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3DTV-Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2014

Date 2-4 July 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 64
  • [Front cover]

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Copyright notice]

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Organizing committee

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Freehand interaction with large-scale 3D map data

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (399 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present our method and apparatus to visualize and interact with large-scale 3D map data on a 3D light-field display in real time. 3D map data are streamed over Internet to the display in real-time based on request sent by the application. On the user side, data is processed and visualized on a large-scale 3D light field display. We present a method to efficiently interact with the visualized 3D map using freehand gestures. We use a Leap Motion sensor that supports sufficient refresh rate for our current application and is able to accurately track and acquire information on the user hand position. This information is further processed to support natural and fast interaction. We have also developed a method to automatically adjust the map's plane to the screen plane of the display. The visualization and interaction method is scalable and allows the exploration of large-scale 3D maps down to the street level. View full abstract»

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  • Depth-aware 3D video filtering targetting multiview video plus depth compression

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (227 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fundamental challenge of 3D video compression is to provide end users with a high quality video while respecting the limitations of available bandwidth or storage capacities. In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed to filter the texture pictures and depth maps partially targeting a lower bitrate for compression, while preserving the same subjective quality as the one achieved without filtering. In the first step, a depth map is used to calculate a threshold defining the regions of the image where filtering will be applied. This decision is made based on the distance of objects from the camera. The farther the distance of the object, the less likely to have that object be the center of focus for the viewer. In the second step, the content of both texture and depth map belonging to the selected region is filtered. A series of systematic subjective tests showed that the application of such filtering does not decrease the perceived quality of the 3D content compared to the scheme where no filtering is applied. In this case, a BD-rate reduction of up to 17% with an average of 12% is achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Super stereoscopy 3D glasses for more realistic 3D vision

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5680 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a new major twist on stereoscopic displays, where users suffer less from the accommodation-vergence conflict with the help of improved monocular parallax. Our method provides two different views to each eye by using special apertures equipped with color filters. The design can be embedded into conventional stereoscopic glasses or special contact lenses. Subjective tests verified that the accommodation-vergence conflict is avoided to a large degree. The technique is also applicable to multi-view 3DTV displays in general. View full abstract»

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  • Super depth-map rendering by converting holoscopic viewpoint to perspective projection

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (639 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The expansion of 3D technology will enable observers to perceive 3D without any eye-wear devices. Holoscopic 3D imaging technology offers natural 3D visualisation of real 3D scenes that can be viewed by multiple viewers independently of their position. However, the creation of a super depth-map and reconstruction of the 3D object from a holoscopic 3D image is still in its infancy. The aim of this work is to build a high-quality depth map of a real 3D scene from a holoscopic 3D image through extraction of multi-view high resolution Viewpoint Images (VPIs) to compensate for the poor features of VPIs. To manage this, we propose a reconstruction method based on the perspective formula to convert sets of directional orthographic low resolution VPIs into perspective projection geometry. Following that, we implement an Auto-Feature point algorithm for synthesizing VPIs to distinctive Feature-Edge (FE) blocks to localize and provide an individual feature detector that is responsible for integration of 3D information. Detailed experiments proved the reliability and efficiency of the proposed method, which outperforms state-of-the-art methods for depth map creation. View full abstract»

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  • Ginga extensions to support depth-based 3D media

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (860 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an end-to-end interactive 3DTV chain based on ISDB-T standard. After discussing some problems we have faced when extending ISDB-T to support depth-based 3D media, the paper focuses on proposing extensions to Ginga middleware and its declarative specification language (NCL), allowing authors to be aware of and manipulate depth information for each individual graphical component of an interactive digital TV application. Ginga and NCL are part of the ISDB-T standard adopted in almost all Latin America countries and also compose the ITU-T Recommendation for IPTV services. By using a depth-based media approach (not only for the main broadcasted video, but also for additional and interactive content), we provide a solution, backward-compatible with 2DTV sets, that supports both stereoscopic and glasses-free multiview auto-stereoscopic displays. In principle, the extensions proposed to Ginga and NCL can also be applied to other terrestrial digital TV and IPTV systems and declarative multimedia languages. View full abstract»

