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Appropriate Medical Technology for Developing Countries (Ref. No. 2000/014), IEE Seminar on

Date 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • Repair and maintenance of scientific instruments, computer and audiological equipment in East Africa from June 1994 to July 1997

    Page(s): 10/1 - 10/4
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    During the early 1990s, a representative from Nescot went on a number of recruitment campaigns in East Africa to recruit students onto Biological/Biomedical Science courses. In many government institutions, hospitals, universities and private companies he was shown large numbers of unrepaired instruments, unpacked donated equipment and equipment without servicing manuals. A need had been identified to run Repair and Maintenance short courses in East Africa. The School of Scientific Technology at Nescot had been running 6 to 8 week full-time Audiology Maintenance Technology Courses for the Commonwealth Society for the Deaf and the programme/core syllabus for this course was used to write the proposed outline programme. A brief summary of this programme is presented View full abstract»

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  • Medical devices in Cuba: a possible lesson for other developing countries

    Page(s): 13/1 - 13/3
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    In February of 1996 I visited Cuba with a group of physicians who made regular visits to their colleagues in Cuba to provide assistance, training, and encouragement. Their reason for inviting me was that the equipment in the hospitals was reaching a parlous state, and they wanted to know how best to respond. A brief outline of my visit is presented after which I suggested a simple proposal: first identify a suitable niche; ay light bulbs for microscopes, or pH electrodes; then 1. offer investment capital, 2. provide essential raw materials, 3. offer management expertise, 4. export finished goods to other third world countries when appropriate. It is clear that the failure of this simple plan to captivate the minds of my many contacts in Cuba and among the physicians in Canada indicates that we are talking the wrong language. This is not an appropriate solution. The reasons for this failure are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Medical equipment sustainability-a technical assistance approach

    Page(s): 15/1 - 15/2
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    A 6 year equipment technical assistant programme was designed to improve equipment availability and maintenance skills in The Salvation Army hospitals in developing countries. Workshops on hospital equipment maintenance and management have been held in health care facilities in an attempt to improve local skills in medical equipment maintenance and facility planning relating to hospital assets. The application of planned maintenance techniques by maintenance staff who have attended training sessions has resulted in much of the old equipment being revitalized to provide just that little more service life. The results of this programme have been very encouraging and have shown particular effect in hospitals where techniques and skills learnt at workshops and practical demonstration have been implemented. Examples show that equipment maintenance can produce worthy results if maintenance and clinical staff can work together to accomplish regular and basic equipment care and management View full abstract»

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  • The development of a haemoglobinmeter and field microscope for primary health care use in developing countries

    Page(s): 6/1 - 6/3
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    There is a pressing need for appropriately designed diagnostic instruments for rural health clinics in developing countries. This paper describes some work carried out in conjunction with Primary Diagnostics Ltd. to develop a haemoglobinmeter (the AnaemascanTM) and a field microscope. Both designs are tailored to their severe working environment and to as low a price as possible given their specification. The paper describes the design approach and the measures taken to ensure the effectiveness of the instruments View full abstract»

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  • Health care technology for developing countries

    Page(s): 11/1 - 11/6
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    The World Health Organisation (WHO) has set a goal for the year 2000 which is `health for all'. However a question has arisen concerning the appropriateness of health care technology for developing countries. This paper looks at health care technology not simply as medical equipment and drugs, but as a multidisciplinary approach including disease management, information technology and medical engineering. Poverty is often a contributing factor for disease reoccurrence in poor economic countries. For such disease hazards to be controlled, health risk assessment and disease management is needed through a programme of identification, evaluation, prediction and prevention. Some examples of current health management from Egypt, Ghana, and a project on Control of Cardiovascular Disease in Developing Countries are used to illustrate how diseases are mismanaged in these countries. Information technology plays a major role in every field of modern development and is an essential tool in health care. It has been identified that there is a widening gap between scientific research conducted in developing and industrialised countries. A range of problems can hinder the development of medical engineering, such as bureaucracy, management issues (planning, selecting, purchasing and maintenance), outdated equipment and conflict with cultural values. Solutions have been identified to improve health care technology in developing countries and are discussed in this paper. To achieve the goal of `health for all' the international community needs to support, coordinate and financially assist a long-term programme of sustainable health care View full abstract»

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  • Healthcare infrastructure for developing countries

    Page(s): 18/1 - 18/4
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  • Managing medical technology

    Page(s): 19/1 - 19/4
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    The development and impact of medical device technology has never been more apparent than in today's health care environment. Sophisticated procedures, techniques and risk management requirements have led to the continued development of all types of devices. Clinicians have also experienced an emphasis shift in practice whereby many medical device functions have moved from being one of supporting clinical practice to that of being an integral requirement in treatment delivery. The ability to reduce mortality is associated with the amount of technology available. Clinicians are at a stage that without the use of the many available devices procedures could not be carried out safely. Remarkable progress in improved outcomes from some conditions has been noted, particularly when severely ill patients are treated in well equipped and well managed units which have clear directorship and comprehensive management guidelines and protocols. This however, is a double-edged sword because as devices become more complex the associated risks also increase and as such also need to be managed. It is also clear that improved training is an integral part of any good risk management strategy. How many nurses or doctors in the UK today can claim that they have received comprehensive training on the devices they use, the author suspects not many. This paper emphasizes the need for health care organizations to develop a robust management strategy, which ensures medical devices are used safely and efficiently View full abstract»

