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Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2014 IEEE 27th International Conference on

Date 26-30 Jan. 2014

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 335
  • Letter from the chairs

    Page(s): 1
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  • Organizing Committee

    Page(s): 1 - 3
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  • Acknowledgements

    Page(s): 1
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  • Program schedule

    Page(s): 1 - 58
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  • Author index

    Page(s): 1 - 31
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  • Keyword index

    Page(s): 1 - 23
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  • [Copyright notice]

    Page(s): 1
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  • Microfabricated implantable wireless microsystems: Permanent and biodegradable implementations

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (878 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The tremendous technological convergence of microfabrication technology, wireless communication technology, and low-power circuitry has opened the possibility of widespread use of microfabricated implantable wireless microsystems. A typical operational mode for these microsystems is to transduce a physiological parameter relevant to a disease state of interest, and wirelessly communicate this parameter external to the body to guide therapy. For chronic disease states, long-term, permanent sensors are of interest; while for acute disease states, biodegradable wireless microsystems may be of interest. Two microsystem examples, permanent pressure sensors for chronic monitoring of patients with congestive heart failure, and biodegradable pressure sensors for acute monitoring of patients with transient conditions, are given. View full abstract»

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  • An integrated microfluidic system for rapid isolation and detection of live bacteria in periprosthetic joint infections

    Page(s): 5 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2494 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is difficult to treat and the incidence is between 1% and 2% in primary arthroplasties. Implant-associated infections usually arise via either primary infections from bacterial invasion at the time of implant surgery or secondary infections from hematogenous sources. The two-stage re-implantation protocol that consists of extensive debridement at the first stage followed by delayed re-implantation is currently the standard process for chronic PJI with a success rate between 82% to 95%. Furthermore, re-implantation arthroplasty should be only performed after ensuring the complete eradication of bacterial infection to avoid devastating complications. However, it is still a challenge in clinical practice to accurately determine the eradication of infections before or during implantation. Conventional diagnostic methods such as measurements of serum C-reactive protein or interleukin-6 levels, culture of joint aspirates, and microscopic examination of tissue biopsy are either non-specific or relatively time-consuming. For critical decision-making before or during the re-implantation surgery, a quick method with high sensitivity and specificity is therefore of great need. Previous studies reported bacterial ribosomal ribonucleic acids (rRNAs) as a target for the diagnosis of infections since rRNAs are highly conserved among bacterial species and abundant in amount. By using universal primers, the presence of bacterial rRNA could be amplified by using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Currently the RT-PCR method for detection of bacterial rRNA is highly sensitive with a limit of detection (LOD) as low as a pictogram level. However, RT-PCR signals could only indirectly distinguish live from dead bacteria based on the degradation of rRNA in the tissue. Furthermore, the whole detection procedure of 16s rRNA RT-PCR is labor-intensive. Therefore, an integrated microfluidic system was presented in this work, which cou- d distinguish the existence of live bacteria within 1 hour with a LOD of 104 colony formation unit (CFU). In this study, the fabrication of the microfluidic chip was improved so that the consistency of the transported liquid volume was increased. Moreover, by using an ethidium monoazide (EMA) assay, the cumbersome pre-treatment process of rRNA in live bacteria can be alleviated. This is the first time that a microfluidic platform was reported to detect live bacteria successfully in PJI samples. View full abstract»

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  • A cable-tie-type parylene cuff electrode for peripheral nerve interfaces

    Page(s): 9 - 12
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1137 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have designed, fabricated and characterized a cable-tie-type parylene cuff electrode for peripheral nerve interfaces, whose diameter is adjustable to accommodate the nerve properly during implantation. Cuffs made of thin and flexible parylene minimize mechanical damage to surrounding tissues after implantation. Moreover, the integrated parylene cable and pads facilitate the connection with external circuits through wired or wireless interfaces. Using the fabricated cable-tie-type parylene cuff electrodes, acute neural recoding and stimulation tests were performed on the rat sciatic nerve to verify the capabilities of recording the neural activity and selectively stimulating different nerve fascicles. View full abstract»