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  • Building camera arrays for light-field capture, display, and analysis

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1587 KB)  

    We describe a series of multi-view and mosaicking cameras we have designed over the past few years for video conferencing, entertainment, sports and special event coverage, light field capture (for display) and ranging applications. These are elements of a continuing exploration of what happens when cameras cost nothing, take no space, and incur negligible bandwidth - i.e., now. View full abstract»

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  • Towards mixed reality applications on light-field displays

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mixed reality applications have been traditionally developed for stereoscopic or auto-stereoscopic displays scaling from AR glasses to Powerwalls and CAVEs. These approaches however, all suffer from the inherent shortcomings of the underlying technology such as limitations of stereoscopic rendering, tracking latency, low resolution and potentially uncomfortable wearable components. In this paper we present a novel rendering method that overcomes these limitations by augmenting the virtual images rendered on light-field displays. Our ultimate aim is to blur the line between real and virtual as much as possible and have a gadgetless, completely believable experience where the ambient environment is able to seamlessly augment the rendered image on the screen. Our approach makes it possible for the ambient environment to augment the virtual content rendered on the light-field display in real-time and in a view-dependent way which was not possible with earlier techniques. View full abstract»

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  • How visual discomfort affects 3DTV viewers' emotional arousal

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    We present the results of a research on the effects of image distor-tions known to induce visual discomfort (namely, the introduction of Gaussian blur on one visual field) on the emotional reactions of 3DTV viewers. Emotional reactions were explored by means of self-reported as well as psychophysiological methods. The re-sults showed that, despite visual discomfort not having an effect on self-reported emotions, the level of electrodermal activity (a physiological correlate of emotional arousal) was clearly affected, suggesting the existence of seemingly complex effects of visual discomfort over viewers' emotional arousal. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of autostereoscopic displays by geometrical ray tracing and implication of optical effects

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (415 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we present a model approach for a simulation and optimization of ray characteristics of autostereoscopic displays. Based on the assignment of view content to single subpixels, ray paths and intensity distributions are rendered as a function of construction parameters of the modeled display. We investigate models which use parallax barrier arrays as image separating optics. We are able to calculate and visualize an intensity distribution of different views in any chosen distance to the pixel plane. The bidirectional simulation is equally capable of generating rays at user's specific eye position. In our optical model the Lambertian radiator and Fresnel, respectively Fraunhofer diffraction approximation is used. The model assumptions are proved by comparing simulated and experimental data. The various visualization and analysis methods in the simulation can be used to estimate the quality of autostereoscopic imaging. Our aim is to provide a useful tool for optimization of 3D display design and image processing algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Passband measurement methodology for multiview 3D displays

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    This work presents a measurement methodology that estimates the perceived visual quality of a multiview 3D display. It uses the notion of a display passband, which considers the display as a signal processing channel and describes which spatioangular frequencies can be visualised with an acceptable quality. The methodology starts by measuring the optical parameters of the display. Then, a set of test signals are visualised on the display and photographed from a range of observation directions. Each test image is a sinusoidal grating with three frequency components - horizontal, vertical and angular one. The spectrum of each photograph is calculated and the distortions introduced by the display are analysed in the frequency domain. A model of the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is applied in order to estimate the visually predominant frequency. If the dominant frequency in the input remains dominant in the output, the input frequency is deemed as belonging to the display passband. In the last step, the shape and size of the derived passband is used to calculate the equivalent spatioangular resolution of the display. View full abstract»

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  • Inter view motion vector prediction in multiview HEVC

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    In multiview coding, motion information of different views forming the multiview video is correlated. The multiview extension of High Efficiency Video Coding (MV-HEVC) that is currently under development is defined to allow multi-view coding with minimal changes to HEVC. This is realized by simply adding the reconstructed base view picture to the reference picture list of the dependent views. MV-HEVC specification is restricted from low-level operations with motion information, thus redundancy in motion information between views is not utilized. This paper proposes to use the temporal motion vector prediction mechanism of HEVC to enable the prediction of motion vectors from the inter-view reference picture; similar to the concept of Motion Field Mapping mechanism in the scalable extension of HEVC. In order to compensate for the disparity, it is also proposed to signal a global disparity value for motion field adjustment. Global disparity is estimated at the encoder side for each slice and signaled to the decoder side at the slice header. Simulations conducted in the MV-HEVC configuration of 3D-HTM v6.0 show that the proposed method brings 1.1% of dBR for view 1 and 0.8% for view 2 which results in 0.6% gain on average of all views. View full abstract»

