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Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Technology, 1992. AUV '92., Proceedings of the 1992 Symposium on

Date 2-3 June 1992

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  • Proceedings of the 1992 Symposium on Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Technology. AUV '92 (Cat. No.92CH3170-8)

    Publication Year: 1992
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • AUV's trends over the world in the future decade

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 116 - 127
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
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    The author describes autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) developments and applications world-wide, AUV development in China, and AUV trends. Besides developments in China, those in the USA, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan, and Russia are discussed, such as deep ocean modelling, ocean bottom exploration, ocean bottom sampling, deep ocean work platform, underwater survey, and so on. A testbed facility is described. AUV research topics are outlined View full abstract»

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  • Local-remote telerobotics for underwater vehicles

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 11 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    An operational local-remote telerobot system which provides interactive supervisory control of robots which are spatially and/or temporally remote from the local operator station is described. The system has been implemented for the NASA Space Station Freedom engineering prototype development program as a technology prototype dual-arm local-remote system for space telerobotics. The system has two distinct parts: the local site user macro interface for interactive task description and execution, and the remote site task execution system providing single and dual-arm autonomous control. Various time delays can be artificially introduced into the laboratory system to study operations under communication time delay. The remote site of the system and the local site are described. Experimental results are presented. Advanced capabilities currently under development are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Use of laser scanning system on mobile underwater platforms

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 202 - 205
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
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    An underwater laser-based synchronous scanning system which produces high quality images through turbid waters is described. A prototype system has been developed to demonstrate the operational feasibility of the synchronous line scan architecture. This prototype system incorporated an argon ion laser operating at 488 and 514.5 nm. Operational systems could incorporate a frequency doubled Nd:YAG solid-state laser operating at a wavelength of 532 nm. Both laser configurations operate at wavelengths attractive for use in underwater systems due to minimum light attenuation at these wavelengths. The operational platform results presented were performed on a research submarine and a towed body View full abstract»

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  • Integrated mission planning architectures for unmanned underwater vehicles

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 85 - 90
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    Deployment and operational capability of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) can be enhanced by leveraging mission planning technologies that have been developed for cruise missiles (CM), unmanned air vehicle (UAV) control, and space applications. The authors discuss the architecture, design philosophy, and application of command, control, communication, classification, and information (C4I) technology to future UUV operations. They provide a framework of the approach for an integrated UUV and mission planning architecture. This approach has resulted from past CM and UAV work, but is tailored to the unique UUV environment. In particular, the unique UUV environment consists of low bandwidth communications, extended mission times, and limited space available for the UUV planning and controlling element (UPCE). The architecture shown illustrates a low-cost/low-risk functional approach to the planning, control, and monitoring of UUV systems. The intent of this architecture is to provide the UUV with sufficient autonomy to require minimum attention by the mission planner and controller View full abstract»

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  • A new adaptive signal detector in the noises

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 259 - 263
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    An adaptive signal detector applicable to a noise environment is described. A method for obtaining the reference signal is presented for the adaptive noise canceler. An adaptive algorithm is also presented which can be used for the adaptive signal detector, the adaptive noise canceler, and the adaptive main frequency interference canceler. The main features of this adaptive algorithm are: (1) both the model order and model parameters can be easily updated according to the new data sequences; (2) it is an orthogonalized recursive algorithm and its stability is better than that of the traditional recursive least squares (RLS) method; and (3) the algorithm is simple and flexible. Three simulation examples are given. The first two are the adaptive signal detectors in noise and the third is for the adaptive main frequency interference canceler. The simulation results show that the idea of the adaptive signal detector is correct View full abstract»

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  • An experimental comparison of hierarchical and subsumption software architectures for control of an autonomous underwater vehicle

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 135 - 141
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    A three-level hybrid architecture is used to model both a hierarchical and a subsumption controller for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The hierarchical model uses a backward chaining language (PROLOG) while the subsumption model uses a forward chaining language (CLIPS). The details of the backward chaining hierarchical implementation of the strategic level of mission control are first presented. This is followed by a similar description of the functionally equivalent subsumption controller. Experimental results and the advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed. CLIPS and PROLOG ran virtually even in terms of execution time. Also, the total run time of the experiment was dominated by the graphical simulator. A repeat of the experiment in which the controllers were decoupled from the simulator resulted in execution times between three and four seconds. This reinforces the view of PROLOG and CLIPS as viable language alternatives for the mission control of complex systems. However, PROLOG is the more concise of the two languages and is easier to read View full abstract»

