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Bioelectronics and Bioinformatics (ISBB), 2014 IEEE International Symposium on

Date 11-14 April 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 66
  • Conceptual map and technological framework to manage dementia wandering

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (878 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wandering is one of the most common disruptive behaviors in people with dementia (PWD). Dementia wandering is a subject of study and research in the field of gerontology for more than 3 decades. The topic has then drawn the attention of technologists and particularly computer scientists since early 2000. Though a number of solutions and applications have been proposed and implemented to manage wandering, not many are widely used in practice due to 2 reasons. First, technologists' understanding and perception of wandering do not align with those of gerontologists. This consequently lowers the chance of proposed solutions to be accepted for clinical applications. Second, most solutions do not address all the dimensions of dementia wandering. Few applications cater the needs of other stakeholders involved including caregivers, physicians and researchers. This paper aims to bridge the knowledge gaps between gerontologists and technologists. We first present a conceptual map of wandering science from the perspectives of gerontologists. Then we provide a framework which identifies main threads of technologies that can be further developed to manage dementia wandering. We hope that the conceptual map and technological framework will guide technologists in developing relevant and essential assistive solutions which are not only widely used in clinical practice but also address the needs of all the parties involved. View full abstract»

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  • DAC for positron emission tomography front-end

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1292 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Positron emission tomography architectures have been traditionally dependent on zero crossing discriminators, external voltage references, or fixed voltage references with restricted voltage steps. This paper presents a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) utilized to set the threshold voltages of Time-of-Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF-PET) comparators. The DAC circuit uses a charge redistribution architecture, and all the required building blocks have been fully integrated in a 90 nm CMOS process with an area of 170 × 65 μm2. The power consumption is 324 μW with 1.2-V supply voltage. Using a 10-MHz clock, this DAC achieves an effective number of bits (ENOB) of 8.2. View full abstract»

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  • A high voltage stimulator using a low-Q class-E pulsed radiofrequency driver for animal study of relieving trigeminal neuralgia pain

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (959 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work, an in vivo animal experiment was conducted to show that the pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) stimulation in relieving pain is effective for trigeminal neuralgia. The experiment also reveals that the 10-V stimulation is more effective than 5-V stimulation. Hence, in order to generate a high PRF voltage in a brain stimulator, a low-Q class-E amplifier is proposed to be a high voltage electrical stimulation (ES) driver by controlling the input duty cycle. The steady states of the circuit waveform are represented in two PDEs' and are numerically solved in math tool to achieve circuit parameters. When the driver was operated under the condition of Q = 1 and D = 0.8, the output peak voltage was measured up to 10 V, which is 3 times of VDD. The conversion efficiency of the PRF driver was measured 90% that measured load from 300Ω to 1.8kΩ. The efficiency of the low-Q operation is found to be better under mismatched load than in high-Q operation. View full abstract»

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  • An implantable micro imaging device for molecular imaging in a brain of freely-moving mouse

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have developed an implantable micro imaging device that can observe specific molecules such as neuropsin in the deep brain of a freely-moving mouse with minimal invasiveness. A chemical substance, 4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide (MCA), which reacts with neuropsin and changes to fluorophore, 7-amino-4-methyl coumarin (AMC), is injected by a specially designed cannula employed with the device. The implanted sensor can measure spatio-temporal dynamics of neuropisn through fluorescence of AMC, which is accompanied by specific behavior in artificially induced epilepsy. The damage induced by the implantation of the device has been investigated. Four weeks after the implantation, no connective tissues are observed at the implanted locations and imaging was successfully conducted. Immuno-staining of the brain after the implantation reveals that the damage area is limited in less than 100 μm from the sensor surface. View full abstract»

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  • Smart cane: Instrumentation of a quad cane with audio-feedback monitoring system for partial weight-bearing support