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  • A silicon electro-mechano tissue assay surgical tweezer

    Page(s): 13 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2397 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Surgeons make decisions on the use of different surgical tools providing a spectrum of contact forces to cut and manipulate tissue. These decisions are mostly made without quantitative data about the mechanical integrity and mechanical properties of the tissue. Here we report on an instrumented silicon tweezer for characterizing the electromechanical properties of tissue that is being tweezed by the device. The tweezer is designed for characterizing tissue during surgical procedures. This silicon tweezer was designed with a spring constant of 9 N/m, and maximum silicon stress of 80.7 MPa during the tweezing motion to prevent silicon fracture. Multiple thin-film sensors are integrated along with the silicon tweezer, four sets of strain gauges, two sets of permittivity sensors and sixteen platinum bio-potential recording electrodes. Therefore, insertion force, permittivity and electrical properties of tissue can be monitored simultaneously at different locations provide fast information in time critical surgeries. A set of piezoelectric transducers is attached on the legs of the tweezer for gap monitoring with 20 μm displacement resolution. The tissue stiffness can then be estimated by the measured through applied force and distance variation. This device addresses a key problem during intestinal anastomoses surgical operation where stapling devices are used to seal tissue. View full abstract»

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  • Highly packed liposome assemblies toward synthetic tissue

    Page(s): 17 - 19
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1629 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presented an approach for preparation of a highly-packed liposome assembly that implemented lipid bilayer-lipid bilayer contact at the interfaces to mimic a cell-cell connection on living tissues. Cell-sized liposomes were closely packed using our previous technique that allowed monodisperse liposomes arrayed on a substrate. We explored the lipid patterning conditions that would provide a packed structure of the liposomes. By further works, we believe that the assembled structure would be useful for a tissue model. View full abstract»

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  • Whole-angle-mode micromachined fused-silica birdbath resonator gyroscope (WA-BRG)

    Page(s): 20 - 23
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4571 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the fused-silica micromachined birdbath resonator gyroscope (μ-BRG) operating in the whole-angle (WA) mode. The key advantages of the whole angle mode operation is rotation angle measurement, large bandwidth, and full-scale range which is needed in detecting the motion of fast-moving objects. The μ-BRG is made with fused silica using a micro blow-torching process and has n = 2 wineglass modes at 10.46 kHz with a small frequency mismatch (Δf = 10 Hz) and a decay time (τ) of 2.2s. The WA-BRG achieves a stable angular gain (Ag) and a large full scale range (700°/s). View full abstract»

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  • 100K Q-factor toroidal ring gyroscope implemented in wafer-level epitaxial silicon encapsulation process

    Page(s): 24 - 27
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1439 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports a new type of degenerate mode gyroscope with measured Q-factor of > 100,000 on both modes at a compact size of 1760 μm diameter. The toroidal ring gyroscope consists of an outer anchor ring, concentric rings nested inside the anchor ring and an electrode assembly at the inner core. Current implementation uses n = 3 wineglass mode, which is inherently robust to fabrication asymmetries. Devices were fabricated using high-temperature, ultra-clean epitaxial silicon encapsulation (EpiSeal) process. Over the 4 devices tested, lowest as fabricated frequency split was found to be 8.5 Hz (122 ppm) with a mean of 21 Hz (Δf/f = 300 ppm). Further electrostatic tuning brought the frequency split below 100 mHz (<; 2 ppm). Whole angle mechanization and pattern angle was demonstrated using a high speed DSP control system. Characterization of the gyro performance using force-rebalance mechanization revealed ARW of 0.047°/√hr and an in-run bias stability of 0.65 deg/hr. Due to the high Q-factor and robust support structure, the device can potentially be instrumented in whole angle mechanization for applications which require high rate sensitivity and robustness to g-forces. View full abstract»

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  • Single proof-mass tri-axial pendulum accelerometers operating in vacuum

