40th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (Cat. No.99CB37039)

17-19 Oct. 1999

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  • 40th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (Cat. No.99CB37039)

    Publication Year: 1999
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Near-optimal conversion of hardness into pseudo-randomness

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):181 - 190
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)

    Various efforts have been made to derandomize probabilistic algorithms using the assumption that there exists a problem in E=dtime(2/sup O(n)/) that requires circuits of size s(n) (for some function s). These results are based on the NW (Nisan & Wigderson, 1997) generator. For the strong lower bound s(n)=2/sup ϵn/, the optimal derandomization is P=BPP. However, for weaker lower bound funct... View full abstract»

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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):667 - 668
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • An approximate L1-difference algorithm for massive data streams

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):501 - 511
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)

    We give a space-efficient, one-pass algorithm for approximating the L1 difference Σi|ai-bi | between two functions, when the function values ai and bi are given as data streams, and their order is chosen by an adversary. Our main technical innovation is a method of constructing families {Vj} of limited independence ... View full abstract»

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  • Cuts, trees and l1-embeddings of graphs

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):399 - 408
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)

    Motivated by many recent algorithmic applications, the paper aims to promote a systematic study of the relationship between the topology of a graph and the metric distortion incurred where the graph is embedded into l1 space. The main results are: 1. Explicit constant-distortion embeddings of all series parallel graphs, and all graphs with bounded Euler number. These are thus the first ... View full abstract»

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  • Satisfiability of word equations with constants is in PSPACE

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):495 - 500
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (108 KB)

    We prove that the satisfiability problem for word equations is in PSPACE. The satisfiability problem for word equations has a simple formulation: find out whether or not an input word equation has a solution. The decidability of the problem was proved by G.S. Makanin (1977). His decision procedure is one of the most complicated algorithms existing in the literature. We propose an alternative algor... View full abstract»

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  • Lovasz's lemma for the three-dimensional K-level of concave surfaces and its applications

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):389 - 398
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (208 KB)

    We show that for any line l in space, there are at most k(k+1) tangent planes through l to the k-level of an arrangement of concave surfaces. This is a generalization of L. Lovasz's (1971) lemma, which is a key constituent in the analysis of the complexity of k-level of planes. Our proof is constructive, and finds a family of concave surfaces covering the “laminated at-most-k level”. A... View full abstract»

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  • A theoretical framework for memory-adaptive algorithms

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):273 - 284
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)

    External memory algorithms play a key role in database management systems and large scale processing systems. External memory algorithms are typically tuned for efficient performance given a fixed, statically allocated amount of internal memory. However, with the advent of real-time database system and database systems based upon administratively defined goals, algorithms must increasingly be able... View full abstract»

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  • A sublinear time approximation scheme for clustering in metric spaces

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):154 - 159
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)

    The metric 2-clustering problem is defined as follows: given a metric (or weighted graph) (X,d), partition X into two sets S(1) and S(2) in order to minimize the value of ΣiΣ{u,v}⊂S(i)d(u,v). In this paper, we show an approximation scheme for this problem View full abstract»

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  • Stochastic load balancing and related problems

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):579 - 586
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (148 KB)

    We study the problems of makespan minimization (load balancing), knapsack, and bin packing when the jobs have stochastic processing requirements or sizes. If the jobs are all Poisson, we present a two approximation for the first problem using Graham's rule, and observe that polynomial time approximation schemes can be obtained for the last two problems. If the jobs are all exponential, we present ... View full abstract»

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  • On universal and fault-tolerant quantum computing: a novel basis and a new constructive proof of universality for Shor's basis

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):486 - 494
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)

    A novel universal and fault-tolerant basis (set of gates) for quantum computation is described. Such a set is necessary to perform quantum computation in a realistic noisy environment. The new basis consists of two single-qubit gates (Hadamard and σz¼) and one double-qubit gate (Controlled-NOT). Since the set consisting of Controlled-NOT and Hadamard gates is not... View full abstract»

