Proceedings of the 1988 IEEE National Radar Conference

20-21 April 1988

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  • Proceedings of the 1988 IEEE National Radar Conference (Cat. No.88CH2572-6)

    Publication Year: 1988
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Closed form solutions for the depth of focus of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps under maneuvers

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):85 - 88
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB)

    Conventional range-Doppler processing of SAR data places limitations on the quality of image (map) which can be achieved under maneuvering platform conditions. A closed-form solution is presented for the radar depth of focus. For the case of spotlight synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) operation using conventional (nonpolar) processing, limits are given on the depth of field achievable using variable ... View full abstract»

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  • Time-domain and frequency-domain feature selection for reliable radar target identification

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):79 - 84
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB)

    The authors discuss the development of useful techniques for selecting features from radar backscatter measurements. This investigation is primarily motivated by interest in the design of radar target identification (RTI) systems that utilize frequency-diverse and polarization-diverse measurements of radar backscatter. Techniques for selecting sets of features from time-domain data and frequency-d... View full abstract»

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  • The design of SAR motion compensation systems incorporating strapdown inertial measurement units

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):74 - 78
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB)

    A discussion is presented of several important areas in the design of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) motion compensation systems incorporating strapdown inertial measurement units (IMUs) as the motion-sensing system. A brief review of motion compensation for SAR is presented followed by a presentation of the effects of strapdown IMU sensor and system errors on SAR image quality. These errors inclu... View full abstract»

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  • Air-to-ground ranging using electronic roll stabilization of monopulse data

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):151 - 156
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)

    A radar operating in an air-to ground ranging mode obtains precise range measurements from the antenna to the point of intersection of the antenna boresight with the ground. If elevation monopulse data is used, the boresight range is characterized by the range at which the sign crossover occurs in the data. In mechanically scanned arrays, the monopulse axes are fixed with respect to the array. Unl... View full abstract»

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  • Target tracking in maneuver centered coordinates

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):68 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)

    Aircraft targets normally maneuver on circular paths which has led to tracking filters based on circular turns. The authors introduce a new coordinate system to track circular maneuvers with a simple Kalman filter. When the maneuver is detected the tracker switches to a polar coordinate system located at the center of the maneuver. The state vector will then have radius, angle, and angular velocit... View full abstract»

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  • Use of a variance estimator for interferometer angle accuracy

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):146 - 150
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)

    For radar applications requiring angle measurements on ground clutter over a large range swath or large elevation-angle extent, the single-pulse clutter-to-noise power ratio can be small due to low intercept grazing angles or low reflectivity. An approach is presented for using multiple returns to derive an angle variance estimate as a direct measure of data validity, rather than an amplitude thre... View full abstract»

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  • SAR image quality effects of damped phase and amplitude errors

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):61 - 67
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (376 KB)

    The effects of damped multiplicative, amplitude, or phase errors on the image quality of synthetic-aperture radar systems are considered. These types of errors can result from aircraft manoeuvres or the mechanical steering of an antenna. The proper treatment of damped multiplicative errors can lead to related design specifications and possibly an enhanced collection capability. Only small, high-fr... View full abstract»

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  • Calibration considerations in a large bistatic angle airborne radar system for ground clutter measurements

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):230 - 234
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB)

    Calibration considerations and the performance analysis of an L-band airborne clutter measurement system are discussed. The measurement system is designed to collect simultaneous bistatic and monostatic clutter measurements in support of the hybrid bistatic radar (HBR) system. The analysis techniques used to define the experiment geometry and resulting resolution cells, calibration consid... View full abstract»

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  • Waveform trade-offs for medium PRF air-to-air radar

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):140 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)

    The author determines what drives selection of the mean pulse repetition frequency (PRF) for use in current air-to-air radar system design, and what points these factors become critical. Data are presented that indicate that the relationship between velocity blanking and PRF is the important factor; approximate minimum PRF values for the cases considered are provided. Selection of the average PRF ... View full abstract»

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  • Digital filters for synthetic aperture radar

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):171 - 176
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)

    An organized approach is discussed for designing a set of optimal digital filters that can accommodate a wide range of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) geometries. The basic SAR signal processing functions are reviewed since they are the basis for the filter design problems. Special digital filter optimality criteria are described that are tailored to the SAR environment. The results from recent fil... View full abstract»

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  • A coherent model of radar weather clutter

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):246 - 248
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (204 KB)

    A coherent model of radar weather clutter is considered that is based on the analysis of digitally recorded radar data. Analysis of such data shows that weather clutter can be clearly non-Rayleigh in its amplitude statistics. However, the clutter spectrum does not vary appreciably with spatial position. In the coherent model for weather clutter subsequently described, the clutter return is express... View full abstract»

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  • The WSP: a modular architecture for high performance signal processing [for radar]

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):188 - 193
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (476 KB)

    The authors briefly introduce the Westinghouse Signal Processor (WSP) architecture with emphasis on the manner in which various very high-speed integrated circuits (VHSICs) signals and data processing assets can be incorporated into the architecture to meet unique radar sensor requirements. Individual modules and sets of modules usable within this architecture are detailed. A software development ... View full abstract»

