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Simulation Conference Proceedings, 1999 Winter

Date 5-8 Dec. 1999

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  • WSC'99. 1999 Winter Simulation Conference Proceedings. 'Simulation - A Bridge to the Future' (Cat. No.99CH37038)

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • What does industry need from simulation vendors in Y2k and after? a panel discussion

    Page(s): 1501 - 1508
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Index

    Page(s): 1709 - 1713
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Experiences in the NATO pre-pathfinder DiMuNDS 2000 federation

    Page(s): 1039 - 1043 vol.2
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    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has developed and adopted a modeling and simulation master plan that provides guidance for the establishment of a NATO M&S capability. While organizational and procedural details are being developed, technical pre-pathfinder activities are being conducted to build skills within the NATO community and demonstrate the technical and procedural viability of using the high level as the prescribed foundation for NATO federations. The DiMuNDS 2000 federation is being developed under a cooperative agreement between France, Germany, Netherlands, NATO C3 agency, United Kingdom, and United States. The paper presents a description and status of the federation and the lessons learned with the process utilized for federation development and execution View full abstract»

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  • Using simulation to choose between rental car lot layouts

    Page(s): 1302 - 1305 vol.2
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    This paper presents a flexible, rental car lot simulation model. This data-driven model serves as a template that can be used to easily test configurations and options used in the real system. The advantages of this simulation model as an analysis tool and the knowledge Avis learned as a result of simulation analysis are presented View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and simulation of passenger flows in an airport terminal

    Page(s): 1226 - 1231 vol.2
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    As human behavior is often thought to be hard to define in models, simulations of processes with people involved are less common than industrial simulations. Nevertheless simulation has been very valuable in passenger logistics to study bottlenecks and test potential solutions. This paper describes a project concerning the analysis and redesign of passenger handling at an airport, in which dynamic modeling played an important role. Simulation has been applied here to gain insights into the relations between the distinguished processes, the presence of bottlenecks and their causes. With the simulation models future situations were represented, through which long-term expectations can be posted. In this way critical aspects in the passenger flow through the airport terminal have been explored and studied. All potential bottlenecks have to be suppressed by apt arrangements. These can consist of an expansion of the availability of resources or floor space, but many times improving the processes can be a more effective or more efficient solution. Several supposed measurements have been tested in a quantitative way, to examine whether they fulfill the expectations, are robust and do not create new problems. The overview of bottlenecks and the comparison of measurements formed the required results of the simulation project. As detailed simulation studies require exact descriptions of processes and representative data, a large amount of information had to be collected and laid down. Process control and management will take advantage of it View full abstract»

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  • Using simulation to influence foreign policy

    Page(s): 1306 - 1309 vol.2
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    The United States Air Force's Air Mobility Command operates airlift missions that service the United States Navy's Pacific Fleet in the Indian Ocean. All of these missions travel through Singapore's airport, which has very restrictive operating hours. This paper discusses the use of simulation to assess the cycle time impacts of changing Singapore and Fujairah's operating hours and aircraft ground times View full abstract»

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  • Proactive flight schedule evaluation at Delta Air Lines

    Page(s): 1232 - 1237 vol.2
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    Delta Air Lines is the first and only airline to carry over 100 million passengers in a year, carrying over 105,000,000 passengers in 1998. To provide service to this number of passengers, Delta operates a “hub and spoke” flight system. In the hub and spoke system, certain key airports, or hubs, are designated as the origination point of a large number of flights, thereby allowing a passenger departing from a hub airport almost unlimited flexibility in terms of direct flight destinations. A change in the operation of the runways in one of Delta's hub airports was planned, and Delta management wanted to determine the effect on the dependable operation of the current and future flight schedules. Flight schedule dependability can be defined as the reliable, consistent, and timely operation of a published flight schedule. For several reasons, schedule dependability is absolutely critical to the successful operation of an airline. The airline industry is extremely competitive, and schedule dependability is an important benchmark that differentiates competing airlines in the eyes of many customers. Also, schedule dependability is critical to the profitability of an airline because of the high cost of an unreliable operation. These costs include repositioning aircraft, accommodating inconvenienced passengers, and adjusting pilot and flight attendant schedules. The purpose of this paper is to present two simulation models used to evaluate proposed flight schedules and to quantify the effect of changes in conditions at a major hub airport on the proposed schedule View full abstract»

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  • On-line data processing in simulation models: New approaches and possibilities through HLA

