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Radar Conference, 2000. The Record of the IEEE 2000 International

Date 12-12 May 2000

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  • The Record of the IEEE 2000 International Radar Conference [front matter]

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): i - xvi
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Record of the IEEE 2000 International Radar Conference [Cat. No. 00CH37037]

    Publication Year: 2000
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 893 - 894
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  • Model-based ATR using synthetic aperture radar

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 856 - 861
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    The Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) program was initiated by the USA Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) and the USA Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) in the summer of 1995. The goal of this project was to advance the state of automatic target recognition (ATR) using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery by developing the technology of model-based vision. This paper provides a retrospective discussion of the progress made in the course of the MSTAR project View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of the normalized parametric adaptive matched filter STAP test in airborne radar clutter

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 769 - 774
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
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    The performance of a recently proposed parametric space-time adaptive processing (STAP) detection method is considered here and compared with several candidate algorithms. Specifically, we consider signal detection in additive disturbance consisting of compound-Gaussian clutter plus Gaussian thermal white noise. Consideration is given to both detection and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) robustness with respect to clutter texture power variations. Finally, the performance of the new test is assessed using small training data support size View full abstract»

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  • Excision techniques for reduction of the flow of the RGPO when solving the benchmark problem

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 862 - 866
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    In this paper we propose a partial solution of the benchmark problem for radar resource allocation and tracking maneuvering targets in the presence of ECM. We consider the benchmark problem only from the point of view of detection and propose concrete algorithms for range gate pull off (RGPO) excision before signal detection. The excision technique before signal detection sufficiently reduces the flow of the RGPO detection at the output of the detector. Naturally, the further RGPO elimination at the stage of target tracking is easily performed View full abstract»

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  • SISAR: shadow inverse synthetic aperture radiolocation

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 322 - 328
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
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    A main prerequisite for obtaining radio images and for identifying air objects (AO) in bistatic radar systems, when using the shadow or forward scattering radiolocation method, is the fact that the shadow component of the forward-scattered field of an object relates to its shadow aperture by a two-dimensional Fourier transform in the Fraunhofer zone, or two-dimensional Fresnel transform in approaching the Fresnel zone. Since during the movement of AO prolonged observation (some tens of seconds) is possible and also the sum of the target signal and the direct signal of the transmitter is present at the reception point, an interference signal can be characterized as a one-dimensional shadow radio hologram synthesized coherently in time, or a radio holographic signal (RHS). It is known that a large-size high azimuth resolution (along the path line) equivalent receiving aperture can be synthesized when an observation system or a target is moving. In accordance with the established terminology we deal with the mode of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in the first case, and with the mode of inverse SAR, or ISAR in the second case. Thus, when the shadow radiolocation is used, the mode of interest to us can be described as the mode of shadow ISAR, or SISAR in abbreviated form View full abstract»

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  • A phenomenological model for radar signal propagation in evaporation ducts

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 515 - 520
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    A phenomenological model is proposed for the propagation of wideband radar pulses through an evaporation duct. The proposed model extends the previous models in two directions: (i) it presents a wideband characterization, thus removing the continuous wave hypothesis of most previous models; (ii) it fully considers the random characteristic of the geometric parameters by providing a statistical model. In particular, a statistical approach is used for the description of the rough sea surface due to the presence of wind and sea swells. The resulting model describes the duct as a random Gaussian fading channel with statistical parameters related to the surface geometrical characteristics. Both the single point statistic of the received signals and the spectral distortion of the transmitted pulses are studied by the proposed model. In particular, the coherence bandwidth is shown to depend essentially on the ratio between the surface standard deviation and the correlation length, i.e., on the local surface slope. As expected, the channel bandwidth decreases as either the sea roughness increases (larger standard deviation) or the surface decorrelates. These results apply both to TE and TM modes and both to exponential and Gaussian models assumed to describe the spatial correlation function of the surface heights View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid optical-RF system for generating an improved linear frequency modulated pulses for radar applications

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 775 - 780
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This paper presents a novel approach for generating a linear frequency modulated (LFM) pulse. The generated pulse is characterized by a large bandwidth and frequency linearity. The LFM pulses can be used for a variety of applications such as synthetic aperture radar, ultra wideband radar etc. The obtained improvements are obtained by a hybrid optical-RF configuration. The suggested optical setup not only significantly enlarges the bandwidth of the produced chirp beam, but also allows us to tune its carrier frequency View full abstract»

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  • Multi-parameter local optimization for the design of superior matched filter polyphase pulse compression codes

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 435 - 440
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)  

