2166 - 2180
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1371 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a decentralized algorithm for organizing an ad hoc sensor network into clusters with directional antennas. The proposed autonomous clustering scheme aims to reduce the sensing redundancy and maintain sufficient sensing coverage and network connectivity in sensor networks. With directional antennas, random waiting timers, and local criterions, cluster performance may be substantially improved and sensing redundancy can be drastically suppressed. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves connected coverage and provides efficient network topology management. View full abstract»

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  • A Distributed Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on the Solutions of Spatially-Constrained Local Problems

    Page(s): 2181 - 2191
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1028 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a distributed localization algorithm for wireless sensor networks. Each sensor estimates its position by iteratively solving a set of local spatially-constrained programs. The constraints allow sensors to update their positions simultaneously and collaboratively using range and position estimates to those neighbors within their communications range. Moreover, the algorithm is designed for implementation with resource-limited devices. Since the exchange of information among sensors is a key component for this method, we introduce a stopping criterion to monitor the wireless transmissions for the whole network in order to significantly reduce energy consumption with minimal impact on localization accuracy. Experimental results show that we can determine the best tradeoff between wireless transmissions and accuracy. The performance of the proposed scheme is very competitive when compared with similar and more computationally demanding schemes. View full abstract»

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  • SPR-Based Optical Fiber Sensors Using Gold–Silver Alloy Particles as the Active Sensing Material

    Page(s): 2192 - 2199
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (833 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A number of different gold–silver alloy particles, on a nanometre scale and ranging in size from 13 to 34 nm in diameter (nanoparticles), have been prepared and been investigated as the active elements of optical fiber sensor systems. This includes a gold-rich group with 25% silver and 75% gold (the A25 group) in content and a silver-rich group with 75% silver and 25% gold in content (the A75 group). Subsequently, the alloy nanoparticles that are synthesized are coated onto the surface of optical fibers to create surface plasmon resonance-based optical fiber sensors for refractive index measurement. The experimental results show that both the size of the alloys and the alloy content determine the sensitivity of the measurement probes created. In this paper reported, the A75 group sensors have demonstrated better performance than those of the A25 group, with similar particles sizes and a highest sensitivity of 611 nm/refractive index unit (RIU) being achieved with a sensor coated with A75 alloy with an average particle size of 34 nm. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Analysis of an Embedded Accelerometer Coupled Self-Mixing Laser Displacement Sensor

    Page(s): 2200 - 2207
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2234 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the operating principle and signal processing needed for the design of a reliable solid-state accelerometer (SSA) coupled self-mixing (SM) interferometric laser displacement sensor for embedded applications. The influence of signal processing methods and accelerometer characteristics on the complete sensing system performance is studied, and four different SSA-SM sensing systems are examined and characterized. Through comparing their performance, the sensing system precision is limited by the noise density of the employed accelerometer as well as the used SM displacement retrieval technique, whereas the system bandwidth is mainly limited by the choice of a given accelerometer. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the phase and gain-matching properties that the SSA-SM should reach to guarantee proper extraneous vibrations correction. Finally, the proof of concept of a real-time SSA-SM sensing system indicating 30-dB correction is presented. This prototype demonstrates the possibility of using such a real-time sensing system for embedded and industrial applications in which the presence of extraneous movements would hinder traditional sensors use. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Sensors Journal is a peer-reviewed, monthly online/print  journal devoted to sensors and sensing phenomena

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Krikor Ozanyan
University of Manchester
Manchester, M13 9PL, U.K.