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1686 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Proper cane handling is one of the main goals of cane therapy in the field of physical rehabilitation. Toward that goal, a system has been developed to monitor the weight-bearing performance of the patient and provide an audio feedback to affect a patient's weight application onto the cane. The smart cane is designed to read the force measurement, to compare the read-out force and to generate an alert message if the force applied by the patient is incorrect. The system includes a graphical user interface, which allows real-time graphing of the force measurements and keeps a database for offline comparative data analysis by the therapist. It employs a wireless connection between the microcontroller and the computer using Bluetooth technology, which increases mobility of the patient. This will help the patient to achieve optimum rehabilitation that can lead to an improved balance in walking and eventually cane independence. View full abstract»

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  • A novel live cell imaging method with sub-cellular resolution for cell-based assays

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1244 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A lightweight imaging method based on electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure was developed to analyze single cells. Cells were cultured on the EIS structure surface, and the impedance of this cell-based biosensor was measured by two-electrode electrochemical system. For the field-effect and internal photoelectric effect of semiconductor and the electric insulativity of living cell, difference impedance was detected when a scanning laser irradiated at the cell-free and cell-on area respectively. Thus, an image of cell distribution and adhesion could be obtained by calculating impedance for each scanning point. The results of the experiment showed that the spatial resolution of the proposed imaging method could reach to 5 μm, and the sensitivity was high, which indicate that it has great potential to be used in various cell-based assays, such as cytotoxicity detection, drug evaluation and cancer research. View full abstract»

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  • A swept-field multi-channel aspiration condenser for low-ppm level detection

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (807 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    IMS(Ion Mobility Spectrometry) is a technique has been widely used for hazardous compounds detection. IMS can operates in atmospheric condition with low detection limit and fast response time. It became popular in various application, such as detection of chemical warfare agent, toxic industrial compounds and explosives. In this paper, we present a low-cost, easy to assembly device as an ion mobility spectrometry. This device is based on the theory of the first order differential aspiration condenser described by Puumalainen. Unlike the original device proposed by Puumalainen, the electric field is swept in discrete steps and can be control by user for specific application. Tammet transform is introduced to our system for expanding gas recognition ability. The result shows our system is capable for low-ppm level gas detection. View full abstract»

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  • The applications of projected capacitive array sensing in healthcare

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (937 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a cost-effective sensor system for the applications of large area array sensing. Unlike the traditional pressure sensing methods, projected capacitor technologies are proposed for sensing. The rapid charge time method is utilized to measure the capacitance values of the projected capacitive array electrodes. By constructing the process of projected capacitive array electrode, the required characteristics of the projected capacitor are identified, especially characteristics for large area applications. Three main factors, the area of electrodes, the use of shielding and gap between the guard ring and the electrode, also affect the capacitance primary value especially in the large-size applications. At last, a flexible projected capacitive sensing array with 8 × 10 electrodes was implemented to validate the feasibility of projected capacitive array electrodes. View full abstract»

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  • An on-chip programmable multichannel power supply for a lab-on-chip platform

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (972 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a reprogrammable low-voltage power-supply integrated circuit for low resistive load down to 180 Ω. The achieved chip is dedicated for biomedical lab-on-chip (LoC) platforms. The proposed system includes two positive and two negative fully independent output voltage channels. Each positive and negative channel provides a reprogrammable DC output which varies from 14.23 mV to 1.42 V and -1.54 V to 0 V, respectively. Each channel is controlled through a reprogrammable reference voltage circuit with an 8-bit digital to analog converter (DAC). A wireless real-time control of output signals amplitude is performed with LabVIEW and FPGA-based interface. The proposed architecture is implemented with 0.18 μm 3.3 V 1-poly 6-metal CMOS technology. The chip area is 1.5 mm2. Post-layout simulations show that the minimum voltage step is 12.21 mV. The accuracy of output voltage is 5 mV and the measured power consumption is 35 mW. View full abstract»

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  • A novel infrared microbolometer in standard CMOS-MEMS process

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1789 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel infrared micro-bolometer realized in CMOS with MEMS post process is proposed. The micro-bolometer is constructed as a metal micro-cavity to enhance its absorptivity of incident infrared energy. Three testkeys with different cavity structure are presented. The measured sensitivity of the testkeys, in the temperature range of 5-75°C, are 9.56 Ω/°C, 8.78 Ω/°C and 9.89 Ω/°C, respectively. The micro-bolometer occupies a chip area of 439×370 μm2 in 0.18 μm process. It is suitable for application on smart biomedical sensor. View full abstract»