    Page(s): 1602 - 1609 vol.2
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    The United States Department of Defense's High Level Architecture for Modeling and Simulation (HLA) provides a standardized interface for distributed simulations. The recent advent of HLA has greatly increased interest in the use of distributed, interoperable simulation model components. This paper focuses on how on-line data (i.e. data from real-time dependent processes) can be used in analytical simulation models and how the use of HLA based components can facilitate the integration of this kind of data into simulations. The paper also discusses the issue of cloning federates and federations and introduces some potential applications of cloning for a public transportation prototype example View full abstract»

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  • Panel: strategic directions in simulation research

    Page(s): 1509 - 1520 vol.2
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    The future directions of simulation research are analysed. The formulation of such a vision could provide valuable guidance and assistance with respect to decisions involving the generation and allocation of future research funding. The article addresses problems involving: (1) the size and complexity of models; (2) verification, validation and accreditation; (3) the modeling methodological and model execution implications of parallel and distributed simulation; (4) the centrality of modeling to the discipline of computer science; and (5) random number generation and execution efficiency improvements through quasi-Monte Carlo, and variance reduction View full abstract»

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  • Networked simulation with HLA and MODSIM III

    Page(s): 1065 - 1070 vol.2
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    The paper describes a networked simulation application using HLA (The High Level Architecture) and MODSIM III, a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) object oriented simulation language. The Department of Defense (DoD) developed HLA for training simulation exercises, but HLA is applicable to a wide range of simulation work far beyond wargames. HLA is documented in terms of C++ and Java while discrete event simulations are often developed in a simulation language such as MODSIM III, SIMSCRIPT II.5, or SLX, or by using a graphical, domain-specific simulator such as COMNET III, SIMPROCESS or ProModel. The requirement addressed by the paper is to interface an existing discrete event simulation model to the HLA, in order to evaluate that task and to set directions for future work. To further direct focus on interfaces between HLA and a discrete event simulation, we deliberately chose a small simulation application developed in MODSIM III. Real simulations are, of course, more detailed, but will still use the same interfaces View full abstract»

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  • An example of simulation use in army weapon system development

    Page(s): 1079 - 1087 vol.2
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    The use of modeling and simulation in the development of military weapon systems began to expand several years ago as the costs of flight testing began to rise. Since then, the role of modeling and simulation has expanded to include areas such as planning and conducting warfare, system development, and acquisition in an effort to minimize system development and acquisition costs. The paper discusses the use of modeling and simulation in the development of the Pre-planned Product Improvement (P3I) Brilliant Anti-Armor BAT submunition. A high-fidelity flight simulation (HFS) is being developed that combines the tactical flight software, high fidelity infrared/millimeter wave seeker model, 6-Degree-of-Freedom flight dynamics model, and validated infrared and millimeter wave synthetic imagery into one integrated digital simulation. The HFS development methodology emphasizes the use of tactical software, legacy models, and high fidelity imagery and encourages commonality between the HFS, hardware-in-the-loop, and system effectiveness simulations. Animated graphical displays provide visualization of both the trajectory and the scene/environment. The use of this methodology is increasing the accuracy of the simulation and reducing development costs. The HFS development is on schedule with the master program plan, and is being utilized for captive flight test prediction analyses and system performance studies View full abstract»

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  • Train performance and simulation

    Page(s): 1287 - 1294 vol.2
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    Simulation provides a valuable tool in both the design of new infrastructure coupled with assisting in the process of translating a railway's business aspiration into a technical specification. The simulation system can be used in many forms: (1) as a single train run to assess traction performance over a given infrastructure or assumptions of the physical characteristics of a new line, (2) to assess a range of signalling systems in order to identify the optimum solution to meet a service aspiration, or (3) to evaluate proposed timetables and the interaction between the trains at a complex junction or in major terminals. This paper seeks to demonstrate the varying levels of simulation and their key role in the support of railway projects and the benefits from integrating simulation tools View full abstract»

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  • Determination of operating room requirements using simulation

    Page(s): 1568 - 1572 vol.2
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    In 1997, Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) initiated a construction project to renovate its existing surgical suite to include 32 operating rooms - two less than the current number. The new suite would be used primarily for performing in-patient cases; 95% of all out-patient cases would be moved to another facility. BWH administrators, planners and clinicians wanted to be sure that the 32 rooms would be sufficient for accommodating the projected increases in in-patient surgical volume. In addition, they wanted to examine the possible effects of changes in the surgical schedule and in case times on the number of rooms required. A simulation model using MedModel simulation software was developed for examining these issues. The resultant model includes a number of assumptions that simplified the model construction, yet still resulted in a valid model that met project objectives. The model showed that the projected changes in surgical workload could be accommodated in 30 operating rooms (or fewer) if scheduled block times were extended during the weekdays and if Saturday blocks were added View full abstract»

