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Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2000. IEEE International Symposium on

Date 21-25 Aug. 2000

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  • IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility [front matter]

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): i - xvi
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  • Estimation of radiated emission sources with arbitrary directional current components using CISPR measurement system

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 723 - 728 vol.2
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    Relating to the radiated emission sources finding method utilizing CISPR emission measurement system, which uses only amplitude data without phase data, the applicability to sources with arbitrary directional current components was studied. We propose a new finding algorithm in which the horizontal and the vertical current components are estimated at the same time by taking into account the contribution of horizontal current components when calculating the vertical electric field. As a result of experimental verification by using two spherical dipole antennas as ideal emission sources, estimated values show good agreement with the original ones in the frequency range from 300 MHz to 1 GHz, where the position estimation deviation /spl Delta/d was less than 0.15 m, the amplitude estimation deviation /spl Delta/j was less than 2.1 dB, and furthermore the angle of current direction could be estimated. Consequently, this method with the presented new algorithm can be applied to find radiated emission sources even when the current components point to arbitrary directions. View full abstract»

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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 991 - 995
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  • Subject index

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 996 - 1000
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    The index contains an entry for all items that appeared in this publication. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical procedure to convert anechoic radiated emission measurements to OATS equivalent results for arbitrary radiators

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 933 - 938 vol.2
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    In the last years, there has been certain interest in unifying installations for radiated immunity tests (which require a completely anechoic environment) and radiated emission tests (OATS). The possibility of making radiated emission tests in completely anechoic chambers has been suggested. Such a possibility poses the problem of obtaining equivalent results with the new system to those obtained with the standardized one. This paper presents a general approach to that problem, including the possibility of extrapolating results from anechoic measurements at 3 meters to OATS measurements at 10 meters View full abstract»

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  • The grounding requirement for ground facilities against lightning

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 955 - 960 vol.2
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    Using a surface wire grounding system with available measurement data as an example, this paper shows that relevant parameters, rather than a single fixed resistance-to-earth, should be included in the grounding requirement for the protection of ground facilities against lightning. It is found that the grounding system has a minimal effect on the lightning-induced damage of ground facilities for a relatively resistive ground, and Franklin rods provide no relief on the annual frequency of damage for the sample building. A natural, reasonable and logical alternative involving soil resistivity, lightning flash density, and acceptable risk which are important to lightning protection, is proposed View full abstract»

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  • Experimental and FDTD study of the EMI performance of an open-pin-field connector for modules-on-backplanes

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 789 - 794 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Experimental measurements and numerical modeling were used to study the EMI performance of a module-on-backplane connector for various configurations of signal-return pin-outs. A commercially available open-pin-field connector was used in these results to connect between the mother-board and the daughter-card. The experimental techniques, based on measuring |S21|, included both common-mode current measurements and monopole near-field probe measurements. The FDTD method was used to provide numerical support of the near-field measurements and generally agreed with the measured results for frequencies up to 3 GHz. The FDTD method was also used to investigate the relationship between the radiated EMI at 3 m and the connector pin-out configurations View full abstract»

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  • Measured electromagnetic shielding characteristics of fabric made from metal clad aramid yarn and wire

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 883 - 886 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The electromagnetic shielding characteristics of four fabric samples made from metal clad aramid yarn and nickel plated copper wire were measured from 1 kHz to 3 GHz. Below 100 kHz, these measurements showed that the surface transfer impedance or surface resistivity ranged from 0.5 mΩ/square to 1.3 mΩ/square. This is extremely good. In this frequency range, the current flows on the wires. Between 10 and 100 MHz, the mid-frequency or limiting shielding effectiveness was greater than 70 dB. At 100 MHz and above, all samples were essentially equal at 45 mΩ/square. In this frequency range the current spreads across the fabric. A diffusion cut-off frequency was not observed in any of the samples View full abstract»

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  • Quasi-frequency-independent, H-plane, log-periodic dipole arrays for automotive EMC immunity testing applications

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 563 - 568 vol.2
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    A new, quasi-frequency-independent, H-plane array of log-periodic dipole array (LPDA) antenna has been developed. Because of the reduced H-plane beamwidth, this configuration is shown to be much more appropriate for immunity testing in the presence of a conducting ground plane, especially for horizontal polarization tests. Also, a new feed configuration greatly facilitates high-power operation. A discussion of H-plane LPDA arrays is presented and details of the design are given. Results of quantitative numerical modeling and experimental characterization of a prototype antenna are given View full abstract»

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  • An improved method for determining normalized site attenuation using log periodic dipole arrays

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 511 - 516 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    A normalized site attenuation (NSA) measurement, made using LPDA free-space antenna factors (AF) as specified in ANSI C63.4, has up to 3 dB of systematic errors due to limitations in the current theory. The ANSI model fails to account for the log periodic antenna's radiation pattern and its active phase center position, which were shown to be the dominant effects causing these errors. An enhanced theoretical model is introduced in this paper to take these two effects into account. In the enhanced model, antenna radiation patterns and active phase center positions are assumed to be unknown. At each frequency, the unknowns are solved by fitting the theoretical magnitude or phase response to a measured antenna response taken at different heights. The complex fit NSA (CFNSA) is then obtained by including the varied phase center and radiation pattern of the antennas under test. It is shown that the CFNSA model reduces the systematic errors in the current NSA to less than a dB View full abstract»