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  • Chip design of a 5.6-GHz 1-V wide tuning range frequency synthesizer with Gm-boosting Colpitts VCO for biomedical application

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1305 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A 5.6-GHz 1-V wide tuning range frequency synthesizer with a gain-boosting Colpitts voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is fabricated in TSMC 0.18 um CMOS process. In this prototype, there are two important features. First, a 1-V gain-boosting Colpitts LC VCO circuit is adopted to reduce phase noise and power consumption. Second, a class-AB current mode logic (CML) circuit is utilized in first divider stage to deal with the high frequency signal. At the supply voltages of 1-V for VCO and 1.8-V for digital circuits, measured results achieve that the VCO output frequency is tunable from 5.13~5.98 GHz corresponding to 15.4% and the locked phase noise is -105.83 dBc/Hz at 1MHz from 5.15 GHz. The power consumption is 5.6 mW and including pads, the chip area is 0.632 (0.89 × 0.71) mm2. This chip design low power consumption for biomedical application. View full abstract»

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  • A study of an energy harvesting device based on photosystem-II protein complex

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (937 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, we accomplished a solid-state photosystem-II (PSII) device for bio-inherited solar energy-harvesting device. With solid-state PSII embedded, this is an innovative device with better life time and stable performance than previous photosystem based devices. To demonstrate the potential of the proposed method, we measured the photocurrent and discussed the mechanism of this device. Furthermore, we compared photo-induced currents generated by the proposed device with another traditional method. Experimentally, the life time of its energy-harvesting mechanism can be enhanced by 10 times. This work demonstrates the potential of different pathway toward bio-inherited devices. View full abstract»

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  • PET and MRI brain image fusion using wavelet transform with structural information adjustment and spectral information patching

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (835 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a PET and MR brain image fusion method based on wavelet transform for low- and high-activity brain image regions, respectively. Our method can generate very good fusion result by adjusting the anatomical structural information in the gray matter (GM) area, and then patching the spectral information in the white matter (WM) area after the wavelet decomposition and gray-level fusion. We used normal axial, normal coronal, and Alzheimer's disease brain images as the three datasets for testing and comparison. Experimental results showed that the performance of our fusion method is better than that of IHS+RIM fusion method in terms of spectral discrepancy (SD) and average gradient (AG). In fact, our method is superior to IHS+RIM method both visually and quantitatively. View full abstract»

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  • A pulse oximetry system with motion artifact reduction based on Fourier analysis

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1481 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a system that records photoplethysmography and performs motion artifact reduction is proposed. In order to calculate SpO2, accurate amplitude of PPG is essential. As a matter of fact that the PPG signal is acquired through an optical sensor, it is prone to be affected by motion artifact. As a result, noise cancellation is a major issue in the calculation of SpO2. In the calculation of SpO2, the exact waveform is not the key point, whereas the amplitude plays the important role. Therefore, Fourier analysis is adopted to perform the noise cancellation. In the proposed system, data acquisition and analog filtering are done on a printed circuit board which is controlled by an FPGA. The acquired data are sent to a computer, where Fourier analysis is done to cancel motion artifact. Experiments have been done to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The proposed system performs PPG signal acquisition, motion artifact reduction and SpO2 calculation. View full abstract»

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  • A low power high CMRR CMOS instrumentation amplifier for Bio-impedance Spectroscopy

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (914 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a high Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) and low power CMOS Instrumentation Amplifier (IA) for use in Bio-impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) is presented. It consists of a complementary Differential Voltage - Current Conveyor (DVCC) that provides the common-mode signal rejection and high input impedance, a Folded - Cascode Operational Transconductance Amplifier (FC-OTA) that serves as a gain stage, and a high pass filter built using a PMOS pseudo-resistor. The IA was implemented using TSMC 0.35μm 2P4M Polycide Technology and simulations were carried out using HSPICE. The designed IA features a CMRR of 120.2dB, a differential input impedance of 102.3MΩ, and a common-mode input impedance of 41.3MΩ both at 50kHz, while dissipating an average static power of 290μW. View full abstract»

