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Sixteenth Annual Battery Conference on Applications and Advances. Proceedings of the Conference (Cat. No.01TH8533)

12-12 Jan. 2001

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  • Sixteenth Annual Battery Conference on Applications and Advances. Proceedings of the Conference (Cat. No.01TH8533)

    Publication Year: 2001
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (426 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Authors index

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):383 - 385
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Contents

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):386 - 413
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Dendrite-preventive additive (DPA) for lead-acid batteries

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):81 - 86
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Many lead-acid batteries of both flooded and starved electrolyte design have been observed to develop “soft shorts” in float service. BTC has developed a battery additive that mitigates or prevents this View full abstract»

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  • Absorbency of separators under compression

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):77 - 79
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Separator absorption is an important parameter in batteries of all chemistries. The ability of a separator to absorb, hold, and release electrolyte affects cell performance, particularly in areas of rate capability. To quantify separator absorption, a gravimetric absorbency tester was developed as a possible characterization tool. The absorptive characteristics of separators were tested in uncompr... View full abstract»

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  • Li diffusion in a composite electrode with internal fractal surface [Li-ion secondary cells]

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):161 - 162
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (52 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Lithium diffusion in the composite oxides is a key factor that determines the rate at which a battery can be charged and discharged. With increasing interest in higher power density, understanding the mechanisms of diffusion in insertion electrodes becomes important. The aim of the present work is investigation of Li content and roughness dependency of diffusivity by dynamic Monte Carlo simulation... View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of mercury porosimetry and flow porometry for the testing of battery separator materials

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):71 - 75
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB)

    Control of porosity is very important for proper functioning of battery separators. Specifications of mean pore size and percent porosity are commonly an integral part of separator acceptance criteria. To date most testing of these parameters has relied on mercury intrusion porosimetry. A new technique, flow porometry, has been introduced which has the potential of more accurately predicting produ... View full abstract»

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  • Development of bipolar lead acid batteries with cladded materials

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):105 - 110
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In work carried out at Trojan Battery Company, cladded lead and nonlead metals were used to form electrodes for incorporation into a bipolar battery design. A bipolar battery construction offers advantages in power capability due to low internal resistance, high specific energy due to the removal of passive lead parts and more efficient battery assembly through simplified construction. A bipolar l... View full abstract»

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  • Segmented battery charger for high energy 28 V lithium ion battery

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):157 - 159
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (228 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Since they were first introduced in the early 1990s, lithium ion batteries have enjoyed unprecedented growth and success in the consumer marketplace. Combining excellent performance with affordability, they have become the product of choice for portable computers and cellular phones. Building on the same energy and life cycle attributes, which marked their consumer market success, but adding new h... View full abstract»

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  • Aerospace nickel-cadmium cell verification-final report

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):59 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    During the early years of satellites, NASA successfully flew “NASA-Standard” nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) cells manufactured by GE/Gates/SAFT on a variety of spacecraft. In 1992, a NASA Battery Review Board determined that the strategy of a NASA Standard Cell and Battery Specification and the accompanying NASA control of a standard manufacturing control document (MCD) for Ni-Cd cells and bat... View full abstract»

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  • Modeling grid-connected hybrid electric vehicles using ADVISOR

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):23 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The overall system efficiency of a hybrid electric vehicle is highly dependent on the energy management strategy employed. In this paper, an electric utility grid-connected energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle is presented. ADVISOR was used as a modeling tool to determine the appropriate size of the hybrid components and the energy management strategy parameter setting... View full abstract»

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  • Lessons learned in using ohmic techniques for battery monitoring

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):99 - 104
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    A joint study was conducted by Lucent Technologies Power Systems and Sprint on the use of ohmic meters in predicting the state of health for VRLA batteries. The first part of the results of the study have been presented in an earlier paper. The second part of the results is presented in this paper, where the effects such as the inter cell connectors, the string size and the number of parallel stri... View full abstract»

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  • Modeling oxygen evolution and associated failure mechanisms in lead acid batteries

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):175 - 180
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In this paper, the authors hypothesize that oxygen generated at the positive electrode causes the active material to soften and shed. They believe this mechanism is also responsible for conductivity changes in the positive active material. They suggest that the conductivity changes occur inside the positive plate at those locations where the potentials are highest. They base our analysis on the ag... View full abstract»

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  • Life prediction for valve regulated lead acid batteries from early current/voltage data

    Publication Year: 2001
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (52 KB)

    Summary form only given. As valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries age, they demonstrate a predictable drop in end-of-charge voltage and concomitant rise in end-of-charge temperature. This is attributed to the increasing dominance of the oxygen recombination cycle, which results from the negative plate not being fully charged over several cycles. Unchecked, the battery at its end of life exper... View full abstract»