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  • Measured surface transfer impedance of braided cable shields made from metal clad aramid yarn blended with metal wires

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 887 - 890 vol.2
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    The surface transfer impedance of six braided cable shields made from nickel plated copper wires, metal clad aramid yarn or a blend of metal clad aramid yarn and nickel plated copper wires. At high frequencies, these measurements showed that the metal clad aramid braid is equivalent to nickel coated copper braid. At low frequencies, the addition of nickel coated copper wire significantly improved the shielding performance. Finally, the Aracon(R) blended braid can be used on both metal and composite connector fittings View full abstract»

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  • Imperfections in the theoretical NSA model can adversely or favorably affect a site validation measurement and a proposal for correction factors for broadband biconical antennas

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 493 - 498 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    It has been shown that the normalized site attenuation (NSA) test as described in ANSI C63.4 has up to 2.5 dB of error in the model when biconical antennas are used from 30 to 200 MHz. These error values have been predicted through numerical modeling techniques. The numerical model was empirically validated for biconical antennas using both 200:50 ohm balun transformers and 50:50 ohm balun transformers. The empirical validation testing was conducted on seven antenna pairs of biconical antennas of different makes and models. Based on this work, the American National Standards (ANS) Committee C63 is reviewing proposed changes to the ANSI standards to improve the current NSA model View full abstract»

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  • Absorber and resistor contribution in the GTEM-cell

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 891 - 896 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The GTEM-cell is described. The influence of absorbers and resistors is shown. The SWR and return loss as well as time domain measurements were performed on the GTEM-cell as well as on GTEM-cell without resistors, absorbers, and with open and metal end. The obtained data was, compared and the conclusion drawn. The GTEM-cell was modeled with the FEM method as well View full abstract»

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  • A response of switching regulator to conductive noise on AC-mains

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 915 - 920 vol.2
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    This paper experimentally and by simple simulation describes a frequency response of the switching regulator (ringing choke converter) to the conductive noise on the AC-mains. It is concluded that, for the conductive noise in the frequency range below the switching frequency, the switching regulator has the same stability (i.e. noise suppression ability) as the static characteristics which mean to supply the specified output voltage for the static load and voltage changes, and, for the conductive noises in the frequency ranges over the switching frequency, has no ability to suppress the conductive noise View full abstract»

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  • Directivity of the test device in EMC measurements

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 535 - 539 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
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    We present a statistical theory for estimating the directive characteristics of unintentional emitters based and the electrical size of the device. We compare this theory to directivity derived from pattern measurements in an anechoic chamber. We also use this theory to predict the maximum radiated fields based on total radiated power measurements in the reverberation chamber View full abstract»

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  • Test signal reduction in radiated EMI measurements

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 717 - 721 vol.2
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    Radiated EMI compliance measurements are very time consuming, even when a high degree of automation is used. This is particularly true for measurements made on an open area test site (OATS), due to the presence of ambient signals and weather conditions. The overall test time is largely dependent on the number of signals emanating from the equipment under test (EUT), because their amplitudes must be maximized and measured. The maximization process involves changes in antenna height and polarization, as well as rotation of the EUT. It is mandatory to identify only the relevant signals for maximization and final measurement by using adequate test procedures, selecting proper system parameters, and performing tasks like signal discrimination efficiently. This paper first describes how relevant signals can be discerned in data traces of a swept EMI receiver by using a software algorithm. The significance of a user definable parameter of this algorithm, “peak excursion”, is discussed. The overall measurement process also determines the test time. The application of amplitude comparisons to limit lines or margins, comparisons of signal lists and acoustic identification of signals, further reduce the number of emissions throughout the measurement process. An example of this process is outlined. Other tasks like the discrimination between ambient signals and EUT emissions or between EUT emissions and auxiliary equipment also contribute to the reduction of signals. A tool to efficiently accomplish this discrimination task, the polar plot, is also discussed View full abstract»

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  • FDTD analysis on a telecommunication cable immersed in lightning EM fields

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 795 - 799 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A telecommunication subscriber cable is a bundle of twisted-pair wires terminated with gas discharge tube arresters. The lightning-induced voltages on multiple twisted-pair wires over a lossy ground are calculated by an equivalent single-wire line representation. The simplified single-wire line representation shows a good agreement with the result of the twisted pairs of wires. Additionally, the transient response of a gas discharge tube arrester is also simulated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method View full abstract»

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  • Numerical experiments of a periodical-patch-loaded absorber by FDTD computation

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 785 - 788 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    In spite of the reflective or scattering nature of metal, a new type of microwave absorber which has periodical metal patches on the surface has been shown to have null reflectivity at a frequency. Several features of this absorber were found by numerical experiments using the FDTD method. There exist many answers to the dielectric constants of the absorber and patch structures for null reflectivity at a frequency. The frequency of null reflectivity largely shifts with the variation of the patch structure. A lot of measurements have also qualitatively supported these computational results which suggest that the metal patches are considered to work as capacitors like artificial dielectrics. An absorber of this kind features a versatile design and the possibility of extreme thinness View full abstract»