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  • Stereoscopic laparoscopy using depth information from 3D model

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (497 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Laparoscopic surgery is indispensable from the current surgical procedures. Conventional laparoscope (endoscope) systems produce 2D colored video images which do not provide surgeons an actual depth perception of the scene. In this work, the problem was formulated as synthesizing a stereo image of the monocular (conventional) laparoscope image by incorporating into them the depth information from a 3D CT model. The current method was applied to the laparoscope video at the rate of up to 5 frames per second to visualize its stereo video. Correlation coefficients between the depth maps calculated with our method with those from the shape from shading algorithm were within the range of 0.70 to 0.95 (P <; 0.05). View full abstract»

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  • A smart phone-based pocket fall accident detection system

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    A smart phone-based pocket fall accident detection system is proposed in this paper. To realize the system, the angles acquired by the electronic compass and the waveform sequence of the triaxial accelerometer on the smart phone are used as the input signals of the proposed system. The acquired signals are then used to generate an ordered feature sequence and examined in a sequential manner by the proposed cascade classifier for recognition purpose. Once the corresponding feature is verified by the classifier at current stage, it can proceed to next stage; otherwise, the system will reset to the initial state and wait for the appearance of another feature sequence. With the proposed cascade classification architecture, the computational burden and power consumption issue on the smart phone system can be alleviated. Moreover, as we will see in the experiment that a distinguished fall detection accuracy up to 96% on the sensitivity and 99.71% on the specificity can be obtained when a set of 400 test actions in eight different kinds of activities are estimated by using the proposed approach, which justifies the superiority of the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating the effectiveness of low level laser and cupping on low back pain by checking the plasma cortisol level

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (772 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is effective in a lot of clinical treatments, but the photobiological basis of this therapy is not well understood. From our previous study, the effectiveness of laser acupuncture (LA) and cupping applied on low back pain (LBP) has been proved. However, the variation of the plasma cortisol level is unknown. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of LA and cupping on LBP by checking the plasma cortisol level. Fifty patients of either sex over 60 years old with LBP were recruited into a single blinded trial. Active group (LA plus soft cupping) and placebo group (sham LA plus soft cupping) were treated for five days. Laser, 40mW, wavelength 808nm, pulse rate 20Hz, was used to irradiate Weizhong (BL40) and Ashi acupoints for 10 minutes. The variation of VAS was recorded and blood samples were taken for the measurement of plasma cortisol levels. There was a significant fall in plasma cortisol in active group (p = 0.013) and placebo group (p = 0.039) after five days' treatment. This result showed that for the people with chronic LBP there is a beneficial effect if they continuously receive the treatment for five days. However, the combination of LA and cupping seems to quickly reduce the inflammation situation than placebo group did. View full abstract»

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  • Automated Fugl-Meyer Assessment using SVR model

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (715 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple, objective and quantitative unsupervised outcome measure is considered vital in the home-based rehabilitation for stroke patients. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) scale is widely utilized in the clinical practice, while not suitable in the home settings due to its subjective and time-consuming property. In this paper, a Support Vector Regression (SVR) based evaluation model was presented to automatically estimate the FMA scores for Shoulder-Elbow movement. The estimation was obtained by analyzing accelerometer data recorded during the performance of 4 tasks from Shoulder-Elbow FMA. A combined feature selection method based on ReliefF-SVR was implemented to simplify the calculation and improve the model performance. Twenty-four subjects were involved in this study and results showed that it was possible to achieve accurate estimation of Shoulder-Elbow FMA scores using the proposed model and a cross-validation prediction error value of 2.1273 was achieved. View full abstract»

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  • ThuPIS: A new affective image system for psychological analysis