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  • AUV path planning: an A* approach to path planning with consideration of variable vehicle speeds and multiple, overlapping, time-dependent exclusion zones

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 79 - 84
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)  

    The authors describe an implementation of a path planner suitable for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The path planning unit is capable of maintaining a quadtree database of depth information, obstacles, and exclusion zones: verifying a previously planned path; generating a new path between successive goal points; and generating a path to the nearest point of a safe region. If a path does not exist within the given constraints, the path planner returns a reason for the failure. The path planner attempts to find a 3D corridor that does not intersect any nonentry zones. An A* algorithm is used to generate path corridors along great circle routes. The path planner's real-time performance in open, constricted, and real-world situations is discussed. Additional factors affecting performance such as the number of different vehicle speeds, the quadtree resolution, and the number of nonentry zones blocking the goal are considered View full abstract»

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  • A new jet propulsion device for small subsea robots

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 112 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The authors are developing a propulsion device for short duration positioning of small subsea robots that mimics the jet mechanism used by squid. The water jet is generated by a gas-operated hydraulic actuator. The authors describe the concept of the device and some control tests soon to be conducted on a simple configuration in a wave tank facility View full abstract»

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  • Aluminum silver oxide reserve primary battery for small submersibles

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 181 - 183
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    A simple modular aluminum/silver oxide reserve primary battery has been designed for small submersibles. The battery is capable of delivering high power output from a small volume. The cathodes were made of chemically prepared silver oxide powder supported by a silver-plated reticulated nickel matrix. This cathode had a higher energy density than a cathode made from electrochemically charged silver. The anodes were made from an aluminum alloy with low corrosion characteristics. This enhanced the energy density and virtually eliminated hydrogen gassing. The battery was designed to fit into a 6.25 in. diameter×25 in. long hull section. This design yielded a battery with an energy density of 37 Wh/lb View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive testing of controllers for autonomous vehicles

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 158 - 164
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB)  

    The authors discuss techniques for the evaluation of complex software systems, and for the identification of classes of vehicle faults that are most likely to impact negatively on the performance of a proposed autonomous vehicle controller. The approach involves subjecting a controller to an adaptively chosen set of fault scenarios within a vehicle simulator, and searching for combinations of faults that produce noteworthy performance by the vehicle controller. The search uses a genetic algorithm. The approach is illustrated by evaluating the performance of a subsumption-based controller for an autonomous vehicle. The preliminary evidence suggests that this approach is an effective alternative to manual testing of sophisticated software controllers View full abstract»

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  • High-resolution monopulse piezopolymer sonar sensor

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 209 - 214
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A novel sonar sensor is described which utilizes two coincident, distributed, shaded polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezopolymer sensors to provide high-resolution target bearing estimates. Sensor shading is accomplished by suitably shaping the charge collection electrodes deposited on the sensing layer. When these two sensor shadings are matched via a derivative in space, the ratio of their signal outputs is linearly proportional to the direction cosine of an incident acoustic field; this is an extension of the well-known monopulse concept. A hardware implementation of the sensor is also described. The influence of ambient noise level on bearing resolution is addressed. The sensor concept developed provides a means of obtaining high-spatial-resolution sonar data for applications such as sea floor profiling, sea floor mapping, mine detection, and precision homing. In particular, the concept is pertinent to size- and weight-constrained platforms such as autonomous underwater vehicles View full abstract»

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  • Hydrodynamics of simple robot arm/body configurations

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 109 - 111
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The authors present hydrodynamics data for simple robot arm/body configurations. The long-term goal is to understand the hydrodynamics of subsea robots with multiple link arms undergoing arbitrary motions far from and close to subsea structures while being subjected to wave/current disturbances. For the present exploratory work, attention has been restricted to the drag torque on a single link arm/body configuration undergoing steady body translation and rotation. System parameter identification and neural network identification techniques were used to analyze the data. The goal was to find the data fit which was the most robust. The tank setup and data generated are described View full abstract»

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  • A shaped PVDF hydrophone for producing low sidelobe beampatterns