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  • EMC in Taiwan

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 651 - 656 vol.2
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    As the Taiwan population grows and as living space becomes smaller, the importance of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) becomes more demanding. To assure the compatibility of an electronic and/or electrical product, Taiwan has enforced EMC regulations since 1997. The regulatory agency is the Bureau of Standards, Metrology and Inspection (BSMI). The EMC management system can seem to be complicated. This paper provides the reader with a communication channel to understand and follow the regulations and to speed up products imported into Taiwan View full abstract»

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  • Intentional emitters above 2400 MHz: how best to measure the transmitted signal level for FCC Part 15 compliance

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 517 - 521 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This paper investigates the commonly used methods for measurement of the intentional signal levels emitted by Part 15 radio frequency (RF) devices operating above 2400 MHz, and that have built-in antennas that are soldered directly to a printed circuit (PC) board and are not normally removable. In this paper, we look at what the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) rules really require, and the extent of the possible errors involved in the different ways of measuring the intentional signal fundamental and harmonics. The reliability of the measurements for preventing interference to licensed radio services maybe improved by making radiated emission measurements whenever possible to compare the maximum field strengths to the FCC field-strength limits; determine the transmitter output from the EIRP at the higher frequencies; and, apply the FCC guidance on measurements for direct sequence spread spectrum systems only to direct sequence spread spectrum transmitters View full abstract»

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  • A method of determining free space antenna factor on an open area test site

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 499 - 504 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    A new method for determination of free space antenna factor on an open area test site is described. This method avoids two sources of error that are present in the ANSI C63.5-1998 procedure, and simplifies the measurement process by eliminating the receiving antenna height scan. In addition, a new method of computing the mutual coupling correction factor is presented View full abstract»

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  • FDTD analysis on the current and electric field distribution in a PCB stripline structure

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 691 - 694 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    An FDTD analysis is reported on changes in distributions of the stripline current, image current and electric field in a PCB stripline structure of stripline-dielectric-ground plane as the dielectric thickness and stripline width are varied and these distributions are described graphically. As the ratio of the stripline width w to the dielectric thickness h, w/h, went to greater than 1, the stripline current was distributed on the bottom side of the stripline, the image current was concentrated just under its corresponding stripline, and most of the emitted field produced by the stripline was confined within the dielectric. As the ratio went to less than 1, the stripline current started being distributed on all the outer surface of the stripline, the image current was more spread in its width, and more emitted field came out of the dielectric. Variation of w/h from 0.1 to 2 caused only a little change in the stripline current and electric field intensity inside the dielectric, but the field is much reduced outside both in intensity and spatially, which means that decrease in the dielectric thickness could raise the PCB circuit density View full abstract»

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  • Influence of ground conductivity on the over voltages induced on overhead power distribution lines due to an indirect lightning stroke

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 949 - 954 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Computation of induced voltage on an overhead line due to an indirect lightning stroke involves calculation of electric field due to the lightning stroke as well as its coupling with the overhead line. The ground conductivity influences both the electric field as well as the coupling mechanism and hence the magnitude and waveshape of the induced voltage. In this paper, lightning induced voltages are calculated for 33 kV, 3φ single circuit and double circuit overhead power distribution lines. It has been observed that the magnitude and wave shape of the induced voltage is influenced by the finite ground conductivity as well as the number of overhead conductors in a multiconductor system View full abstract»

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  • Influence of soil and conductor of ground grid on safety of the grounding system

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 675 - 679 vol.2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The grounding system of a practical 500 kV substation, in which the ground grid is made from steel, is calculated by virtue of the CDEGS software. The model of the soil is established based on the soil resistivity measurements. The safety of the grounding system is evaluated. The influence is analyzed of soil and conductor of ground grid on the safety of the grounding system through large computation under the condition of various soil resistivity, conductor permeability, and conductor conductivity. The influence of soil on the safety of the grounding system is also analyzed when the ground conductor is assumed to be copper View full abstract»

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  • Effects of termination networks on signal-induced EMI from the shields of Fibre Channel cables operating in the Gb/s regime

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 767 - 771 vol.2
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    Differential transmission lines support both odd (differential) and even (common) modes of excitation. Imbalance in the differential signal creates a common-mode signal resulting in EMI. A common practice in differential signaling is to match terminate the differential pair with a single resistor. A termination network that provides a good match to both the differential and common-mode impedances should reduce common-mode reflections and therefore common-mode shield currents and radiated electric fields. Three different termination networks (differential, Pi and Tee) were built and studied with a network analyzer. In addition, the networks were shielded and driven through a shielded cable using a battery-powered transceiver that was placed in a shielded enclosure. The radiated electric field was measured at a 3 meter distance in a fully anechoic chamber. The radiated electric field below 500 MHz was found to be more than 4 dB higher for a purely differential termination, when compared to either the Pi or Tee. Above 500 MHz, parasitics appear to dominate the common-mode impedance of the termination network, degrading the impedance match View full abstract»

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