    Page(s): 28 - 31
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3104 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on the design, fabrication and characterization of single proof-mass tri-axial capacitive accelerometers coexisting in a low-pressure environment with high-frequency gyroscopes, for the implementation of monolithic 6-degree-of-freedom inertial measurement units. The accelerometers are designed to operate as quasi-static devices (i.e. non-resonant sensors) in mid vacuum levels (1-10 Torr) by increasing squeeze-film air damping through the use of capacitive nano-gaps (<; 300 nm). Reduced die area is achieved utilizing a pendulum-like structure composed of a 450×450×40 μm3 proof-mass anchored to the substrate by a cross-shaped polysilicon spring. The small capacitive gaps, allow for the design of devices with high resonance frequency (~ 15 kHz) that provide large shock and vibration immunity. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous detection of linear and coriolis accelerations on a mode-matched MEMS gyroscope

    Page(s): 32 - 35
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1202 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel “in operation acceleration sensing and compensation method” for a single-mass mode-matched MEMS gyroscope. In this method, the amplitudes of the sustained residual quadrature signals on the differential sense-mode electrodes are compared to measure the linear acceleration acting on the sense-axis of the gyroscope. By measuring the acceleration acting along the sense-axis, the g-sensitivity of the gyroscope output to these accelerations is mitigated without using a dedicated accelerometer. It has been experimentally demonstrated that the g-sensitivity of the studied gyroscope is substantially reduced from 1.08°/s/g to 0.04°/s/g, and the effect of the linear acceleration on the gyroscope output is highly-suppressed (by 96%) with the use of the compensation method proposed in this work. View full abstract»

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  • A static capacitance probe structure for resolving the sidewall skew angle of Silicon Deep Reactive-Ion Etching

    Page(s): 36 - 39
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1744 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents a static capacitive probe structure that enables quantitative characterization of the effective sidewall skew angle of the Silicon Deep-Reactive-Ion-Etching (DRIE) using static LCR prober at ambient environment. The design is capable of resolving sidewall skew angles around both in-plane axes independently and simultaneously with the same sensitivity. The measured distributions of the sidewall skew angle across 8-inch wafers conform to empirical expectation and correlate tightly with quadrature error distributions measured gyroscopes from the same wafers. This work provides an easy, accurate and batch solution to the long existing challenge of resolving such process features in an industrial manufacturing environment. View full abstract»

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  • Invar-36 Micro Hemispherical Shell Resonators

    Page(s): 40 - 43
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3190 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report, for the first time, on the successful fabrication and operational characterization of electroplated Invar Micro-Hemispherical Shell Resonators (μHSR). The heat treatment of the samples and its effect on the quality factor (Q) of the resonators is studied. We show that thermal annealing shifts the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the alloy towards its minimum of ~2ppm/°C, as a result of which the Q of a 29kHz μHSR with diameter of 780 μm increases at least 3 times and reaches 7500 in vacuum. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of single/multi-layer magnetic-anisotropy magnetic polymer composites for magnetic property modulation

    Page(s): 44 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (938 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study exploits the two stage solidification technology to fabricate the isotropie/anisotropie magnetic polymer composites (MPC, polymer with magnetic particles). Multilayer magnetic isotropie/anisotropie MPC film can also be implemented using the two stage solidification process layer by layer. Merits of proposed technology: (1) material properties of magnetic-anisotropy MPC layer is realized using the two stage solidification and anisotropie magnetization processes, and (2) film with various magnetic properties can also be implemented using different composition of multilayer magnetic anisotropy MPCs. In applications, the multilayer polymer NdFeB magnetic composites are realized in silicon substrate and further integrate with MEMS structures. The 1-3 layers of different magnetic anisotropy MPC are demonstrated. Performances enhancement of magnetic anisotropy 30wt% NdFeB MPC (vs isotropie MPC) are: coercivity force (3.4%), remanence (304%), and saturation magnetization (268%). Anisotropie magnetostatic shielding effect that reduced from 0.45Telsa to 0.3-0.35Telsa) is also achieved. Moreover, changing of magnetic field distributions after different magnetic anisotropy MPC layers stacking is also demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • CNT bundles growth on microhotplates for direct measurement of their thermal properties