    Polyphase codes, such as the Kretschmer-Lewis palindromic P4 code, and the nonlinear FM P(n,k) code, have been used in radar systems to provide low sidelobe autocorrelation properties and superior Doppler performance. A disadvantage in using these codes, is that they are susceptible to defeat, when a repeat jammer is present. In this paper, we use a multi-parameter optimization algorithm to find sets of quasi-orthogonal polyphase codes that retain most of the superior matched filter qualities of polyphase codes. This is done so that the radar designer can alternate quasi-orthogonal polyphase coded versions of the same waveform sequence length, for pulse-to-pulse, or dwell-to-dwell, ECM robustness. All or any subset of a set of parameters of these matched filter code sets (peak sidelobes, integrated sidelobes, Doppler tolerance, and level of orthogonality) can be optimized simultaneously according to a predetermined weighting priority View full abstract»

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  • An adaptive filtering approach to chirp estimation and ISAR imaging of maneuvering targets

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 481 - 486
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    In inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging, due to the noncooperative motion of manoeuvring targets the Doppler shifts of the scatterers are usually time-varying, and the radar return signals are usually chirps. The chirp estimation plays an important role in the performance of the ISAR imaging. Li and Stoica recently presented an adaptive FIR filtering approach to estimate the amplitudes and phases of sinusoidal signals and applied this method to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging with the sinusoidal signal model. In this paper, we extend Li and Stoica's algorithm to estimate the chirps and then apply it to the ISAR imaging of manoeuvring targets. The extended algorithm is verified by simulated data View full abstract»

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  • The coherent bistatic radar with multi-stage space-time adaptive processing of signals and jamming

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 329 - 334
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    The features of spatially-coherent active-passive bistatic radar (BSR) with small baseline for observation of non-radiating targets against the background of strong jamming are considered. The principle of informative completeness (PIG) is formulated on the basis of conclusions of statistical theory of an optimal detection-resolution of signals. Its practical use for the organization of information interaction between active and passive channels of BSR and for getting complete coordinate information about both targets and jammers is shown. The applications of double processor adaptive antenna arrays (AAA) for constructing multi-stage space-time adaptive processing (STAP) of wideband signals of BSR are considered. The results of experimental study of informative channels are given and technological aspects in design of STAP in coherent BSR are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Aerial target backscattering simulation and study of radar recognition, detection and tracking

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 521 - 526
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    Backscattering computer simulation essentially expands the possibilities of radar recognition system R&D and can be used with benefit in classical detection and tracking system R&D. We expect backscattering simulation programs to be gradually improved on the basis of new experimental and physical simulation data. Current simulation programs are a definite step in this direction View full abstract»

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  • Performance of a linear frequency-modulated signal detection algorithm

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 447 - 450
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The recently developed Radon-ambiguity transform algorithm detects linear frequency-modulated (LFM) signals with unknown center frequency, bandwidth, and duration. This paper provides simulations that demonstrate the ability of the algorithm to detect LFM signals in noise while also providing estimates of the signal sweep rate and duration. We augment the algorithm with a normalization step which enables the algorithm to reject wideband interference. Topics for future treatment are also discussed View full abstract»

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  • Model-based adaptive detection of fluctuating targets

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 381 - 386
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    Radar detection is a well-established area as illustrated by the development of target fluctuation models such as the Swerling models, diverse clutter models, different methods for coherent and non-coherent integration, different CFAR algorithms and signal processing methods such as STAP and adaptive matched filtering. In this contribution the idea is to use target models and adaptive processing to improve the radar detection performance and to reduce the radar resources required for detection. The proposed detection methods are primarily intended for multifunction phased array radar with flexible resource management. The model-based adaptive detection methods use the target fluctuations to find optimum parameter settings for the radar system such that the target radar cross section is maximized for each coherent processing interval. This in general results in a reduction of the target fluctuations and the detection performance is rather determined by background noise fluctuations than by target fluctuations. The main problem is to find relevant target models and adaptive processing methods that can give sufficient detection performance improvements View full abstract»

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  • Multi-resolution multiple-model target tracking based on model-mixing

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 81 - 86
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    In this paper, a new multi-resolution multiple-model algorithm based on model mixing is proposed. The algorithm combines the advantages of the multi-resolution multiple-model algorithm with that of the interacting multiple model algorithm, thus it outperforms both algorithms View full abstract»

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  • MEM switch technology in radar

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 193 - 198
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Microelectromechanical (MEM) RF switch technology has been demonstrated to exhibit very low insertion loss with multi-octave performance at microwave frequencies. MEM RF switch designs require very low actuation control energy with minimal current at very high speeds. These characteristics, along with the demonstrated potential for high volume, low cost fabrication, make MEM technology very useful for advanced radar sensor systems. In application to phase shifters and switchable delay lines, MEM switches offer better performance and lower system prime power at lower cost than current GaAs MMIC or ferrite implementations. This paper examines and quantifies the impact that MEM RF switch technology will have on future agile beam radar sensor systems and discuss the implications for future system architectures View full abstract»

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  • Advanced concepts in STAP