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 219 - 223
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The authors determine if a multi-wavelength continuous hydrophone, shaped to achieve low sidelobes, can produce desired sidelobes and beamwidths. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was selected as the sensor material. Theoretical beampatterns are calculated for three different hydrophone shapes (or weighting functions). They are the rectangular aperture, the modified linear taper, and a -40 dB, 26-point Chebyshev aperture. The beampatterns are calculated using the summation of weighted discrete elements as an approximation. The approximation is validated by comparing the element summation results of the modified linear taper case to its exact solution using Fourier transforms. Measured beampatterns of a rectangular aperture hydrophone and a modified linear taper shaped hydrophone are compared to the theoretical beampatterns View full abstract»

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  • A knowledge based aid for the selection of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) energy systems

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 177 - 180
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The authors detail the results of a study to develop and evaluate a knowledge-based aid for the selection of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) energy systems. The Royal Naval Engineering College and the University of Calgary have developed a model that allows detailed comparisons of candidate energy systems to be made once a mission profile has been specified. This model, termed ENCALC, is intended to act as an aid in identifying systems worthy of further detailed analysis. The initial phase of the project was intended to validate the operation of the ENCALC model against known data. Subsequently, a Stirling/liquid metal heat source combination was chosen. The initial results, from ENCALC, based on conservative energy, power and heat transfer efficiencies indicated that an 8-m-long AUV with a usable power plant section of 4-m would result in approximately 900 kWh of available stored energy. Considering the propulsive energy requirements of the given mission profile, this resulted in an attainable engine efficiency of 23.5% View full abstract»

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  • A simple approach to planning and executing complex AUV missions

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 95 - 102
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
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    The authors have implemented a simple solution to mission planning for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) which, together with a layered control architecture due to Zheng (1992), results in a reliable and flexible AUV control system. Extending the concept of a highly configurable control system, the solution is to provide the capability for user-defined mission scripts to specify AUV missions. Mission scripts provide configurable, high-level sequence control. The mission script language has been used in the layer-based subsumption and cooperation environment during recent sea trials of the ARCS AUV. The ARCS AUV was the vehicle used for prototype demonstration and development of the technology. The mission script language and the online mission editor which allows the operator to modify mission plans and override mission parameters during mission execution are described View full abstract»

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  • Semi-autonomous underwater vehicles for shallow water mine-clearing

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 22 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The authors present an intelligent control architecture which promises to be useful for controlling a semi-autonomous undersea robot for shallow water mine hunting. The architecture integrates reaction plans and layered competences, providing for reactive behaviors and goal-oriented sequencing of tasks. Control theoretic techniques can be smoothly integrated into the architecture, providing for robust transit and hovering with reactive obstacle avoidance. The architecture could be used in an underwater task to attach detonators to moored mines. Included in this architecture were selective perception routines for high-frequency forward scanning sonars and vision processing from a low-light charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The search routines involved are designed to be interrupted by survival behaviors and subsequently resume processing in the new situation. The reaction plan allows the sonar search, tracking, and vision processing to be retried whenever the task environment disrupts the normal flow of events View full abstract»

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  • User interface design strategies for AUVC software development

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 152 - 157
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
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    The authors describe useful strategies with respect to autonomous underwater vehicle controller (AUVC) software development as used on the AUVC project at the Texas A&M University. Graphical user interface programs (GUIs) have been developed to ease many aspects of system development, integration, and testing as well as mission specification and system initiation, monitoring, shutdown, and analysis. The AUVC project consists of five primary layers of software, and appropriate GUIs have been developed. These GUIs are described View full abstract»

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  • Integrated simulation for rapid development of autonomous underwater vehicles

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 3 - 10
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
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    The autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) integrated simulator has been designed to support complete scientific visualization of AUV vehicle performance. High-resolution 3D graphics workstations can provide real-time representations of vehicle dynamics, control system behavior, mission execution, sonar processing and object classification. Use of well-defined, user-readable mission log files as the data transfer mechanism allows consistent and repeatable simulation of all AUV operations. Examples of integrated simulation are provided using the Naval Postgraduate School AUV, an eight-foot, 387-pound untethered robot submarine designed for research in adaptive control, mission planning, mission execution, and post-mission data analysis View full abstract»

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  • Weight, volume, and power consumption reductions in side look sonar systems for autonomous underwater vehicles