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  • The Glostavent: an anaesthetic machine for difficult situations

    Page(s): 3/1 - 3/3
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    The ideal anaesthetic machine for use in difficult situations is very different from the expensive and sophisticated machines currently used in many modern hospitals. Such a machine needs to be simple, reliable, robust, inexpensive, easily serviceable using local skills, versatile and, above all capable of functioning in the event of a breakdown in the supply of oxygen cylinders or electricity, circumstances which are only too common in many parts of the world and which have been responsible for numerous tragedies View full abstract»

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  • Anaesthetic experiences in central Asia

    Page(s): 4/1 - 4/3
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  • Supporting medical technology in developing countries-what is appropriate?

    Page(s): 2/1 - 2/2
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    One takes it for granted that equipment used in hospitals will work when required and one gives little thought for the maintenance and servicing that occurs unseen. Living, as one does, in a “developed” and “industrialised” country, if medical equipment is faulty, the medical procedures will be interrupted just long enough for a replacement machine to be wheeled in. However, if equipment is to have a long life and be used effectively and efficiently the technical staff who provide the technical management and maintenance of the medical equipment are just as important as the medical staff. Advances in medicine are occurring all the time. Quite rightly these advances are recognized for the improvements that they offer one but all these benefits are assisted or made possible by equally significant advances in the technology of the instrumentation. Consider the situation in those countries of the world where industrial development is less established. In these countries, maintenance of the medical equipment is very difficult and in many countries nearly impossible. Repair and maintenance require several pre-requisites before they can be undertaken. The skilled staff must have had the appropriate training so that they can carry out the work effectively without making the situation inadvertently worse. They need the correct tools and test equipment and it is essential that they have the correct spare parts to fit when they need them. Unfortunately, in developing countries most of these necessary requirements are missing. There is a shortage of technical staff, and even those employed may lack the experience to deal with the more complex technical problems that are growing as one's advanced medical technology is introduced haphazardly. Workshops are inadequately equipped and lack the technical manuals that are so necessary for correct maintenance. Spare parts are also a major problem since they are almost always imported. This poses another problem since such imports usually have to be paid for with foreign exchange, which in many developing countries is in very short supply View full abstract»

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  • New self-contained diagnostic instruments to strengthen rural primary health-care in developing countries

    Page(s): 5/1 - 5/8
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    Since most tropical diseases and ailments can be diagnosed with a combination of centrifugation and microscopy, these procedures have been used as the basis for designing and developing new and more appropriate diagnostic tools. From the outset one clear design imperative was that all instruments be fully self-contained and in no way dependent upon external sources of electricity or batteries. The instruments include: the `PIMA' PCV/Hb reader; the `SPIN-DOCTOR' mini-centrifuge; the `JABRIC' multi-purpose manual centrifuge; the `SATURN' portable electric centrifuge; the `PORTASOL' solar panel; the `ANAEMASCAN' electronic digital Hb meter; and the `PATHSCAN' portable solar-powered microscope View full abstract»

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  • Not-for-profit supply of appropriate medical equipment and technical support to developing countries

    Page(s): 14/1 - 14/3
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    ECHO International Health Services Limited is a charity which provides, on a not-for-profit basis, medical dental and laboratory equipment (both new and reconditioned), surgical instruments, medical consumables and supplies, pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials, technical advice and support and training to the world's most disadvantaged people. An outline is presented of the historical development of ECHO, third world problems and needs, customers, products, training, advisory/educational support and future challenges View full abstract»

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  • Technical assistance programme

    Page(s): 21/1
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  • Appropriate medical technology for developing countries: experience from CME Nyankunde

    Page(s): 20/1 - 20/5
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    Many developing countries find themselves flooded with sophisticated medical equipment that they can neither maintain nor repair. After several months, the equipment breaks down due to wear and tear. Problems start with lack of technically qualified staff. It is most painful when you visit hospitals and there is nobody who can explain to you what is wrong with out-of-service equipment. As a consequence, on one hand, people go round in circles when they have to buy new equipment, knowing that it will be unusable soon. With donations on the other hand, we are in a dilemma. It is not easy to influence the nature of such gifts, though it would be very helpful indeed if donors could provide comprehensive technical documentation, sufficient spare-parts and user and maintenance training. Very often no local agents are available. Thus, prolonging the lifetime of equipment remains a priority. This seminar on appropriate technology for developing countries will hopefully give strong impetus to our work at CME Nyankunde and the work of many other health structures in developing countries View full abstract»

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