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  • Achieving a high pulse power system through engineering the battery-capacitor combination

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):153 - 156
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The advancing technology of thin, lightweight, and high power ultracapacitors has been one of the most exciting and important developments in electronic components. The technology provides a new dimension for engineers and designers to manage the power and energy used in electronic products. The batteries will not have to be oversized to accommodate a peak power demand. A combination of battery an... View full abstract»

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  • Ultra-radiation hard aerospace batteries

    Publication Year: 2001
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (88 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The author describe how the radiation tolerance of aerospace batteries was investigated. The results of a trade study and of radiation testing of the Super Ni-Cad batteries are also described. Because of the age of the test articles, new cell storage data was also generated View full abstract»

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  • Performance and characteristic of a large lithium ion cell with low temperature electrolyte for US Army application

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):17 - 22
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The US Army and Saft has developed a large lithium ion battery to replace the BB-622 silver zinc battery for application for ITAS System (improved target acquisitions system). The Army has discovered using the 1M LiPF6 1EC:1EMC:1DMC electrolyte can meet ITAS low temperature requirement at -40°C and still provides 71% of the room temperature capacity, this is about 40 percent better than silver... View full abstract»

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  • Examination of VRLA battery cells sampled from the Metlakatla battery energy storage system

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):131 - 138
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1024 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    One of the principal concerns when a battery energy storage system (BESS) is being considered for utility applications is the ability of the battery to provide the anticipated lifetime on which the project was justified. The reason for this is that the battery is a significant cost element in the overall system; and, in the past, the batteries deployed have not been fully able to demonstrate their... View full abstract»

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  • 3300 mAh zinc-air batteries for portable consumer products

    Publication Year: 2001
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (44 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Summary form only given, as follows. Electric Fuel has introduced its line of Instant PowerTM brand batteries, configured as disposable replacement batteries for cellular telephones, and as portable chargers for rechargeable cellphones, personal digital assistants (PDAs) and other portable consumer products. All of the products to date are built using the company's 3300 mAh, 1.4 V zinc-... View full abstract»

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  • Challenges for VRLA separator technology-a review of recent ALABC research

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):93 - 97
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The separator has a critical influence on the performance and life of the VRLA battery. It contributes directly to the discharge capacity and lifetime, and also has structural and chemical characteristics with implications well beyond physical separation of the plates. The study of the VRLA battery separator has formed an important part of the ALABC research programme, and this paper reviews the k... View full abstract»

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  • Inefficiency of the oxygen cycle and parameters on which it depends [VRLA batteries]

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):169 - 174
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    On cycling of VRLA batteries, the charge voltage is limited to 2.50-2.53 V/cell. This leads to intense oxygen evolution. When absorptive glass mat (AGM) is used as separator, the transport of oxygen is impeded and it is not possible for the whole amount of O2 evolved at the positive plate to reach the negative plate and recombine to water there. Hence, the oxygen cycle is inefficient. T... View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid EVs: making the grid connection

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):37 - 43
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (548 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Hybrid electric vehicles, featuring both a gasoline engine and a battery storage system became commercially available from two major auto manufacturers this year. While these hybrids offer better fuel economy and lower emissions than conventional cars, their battery packs are relatively small and are charged by the onboard gasoline engine-generator. In an effort to achieve efficiency and emissions... View full abstract»

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  • On validation of the modeling of overcharge process in VRLA cells

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):187 - 192
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (540 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Advanced battery modeling and simulation provide a unique and powerful tool for understanding battery performance and cycle characteristics. Development in advanced battery simulation capability using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques proved that this approach could have significant impacts on almost every aspect of battery design, characterisation, operation and development. Good pred... View full abstract»

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  • Large lithium ion batteries for aerospace and aircraft applications

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):147 - 151
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Eagle-Picher Energy Products (EPEP) has been manufacturing and testing large lithium ion cells (up to 100 Ah) for several years. Work has focused on testing of different chemistries at variable temperatures and designing and fabricating 100 Ah cylindrical cells. For the aircraft application the largest concern is irreversible capacity loss at elevated temperatures (70°C). In contrast, for the ... View full abstract»

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  • Battery system requirements for battery dominant hybrid electric vehicles

    Publication Year: 2001, Page(s):47 - 53
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Battery system design requirements for battery dominant-grid charged hybrid electric vehicles are discussed from a duty cycle and system point of view. The purpose is to capture all of the design considerations relevant to the battery pack, and to estimate the affect of these requirements on the choice of battery pack size and control limits. Data from dynamometer testing of battery dominant proto... View full abstract»

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