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 246 - 258
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    The author describes research to increase the capability of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) for search applications. Reducing the hotel load contribution of the side-looking sonar (SLS) system increases the endurance of the AUV. A detailed analysis of a state-of-the-art SLS system was performed to obtain a baseline for the study. The relative contributions of transducer, electronics, and interconnections toward the weight, volume, and power consumption were determined. This provides valuable direction in selecting areas where improvements are most promising. Research and analysis was performed to determine and tradeoff technologies, materials, processes, and designs which produce the greatest improvements. Applications of these technologies are developed into design concepts. An improved SLS system design is formulated in anticipation of fabricating a working prototype View full abstract»

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  • The application of the correlation sonar to autonomous underwater vehicle navigation

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 298 - 303
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    The performance of navigational systems used in autonomous underwater vehicles will be enhanced by the addition of a precision velocity sensor. This velocity information can be provided accurately by either correlation velocity log (CVL) or Doppler sonar system. CVL sonar utilizes time-domain measurement techniques. The CVL has the advantage that it can provide this information at stand-off distances far in excess of those obtainable with a Doppler sonar. In addition the CVL can achieve this improved performance with less size, weight, and power consumption. A next-generation CVL designed specifically for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) applications is currently under development. A description of this system, including the most recent advances in CVL technology, algorithm improvements, and miniaturized packaging, is given View full abstract»

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  • Fuel cell power system development for submersibles

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 184 - 188
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
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    DARPA is sponsoring programs at International Fuel Cells (IFC) to develop proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell power systems for marine application. One program is focused on a fuel cell power system for use in an unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV). Another program, part of DARPA's advanced submarine technology (Subtech) efforts, is developing and demonstrating the technology to generate hydrogen from methanol and to supply hydrogen from a regenerable metal hydride bed for use with a PEM fuel cell. The authors report the progress and hardware demonstrations made under the UUV program, the Subtech program, and R&D activities toward practical submersible fuel cell power systems. This technology is ideally suited for use in the closed environment of a submersible. A concept was demonstrated for the generation of hydrogen from the chemical reaction of a metal hydride and water to form a metal hydroxide View full abstract»

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  • Naval architectural and power system selection for underwater vessels

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 16 - 21
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    An algorithm was developed to enable the tradeoffs between a vessel's hydrodynamic design, its mission requirements, and the chosen power system to be identified. Attention was especially focused on developing, within the overall algorithm, a method for the selection of an appropriate power system from a menu of alternatives. The outcome of the first phase of the study was the development of a computer program which enables the designer to specify a mission profile, in terms of a speed-time characteristic, define a vessel type based on an input file of the physical dimensions or select one from a large menu of known commercial or military vessels; assess the relationship between the vessel's hydrodynamic characteristics and its power system requirements using different paradigms; and identify the relative merits and performance of different power systems. The development of this program and the algorithm on which it is based are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Synthetic aperture beamforming with automatic phase compensation for high frequency sonars

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 236 - 245
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (2)
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    The author discusses a phase compensation technique suitable for both high- and low-frequency sonars using displaced phase center receive elements to compute phase corrections directly from the acoustic scene. The phase compensation corrects ping-to-ping incoherence due to both medium and vehicle motion instabilities over the integration period of the synthetic aperture, thereby improving image quality. The phase compensation technique was evaluated using both simulated hydrophone data and acoustic test tank data at 550 kHz. General-purpose beamformers have been developed to allow side by side comparison of physical aperture and synthetic aperture images processed from the same set of hydrophone data. Performance results are presented for both simulated and acoustic test data, depicting the improvements provided by this phase compensation method View full abstract»

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  • Experimental verification of mission planning by autonomous mission execution and data visualization using the NPS AUV II

    Publication Year: 1992 , Page(s): 65 - 72
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    The authors describe recent results in mission execution and post-mission data analysis from the NPS autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) II testbed underwater vehicle. Ongoing research is focused on control technology to meet the needs of future naval autonomous underwater vehicles. These vehicles are unmanned untethered free-swimming robotic submarines to be used for naval missions including search, mapping, surveillance, and intervention activity. The approach taken at NPS combines integrated computer simulation, real-time robust control theory, computer architecture and code development, vehicle and component design and experimentation, sonar data analysis, and data visualization. The major thrusts of this overall research program are in the areas of mission planning, both offline and online; mission execution including navigation, collision avoidance, replanning, object recognition, vehicle dynamic response and motion control; real-time control software architecture and implementation; and the issues of post-mission data analysis View full abstract»

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