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  • Low probability of intercept (LPI) techniques and implementations for radar systems

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):56 - 60
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB)

    After a brief overview of optimal low-probability of intercept (LPI) radar design criteria, it is shown that for a given radar signal code length, many more codes are available by using higher-order Galois fields; that is, polyphase coding will supply the required diversity. Various aspects of polyphase coding are described because Doppler compensation of the returned signal is a polyphase process... View full abstract»

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  • Polarimetric X/L/C-band SAR

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):9 - 14
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (564 KB)

    A triband polarimetric synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) developed for remote sensing applications and installed in a US Navy P-3 aircraft is described. In this SAR, pulses are transmitted at either X-, C-, or L-band. They may be transmitted at either horizontal (H) or vertical (V) polarization and received at either horizontal or vertical polarization. Transmit and receive... View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of arbitrary and conformal arrays using non-linear optimization techniques

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):38 - 43
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (476 KB)

    Two related synthesis problems associated with coherent sensor array processing are discussed. The first problem concerns the determination of the geometric arrangement of a fixed number of array elements to achieve an optimal response; the other is to find a set of shading weights for an array of predetermined geometry. The case of an array of sensors with arbitrary 3-D geometry or conformity to ... View full abstract»

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  • Autoregressive moving average modeling of radar target signatures

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):225 - 229
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)

    A method for characterizing radar target signatures with autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models is developed. A parameterization of the model that corresponds directly to the geometric properties of the target is chosen, and an efficient algorithm for estimating these parameters is presented. Procedures for minimizing the effects of unmodeled dynamics are also developed. Experiments on radar ... View full abstract»

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  • Reduction of SAR digital processing time using vector quantization

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):134 - 139
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB)

    A procedure is presented to directly process synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) phase history data in a vector-quantized form. The procedure is particularly valuable when SAR has previously been vector-quantized to reduce bandwidth for downlink or other purposes. The vector quantization (VQ) process necessarily degrades the image, the degradation being generally a direct function of VQ compression rat... View full abstract»

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  • Distortion free SAR imagery and change detection

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):95 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB)

    Sources of defocusing and azimuth distortion in synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery are outlined. It is shown how autofocus measurements can be used to measure the aircraft track, and provide phase corrections to the raw SAR data. When the phase-corrected data is processed, correctly focussed imagery, free of any azimuth distortions, is produced. For low look-angle systems, range distortion due... View full abstract»

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  • Aircraft on-board SAR processing using a frequency-domain fast correlation technique

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):165 - 170
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB)

    The design of a frequency-domain fast correlation processor for aircraft onboard synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) applications is described. The design uses the fast Fourier transform (FFT) fast correlation technique to perform both range and azimuth pulse compression functions for the NASA/JPL L-band, quadpolarization airborne SAR. The subject processor is computationally efficient and req... View full abstract»

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  • A statistical model for radar target detection in clutter

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):241 - 245
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (228 KB)

    The development of a statistical model is reported that describes the radar backscatter characteristics of a point target located in a non-Rayleigh, correlated, sea clutter environment. The model is based on the analysis of experimental observations of forward and backscattering from the sea surface, and hence, has the attractive feature of being related to the physical mechanisms governing the sc... View full abstract»

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  • A dual-threshold radar detection system

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):182 - 187
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (396 KB)

    It is known that the beam agility of a phased-array radar can be utilized to enhance target detection capability as compared to a radar which has the same power but which radiates its energy uniformly over the solid angle being surveilled. A dual-threshold approach for realizing this enhancement is examined. Quantitative results are presented parametrically for four signal fluctuation models. The ... View full abstract»

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  • A basis for SAR oceanography: theory and experiment

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):200 - 203
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB)

    A comparison of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) sea images generated by a simulation program implementing a two-scale theory and by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory L-band SAR flow in the TOWARD oceanographic experiment is discussed. A subimage cross-correlation technique estimates the best image focus. The sea surface imagery is composed of two scales, a long-wave ensemble and a short-wave e... View full abstract»

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  • MK IV/RPS pulse radar cross section measurement system

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):50 - 55
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1096 KB)

    The MK IV/radar processing system (RPS) pulse radar cross section (RCS) measurement system is designed to create and present accurate data on the radar scattering properties of a model or operational platform under static or dynamic conditions in an indoor or outdoor research and development, production, or operational environment. A description of the system is provided and data representing syst... View full abstract»

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  • Preliminary results from the NASA/JPL multifrequency, multipolarization synthetic aperture radar

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):7 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB)

    A brief description is given of the three-frequency polarimetric synthetic-aperture radar built and tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The radar has the capability to simultaneously acquire fully polarimetric data at P-, L-, and C-bands from a DC-8 airborne platform. The radar has an instantaneous data rate of approximately 2.1 Gb/s and has selectable record rates ... View full abstract»

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