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 699 - 704
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Multidimensional colored-noise matched filtering is utilized in a broad range of applications for target detection. It is now common to call this filtering space time adaptive processing (STAP), a term originally used to describe the mitigation of ground clutter in the airborne radar application. This paper examines issues related to signal representation in multidimensional spaces and noise field estimation. Recently developed concepts are examined and emerging areas of research in STAP are discussed View full abstract»

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  • High resolution SAR image analysis by new autoregressive algorithm in image space

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 487 - 492
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    Classical high resolution (HR) methods become unrealizable when applied to large SAR images, due to memory size and computational time requirements. In this paper, a new HR spectral analysis method, called “image space”, derived from autoregressive (AR) spectral analysis, is proposed for large-image SAR processing. Simulations and real data processing results are provided, and demonstrate resolution improvement as well as “good” behavior on clutter View full abstract»

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  • Applications of the solution to the Rayleigh problem

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 527 - 532
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A formalism to determine the probability density function (PDF) resulting from a coordinate transformation applied to an arbitrary PDF is developed. The results are applied to the coordinate transformation used in target tracking, specifically the transformation from spherical to Cartesian coordinates. This result is then applied to the specific example of a Gaussian random variable transformed by sine and cosine coordinate transformations. A brief discussion is then carried out of multi-dimensional transformations View full abstract»

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  • On the effects of sea roughness on the predictions of pathlosses above sea

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 370 - 374
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    In the last few years, a major weakness of modern path loss prediction methods over sea has been thought to be the inadequate treatment of sea roughness in the models. Nevertheless, experimental investigations of the effect of sea roughness on prediction quality are lacking. In this paper, we show prediction errors obtained as a function of wind speed, from which sea roughness can be inferred, using models that neglect surface roughness. Data obtained from trans-horizon propagation links at 3 and 10.5 GHz, setup near the littoral in the Atlantic Ocean and in the Mediterranean, are considered in the analysis. Prediction errors were found to reach a maximum at moderate wind speeds (~10 m/s), and then to decrease with increasing wind speeds. The analysis supports the idea that prediction error increases with growing wave height (sea state) and decreases as the waves break and the conditions homogenize View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis for an interferometric space-based GMTI radar system

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 689 - 694
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    This paper presents an algorithm which may be applied to multiple aperture space-based radar systems, and the major aspects of its performance may be summarized as follows: (1) 2D irregularly spaced aperture distributions can be used, allowing for forward and backward looking operation in the presence of orbital motion; (2) clutter statistics are not necessary for evaluating the probability of target detection; (3) clutter is completely separated from target information, thus SNR is the limiting factor to performance; (4) there are multiple ways to deal with ambiguities, but Doppler ambiguities are less cumbersome. Work continues to evaluate the true computational burden, as well as try to minimize it and distribute the operation over multiple processors. In addition, the algorithm is being tested, first against simulated target/clutter data, and eventually against real target return data from the Air Force Research Laboratory's TechSat 21 Distributed Satellite System experiment View full abstract»

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  • Performance evaluation of random PRF signals in LPD radars

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 134 - 139
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    The random PRF (pulse repetition frequency) method has been suggested to make low probability of detection (LPD) radar signals. In this paper, we consider this method and briefly discuss its effect on the performance of a radar receiver. Also, we use the detection theoretic approach to find the optimum detector for an unauthorized receiver and its performance. Then we use these results to find the amount of improvement in the LPD property of signals due to the use of the random PRF. So, for the first time, the performance of such signals is evaluated from the LPD point of view and it is shown that a signal with random PRF is very useful and can be considered as a reliable LPD signal View full abstract»

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  • Tracking wild maneuvers at low data-rate, using curved-track state parameters

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 87 - 92
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    A rapidly adapting tracking filter, working with a comparatively low data-rate, is described. The filter uses position, course, turn rate, speed and speed rate as the state parameters to handle the curved parts of the trajectory better. The trajectory is continually modeled as moving under a transverse acceleration and a longitudinal acceleration, each large or negligible, which change the turn rate and the speed rate accordingly. Wild maneuvers are detected and corrected rapidly to a large extent, with a high confidence level, mild maneuvers are left to a gradual correction through small filter gains, as in steady state filter algorithms, and medium maneuvers are gracefully fitted in between, through an innovation-based common algorithm View full abstract»

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  • A variable γ H filter for a maneuvering target tracking using acceleration estimation

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 76 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The Kalman filter and its applications have been employed for tracking systems. A non-maneuvering target can be accurately tracked by using a Kalman filter with a constant velocity model. However, a maneuvering target might be mis-tracked since prediction errors increase significantly. The H filter is a robust filter and changes its characteristics depending on the parameter γ. In order to track accurately not only non-maneuvering but also highly maneuvering targets, we propose a variable γ H filter with an acceleration term when a maneuver is detected View full abstract»

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