    Page(s): 48 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1976 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Vertically aligned Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) arrays were successfully grown on top of a freestanding microhotplate, to investigate the thermal dissipation properties of CNT bundles and their applicability as heat exchanger. Two CNT configurations are employed: a group of six bundles, each with a diameter of 20 μm, and a single CNT bundle with a diameter of 200 μm. In both configurations the bundles are 70 μm high. The microhotplate consists of a platinum thin film microheater integrated on a freestanding silicon nitride membrane. The microhotplate is used as heat source and as temperature sensor. Results show that at 300 °C, 20% and 31% of power can be saved with the circular six and single bundle configurations, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • 3D ICE printing as a fabrication technology of microfluidics with pre-sealed reagents

    Page(s): 52 - 55
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    This paper proposes a fast and inexpensive method to fabricate 3D structure by “ice printing”. This “bottom-up” 3D fabrication method is achieved by printing water onto the cold surface and turning into ice structure layer by layer. Through this method, fluid with reagents, such as drugs and nanoparticles, is sealed into microfluidics during fabrication, which is available for drug delivery or other medical care applications. Moreover, complex micro-channels are easily fabricated using 3D ice structure as soft lithography mould, which can be used for microfluidic mixer, three dimensional flow focusing, etc. View full abstract»

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  • Liquid-filled sealed MEMS capsules fabricated by fluidic self-assembly

    Page(s): 56 - 59
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3118 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a new method to encapsulate functional liquids into sealed MEMS capsules by fluidic self-assembly. Self-assembly of 200 μm SU-8 cargos and picoliter liquid co-encapsulation are driven by the interplay of global fluidic drag and short-range capillary forces. The latter ensues from the localized surface-selective precipitation of a photopolymerizable adhesive onto the capsules' rim. Assembly yield higher than 50% is achieved, and can be improved by optimized agitation and shape matching. The method is massively parallel, scalable and compatible with batch MEMS fabrication. It can address a variety of applications, including distributed MEMS, cell encapsulation and drug delivery. View full abstract»

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  • 3D mask modules using two-photon direct laser writingtechnology for continuous lithography process on fibers

    Page(s): 60 - 63
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we report a new fabrication method of three dimensional (3D) mask modules using two-photon direct laser writing technology in 140 μm-diameter half-pipe structure on quartz substrates. For the first time, the two-photon direct laser writing technology is successfully utilized for high-resolution patterning process on a curved surface. The minimum feature sizes of about 2 μm are successfully fabricated in the 140 μm-diameter half-pipe structure. Using the new 3D mask modules, fine metal patterns are prepared on 125 μm-diameter fiber. The results demonstrated that the preparation of the 3D mask modules became more feasible by using the new method, and thus could be expected in the practical application of 3D photolithography process on fibers. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of a monolithic microdischarge-based pressure sensor for harsh environments

    Page(s): 64 - 67
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1130 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a 6-mask monolithic fabrication process for a pressure sensor that uses a differential microdischarge signal to sense diaphragm deflection. Microdischarge-based transduction is potentially advantageous for device miniaturization and harsh environments because of inherently large signals and immunity to temperature. This work reports a monolithic fabrication process that successfully addresses a number of challenges for microdischarge-based pressure sensors, such as three-dimensional (3D) electrical connection by electroplating laser-drilled through-glass vias (TGVs), and backside terminals for appropriate packages. The device has an exterior volume of 585×540×200 μm3 (0.05 mm3). Preliminary results show an estimated average sensitivity equivalent to 9,800 ppm/MPa over 0-40 MPa pressure range. View full abstract»

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  • Bionic skins using flexible organic devices

    Page(s): 68 - 71
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3974 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have fabricated ultrathin, ultra-lightweight, ultraflexible, organic devices, such as organic thin-film transistors (TFTs), organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) on polymeric films with the thickness of only 1 μm. The ultrathin organic devices are utilized to fabricate human-machine interfaces such as a touch sensor and wearable electronic systems such as an electromyogram measurement sheet with a two-dimensional array of organic amplifiers. The transistor films exhibit extraordinarily tough mechanical robustness such as minimum bending radius of 5 μm for organic TFTs. View full abstract»

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