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  • Integrated manufacturing logistics: byproducts can be critical

    Page(s): 1310 - 1315 vol.2
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    Production operations can usefully be partitioned into discrete manufacturing and processing operations. Discrete manufacturing plants produce products such as automobiles, airplanes, refrigerators, toasters, computers, and such `discrete' products often have quite large work-forces relative to plants such as refineries, distillers, and chemical plants. Processing operations systems produce gasoline, paint, beer, ice cream, and chemicals. Processing operations can then be classified as `continuous', `batch', and `hybrid' (batch and continuous). Many process operations systems are both capital intensive and use relatively low manpower. Process systems often have a lot of expensive equipment; refineries and chemical plants have a lot of large expensive equipment and control systems. We discuss a situation where the production process is a solvent based operation where the yields can be in the 5% range. The reason for this is that the ratio of solvent to product ranges from 1:1 up to 20:1. This can result in some unusual logistical problems View full abstract»

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  • Web-based performance visualization of distributed discrete event simulation

    Page(s): 1618 - 1623 vol.2
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    This paper reports on an effort to adapt an existing distributed simulation visualization system to become Web accessible. The system was originally developed for performance visualization and experimentation with parameters affecting PDES systems using the time Warp protocols. This paper presents a model for converting legacy PDES systems to be Web accessible, and discusses the initial results from the conversion effort on this specific application. After finishing this work, we will be able to collect a wealth of data through the Web for future data mining, and to create an intelligent agent for performance tuning of time Warp applications View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of the structural steel erection process

    Page(s): 942 - 947 vol.2
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    The construction industry's growth and the adoption of newer means, methods, and materials of construction have resulted in an increase in complexity of on-site construction processes. Consequently, the construction industry's need for advanced tools and techniques to study, plan, and manage these complex construction processes has developed. The paper illustrates a Petri net based hierarchical and modular modeling and analysis technique that can be used for simulation of complex construction processes. Through the use of hierarchy, modularity, and resource modeling, Petri nets provide clear advantages in the modeling of complex construction processes. The paper highlights the advanced features of Petri nets and their utilization in the modeling and analysis of a structural steel erection process View full abstract»

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  • Healthcare simulation: a case study at a local clinic

    Page(s): 1577 - 1584 vol.2
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    Today, researchers and analysts are beginning to uncover the potential for using simulation in the health care field; with a multitude of interactions between patients, physicians, nurses, and technical and support staff, simulation can be an invaluable tool. Inefficiencies can be eliminated or resource allocation changed to determine an optimal setup. Primarily, simulation has been used in the health care field in comparison studies of alternative systems for resource or scheduling requirements. When analyzing such alternatives, the standard performance measures are typically reported: throughput, time in system, and queue times and lengths. This paper is a systems analysis of a clinic using the above mentioned performance measures along with another proposed performance measure, total cash flow View full abstract»

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  • A hybrid visual environment for models and objects

    Page(s): 1417 - 1424 vol.2
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    Models and objects that are modeled are usually kept in different places when we consider most modern simulation software packages. Software that permits the user to view 3D objects may also permit a viewing of the dynamic models for the objects, but these views are usually separate. The object can be rotated, translated and navigated while the model is represented in a 2D fashion using text or 2D iconic graphics. We present an approached based on the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML), where the object and model reside in the same space. A browsing capability is built to allow the user to search for models “within” objects. Aside from the visual benefits derived from this integrated approach, this methodology also suggests that models are really not very different from objects. Any object can serve to model another object, and when these objects are made “Web-friendly”, it becomes feasible to use VRML to create distributed models whose components can reside anywhere over the World Wide Web View full abstract»

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  • Emergency department simulation and determination of optimal attending physician staffing schedules

    Page(s): 1532 - 1540 vol.2
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    Efficient allocation and utilization of staff resources is an important issue facing emergency department (ED) administrators. Increased pressure from competition, health care reform, reimbursement difficulties, and rising health care costs are primarily responsible for the high level of interest in this, and other ED operating efficiency issues. The paper discusses the use of computer simulation to test alternative ED attending physician staffing schedules and to analyze the corresponding impacts on patient throughput and resource utilization. The simulation model can also be used to help identify process inefficiencies and to evaluate the effects of staffing, layout, resource, and patient flow changes on system performance without disturbing the actual system. The development of this model was based on the Emergency Department at the University of Virginia Medical Center in Charlottesville, Virginia View full abstract»