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  • An optimal yet fast pruning algorithm to reduce latency in multiview prediction structures

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (317 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a new algorithm for the design of prediction structures with low delay and limited penalty in the rate-distortion performance for multiview video coding schemes. This algorithm constitutes one of the elements of a framework for the analysis and optimization of delay in multiview coding schemes that is based in graph theory. The objective of the algorithm is to find the best combination of prediction dependencies to prune from a multiview prediction structure, given a number of cuts. Taking into account the properties of the graph-based analysis of the encoding delay, the algorithm is able to find the best prediction dependencies to eliminate from an original prediction structure, while limiting the number of cut combinations to evaluate. We show that this algorithm obtains optimum results in the reduction of the encoding latency with a lower computational complexity than exhaustive search alternatives. View full abstract»

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  • CPU-efficient free view synthesis based on depth layering

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (459 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new approach for depth-image based rendering (DIBR) based on depth layering is proposed. The approach effectively avoids the non-uniform to uniform resampling stage, which is otherwise inherent for classical DIBR. In contrast, the new approach employs depth layering, which approximates the scene geometry by a multi-planar surface, given the depth is defined within a closed range. Such an approximation facilitates a fast reverse coordinate mapping from virtual to reference view where straightforward resampling on a uniform grid is performed. The proposed rendering approach ensures an automatic z-ordering and disocclusion detection, while being very efficient even for CPU-based implementations. It is also applicable for reference and virtual views with different resolutions and as such can serve depth upsampling, view panning and zooming applications. The experimental results demonstrate its real-time capability, while the quality is comparable with other view synthesis approaches but for lower computational cost. View full abstract»

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  • Light-field video coding using geometry-based disparity compensation

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (402 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the main challenges in 3D light-field imaging approaches lies in the massive amount of visual information involved in providing 3D content with sufficient resolution. Consequently, adequate coding tools are essential for efficient transmission and storage of this type of content. In this context, this paper presents and evaluates two coding solutions based on the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) scheme and for efficient compression of the 3D light-field content. These two coding schemes aim to exploit the 3D geometry-based disparity information in the 3D light field content and replace the block-based disparity estimation. In the first scheme, the disparity map of each view is used to directly derive the vectors for compensation, and in the second scheme these disparity vectors (for all views) are calculated (for non-occluded areas) from the disparity map of the base view. A comparative study of these proposed coding schemes is performed and future research directions are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Enhancement method for multiple description decoding of depth maps subject to random loss

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB)  

    This paper proposes a method to improve the quality of depth maps transmitted in multiple descriptions through multipath error prone networks. Whenever a single description is lost, the remaining ones are still able to provide a coarsely decoded version of the depth map. While in multiple description video, such coarse decoding is still acceptable for display, in the case of depth maps the additional decoding distortion propagates through the corresponding view synthesis. The proposed method is capable of enhancing low quality depth maps decoded from one single description, based on geometric information available in coarsely decoded slices, combined with higher quality depth values in adjacent slices decoded from both descriptions. In comparison with existing MDC decoders, the enhancement method achieves quality gains in synthesised views up to 1.69dB for packet loss rates of 10%. View full abstract»

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  • Liquid crystal elements for 3D displays

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    Liquid Crystals have large electro-optic coefficients which make them suitable materials for a number of elements of 3D displays. This paper considers some of the issues relating to these elements, including the polarization modulation and phase modulation that can be obtained with liquid crystal elements as well as the resolution that can be achieved using liquid crystal layers. In particular the use of ferroelectric liquid crystal fast shutters will be discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Experiments on acquisition and processing of video for free-viewpoint television