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    Traditional evaluations of human psychological status usually have a great dependence on the experience of the operator, and it is still a challenge to automate the evaluation process. In this study, a new image system ThuPIS (the Tsinghua Psychological Image System) is designed based on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), a classical personality inventory in clinical mental health diagnose. The goal of ThuPIS is to build an ontology of affective images, which can active difference of physiological reactions among people with different psychological status. Specific image contents were chosen according to the items of MMPI, and organized by a hierarchy structure. Images were rated according to an overall impression, and those with affective ambiguous were eliminated. An experiment was conducted based on ThuPIS, and the results provide evidence that images in this image system could lead to difference in response time of positive facial expression when participants hold different attitudes towards the background images. This new image system could also supplies materials for other studies on human cognition. It is a brand new work and more practical assessments on the new image system are expected along the way. View full abstract»

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  • Region segmentation in 3-D optical coherence tomography images

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1647 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a novel region segmentation method created to enhance spatial relationships in 3-D optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. To reduce the noise and distortion problems in low-resolution OCT images, previous work used the mean value and an enhanced-fuzzy-c-mean algorithm to cluster pixels in 2-D OCT images and find the edge between different clustered regions. To utilize more spatial relationships and to reduce computation time, the proposed method uses the mean value and a 3-D filter-based-fuzzy-c-mean algorithm to cluster pixels in 3-D OCT images and find the edge between different clustered regions. The OCT images of an artificial object used to simulate vessels are tested in the experiment, and the segmented regions of interest are reconstructed via AVIZO for 3-D display purposes. View full abstract»

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  • On the gene group problem

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    The analysis of gene networks is one of the hardest works in microarray analysis. Due to a lot of gene connection relations, it is complicated to analyze gene networks for understanding the evolution and functions of genomes. Gene team is a model for conserved gene clusters. However, it is defined on a genome of linear structure. In this paper, by transforming a gene network to a graph, we propose the concept of a gene group, i.e., closed genes according to their functions. An experimental study is proposed. We think this graph approach may be useful for finding closed genes. View full abstract»

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  • A Bluetooth-based Low-Energy Qi-compliant battery charger for implantable medical devices

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1066 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a smart battery charging system implementing the recently established Qi wireless power transmission standard. Proposed device offers the possibility of charging batteries with any Qi certified power transmitter. It eliminates the dependency to a special charger making energy supplying possible in public places and foreign countries without special equipment or adapters. It is remotely controlled through Bluetooth Low Energy protocol allowing real-time control and supervision with smartphones. The proposed device can be used with single or multiple implants architecture. Experiments have been conducted with various implants prototypes. Proposed charging system ensured proper operation and supervision. System design and experimental results are reported and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Classification of leukemia gene expression profiles based on multivariant optimization algorithm

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    Classification of leukemia samples based on gene expression profiles has been proved an efficient way. Large numbers of intelligence algorithms have been exploited based on this purpose. However, few of them display stable and accurate performance for both low and high gene dimensionalities. Still none of them could keep the history information of optimization. Here, a classification algorithm based on the novel multivariant optimization algorithm (MOA) is proposed. Leukemia gene expression profiles with different dimensionalities are used for validation. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) and the two-layer particle swarm optimization (TLPSO) algorithm are used for comparison. The MOA shows stable and relatively accurate classification performance and could be used as an effective classification algorithm for gene expression profiles. View full abstract»

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  • A low-power super-regenerative BFSK transceiver for intelligent healthcare monitoring system

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    The present is proposed a low power RF-transceiver included a receiver and a transmitter. A gain amplifier and a supper regenerative divider construct an RF receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and a one stage power amplifier (PA) consist an RF transmitter. The digital modulation, binary frequency shift-keying (BFSK), is employed to modulate a wireless communication signal for proposed interactive intelligent healthcare monitoring system (IIHMS). The gain amplifier of RF receiver is biased in sub-threshold region for low power application. The proposed RF transceiver implemented in TSMC 0.18-μm 1P6M standard CMOS process with a chip area of 2.47 mm2. The measurement results show that the power consumption of the RF transmitter and receiver are 2.34 mW and 1.26 mW, respectively, under the lower supply voltage of 1.2 V. View full abstract»

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