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  • Using adaptive agents in Java to simulate U.S. air force pilot retention

    Page(s): 1152 - 1159 vol.2
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    The retention of skilled pilots is a problem that plagues the United States Air Force. After spending millions of dollars on training and education, it is disheartening to see the mass exodus of experienced aviators from the Air Force that has been occurring in the past decade. Many blame the economy, others the Air Force itself, but few are able to accurately predict how or why they are all leaving. Complex adaptive systems theory might provide some insight. By modeling the system at the pilot's level, allowing each pilot to be represented as an autonomous, independent agent continually adapting to its environment and the other agents in it, an alternate model can be built; one that accounts for the interactions among the pilots, not just their interactions with their environment. PICAS (Pilot Inventory Complex Adaptive System) is just such a model. Constructed in the Java language, the PICAS model exploits the notions of complex adaptive systems theory and employs dynamic user controls to discern retention rates over a pilot career time period. Pilots `evolve', for lack of a better word, to a greater fitness within their environment, and in the process, the model user can better determine what kind of environment needs to be created and maintained in order to ensure that trained and experienced pilots are in fact retained for their services beyond their initial service commitments View full abstract»

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  • CSCAT: the Compaq Supply Chain Analysis Tool

    Page(s): 1201 - 1206 vol.2
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    In today's business environment, the dynamics of the business drive many decisions in the supply chain. Companies buffer their inventory, carry excess capacity and head-count, and have costly marketing initiatives in order to handle the dynamics of the business. In order to better analyze the business dynamics and define supply chains that are robust to changes in the business environment, Compaq has developed an internal package, called the Compaq Supply Chain Analysis Tool (CSCAT). CSCAT is an ARENA(R) discrete-event simulation that allows for the easy configuration of a supply chain and the analysis of the dynamics of a supply chain. CSCAT has been used by Compaq to address strategic supply chain issues and certain product-specific supply chain issues. This paper gives an overview of CSCAT View full abstract»

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  • A global synchronization network for a non-deterministic simulation architecture

    Page(s): 1460 - 1469 vol.2
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    Our previous work presented methods of accelerating nondeterministic discrete event simulation at the processing element level. Here, two algorithms are proposed for synchronizing a network of processing elements according to the next network minimum event timestamp. One method has an expected running time of O(k) while the second has an expected running time of O(k log(k)). A network architecture is developed and simulation results of the time expected to locate and broadcast the next network minimum timestamp are reported View full abstract»

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  • The nexus of simulation with command and control: what each community can offer the other

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    Summary form only given, as follows. Along with the expansion of core simulation technology over the past few years there has also been an expansion in both the number of people in nonsimulation-oriented communities that are “simulation-aware” and the ability of the this technology to support new fields of endeavor beyond the well-recognized ones of training and requirements analysis. During this same period, the command-and-control world has been exploring ways to address functionality requirements - such as automated decision support-for their next-generation systems. The situation we are in now is that both communities have people, technology and innovation that can be shared with the other. Unfortunately, the cultural phenomenon of organizational stovepiping, combined with the fact that-especially within the command and control world-the operational requirements are not well-understood, has made it difficult to merge the simulation and command-and-control communities. This paper addresses how each community could help the other achieve their respective next-generation operational goals with the hope of starting a common dialog that will allow the cross-fertilization of ideas View full abstract»

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  • FEDEP V1.4: an update to the HLA process model

    Page(s): 1044 - 1049 vol.2
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    The Department of Defense (DoD) High Level Architecture (HLA) for modeling and simulation (M&S) was developed as a means of facilitating interoperability among simulations and promoting reuse of simulations and their components. Although the three HLA specifications together provide the necessary technical foundation for developing distributed, interoperable simulation applications, they do not explicitly define how such applications are developed. In this regard, in order to provide practical guidance to the HLA user community, the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) has sponsored the creation of a process model that describes a structured, common sense approach to HLA federation development. This process model is known as the HLA Federation Development and Execution Process (FEDEP) Model. The primary purpose of the paper is to outline the modifications that have been incorporated in transitioning from FEDEP V1.3 to FEDEP V1.4. The paper also describes the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for how new releases of the FEDEP are produced, and identifies other related products which may be used in concert with the FEDEP to support the needs of HLA federation developers View full abstract»

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