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper describes an experimental multiview video production, processing and delivery chain developed at Poznan University of Technology for research on free-viewpoint television. The multiview-video acquisition system consists of HD camera units with wireless synchronization, wireless control, video storage and power supply units. Therefore no cabling is needed in the system, which is important for shooting real-world events. The system is mostly used for nearly circular setup of cameras but the locations of cameras are arbitrary, and the procedures for system calibration and multiview video correction are consid-ered. The paper deals also with adoption for circular camera arrangement of the techniques implemented in Depth Estimation Reference Software and View Synthesis Reference Software. View full abstract»

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  • Objective quality measures comparison of impaired 3D video sequences from the UC3D database

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (193 KB)  

    In this study we analyze the correlation between different image and video quality measures and corresponding subjective scores computed on 20 3D texture+depth video sequences from the University of Coimbra 3D (UC3D) video database. Quality metrics were tested on (degraded) depth information and synthesized views. The results show that in the case of measures based on depth information, the best correlation is achieved by SSIM. For the case of measures computed on the synthesized view, the highest correlation is obtained when using PSNR. Overall results show that quality measures computed on the synthesized view correlate better with subjective (DMOS) scores than measures based on the depth information. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison between blur transfer and blur re-generation in depth image based rendering

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An issue of object boundary reconstruction is important in depth image based rendering. For natural rendering, pixel values in an object boundary should be gradually changed from the background color to the foreground color. There are two approaches for this problem; one is blur regeneration by using alpha matting, and the other is blur transfer by using foreground biased dilation. The former requires three additional steps, i.e. foreground, background texture synthesis, and alpha channel estimation. The latter requires only one step, which is dilation for a depth map. To validate the effectiveness of these methods, we compare the matting method with the dilation method. In addition, we modify the dilation method to improve the quality of the synthesis view. Experimental results show that the improved method reaches the state-of-the-arts of the matting method, and its additional computational cost within 4 ms. View full abstract»

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  • Stereo matching method using multiple angular signatures matched by multidimensional dynamic timewarping (MD-DTW)

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (621 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider the problem of matching interest points (IPs) extracted from the two images of a stereoscopic pair. We describe each IP via a descriptor consisting in one angular signature for a grayscale image, three signatures for a color image, and, more generally, N signatures for N coregistered images of different modalities. Each angular signature is generated by spinning a “steerable x-tapered, y-derivative, half-Gaussian filter” 360° around each IP. The novel contribution of the paper is the use of multidimensional dynamic time warping (MD-DTW) for (1) producing a single, common warping for all pairs of corresponding signatures in the two descriptors of two IPs that are candidate for matching, and (2) for computing a single related distance between the two sets of signatures. Preliminary experimental results and a comparison with the results obtained with SIFT descriptors and matching via the smallest Euclidean distance in parameter space demonstrates the value of this novel approach. View full abstract»

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  • A novel trilateral filter technique for depth map processing in 3D video coding

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (605 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Free viewpoint video communication is one of the most interesting schemes for an immersive 3D experience, but it requires multiple views of the same scene. In order to limit the number of transmitted views, depth representations of the scene are used for depth image-based rendering, to generate virtual views at the receiver. Nevertheless, the video-plus-depth approach presents an additional burden of data that may be attenuated by coding down-sampled depth maps. This is able to achieve significant bit rate savings, specially for higher compression ratios, at the expense of some degradation on the quality of the decoded depth maps. However, as these techniques heavily rely on the quality of the depth maps, post-processing methods, such as filtering, are used to restore its quality. In this work we propose a new depth map processing method that is able to improve the image rendering quality. Experimental results show that a better rendering quality is achieved, when compared to other commonly used filters. View full abstract»

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  • Crossmedia integration of 3D contents for cultural communication

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8093 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of 3D contents for cultural heritage applications is, since long, well established. Virtual reality or augmented reality applications, animations or serious games heavily rely upon 3D models. At present, research efforts are increasingly focusing on 3D models in order to reach a general audience. The challenge is to effectively manage and exploit 3D assets handling them with a cross-media approach. View full abstract»

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