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  • Improved combinatorial algorithms for the facility location and k-median problems

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):378 - 388
    Cited by:  Papers (67)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (164 KB)

    We present improved combinatorial approximation algorithms for the uncapacitated facility location and k-median problems. Two central ideas in most of our results are cost scaling and greedy improvement. We present a simple greedy local search algorithm which achieves an approximation ratio of 2.414+ε in O˜(n2/ε) time. This also yields a bicriteria approximation tradeoff... View full abstract»

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  • Non-malleable non-interactive zero knowledge and adaptive chosen-ciphertext security

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):543 - 553
    Cited by:  Papers (52)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)

    We introduce the notion of non-malleable non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proof systems. We show how to transform any ordinary NIZK proof system into one that has strong non-malleability properties. We then show that the elegant encryption scheme of Naor and Yung (1990) can be made secure against the strongest form of chosen-ciphertext attack by using a non-malleable NIZK proof instead of a s... View full abstract»

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  • An algorithmic theory of learning: robust concepts and random projection

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):616 - 623
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (164 KB)

    We study the phenomenon of cognitive learning from an algorithmic standpoint. How does the brain effectively learn concepts from a small number of examples despite the fact that each example contains a huge amount of information? We provide a novel analysis for a model of robust concept learning (closely related to “margin classifiers”), and show that a relatively small number of examp... View full abstract»

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  • Long-lived adaptive collect with applications

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):262 - 272
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (164 KB)

    A distributed algorithm is adaptive if the worst case step complexity of its operations is bounded by a function of the number of processes that are concurrently active during the operation (rather than a function of N, the total number of processes, which is usually much larger). We present long-lived and adaptive algorithms for collect in the read/write shared-memory model. Replacing the reads a... View full abstract»

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  • Noncryptographic selection protocols

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):142 - 152
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)

    Selection tasks generalize some well studied problems, such as collective coin flipping and leader election. We present new selection protocols in the full information model, and new negative results. In particular when there are (1+δ)n/2 good players, we show a protocol that chooses a good leader with probability Ω(δ1.65), and show that every leader election protocol ... View full abstract»

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  • Random CNFs are hard for the polynomial calculus

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):415 - 421
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (148 KB)

    We show a general reduction that derives lower bounds on degrees of polynomial calculus proofs of tautologies, over any field of characteristic (other than 2) from lower bounds for resolution proofs of a related set of linear equations module 2. We apply this to derive linear lower bounds on the degrees of PC proofs of randomly generated tautologies View full abstract»

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  • The Directed Steiner Network problem is tractable for a constant number of terminals

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):299 - 308
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (164 KB)

    We consider the Directed Steiner Network (DSN) problem, also called the Point-to-Point Connection problem, where given a directed graph G and p pairs {(s1,t1), ..., (sp,tp)} of nodes in the graph, one has to find the smallest subgraph H of G that contains paths from si to t i for all i. The problem is NP-hard for general p, since th... View full abstract»

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  • Approximate nearest neighbor algorithms for Hausdorff metrics via embeddings

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):171 - 179
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)

    Hausdorff metrics are used in geometric settings for measuring the distance between sets of points. They have been used extensively in areas such as computer vision, pattern recognition and computational chemistry. While computing the distance between a single pair of sets under the Hausdorff metric has been well studied, no results are known for the nearest-neighbor problem under Hausdorff metric... View full abstract»

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  • Fairness in routing and load balancing

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):568 - 578
    Cited by:  Papers (44)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (168 KB)

    We consider the issue of network routing subject to explicit fairness conditions. The optimization of fairness criteria interacts in a complex fashion with the optimization of network utilization and throughput; in this work, we undertake an investigation of this relationship through the framework of approximation algorithms. In this work we consider the problem of selecting paths for routing so a... View full abstract»

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  • Online scheduling to minimize average stretch

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):433 - 443
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)

    We consider the classical problem of online job scheduling on uniprocessor and multiprocessor machines. For a given job, we measure the quality of service provided by an algorithm by the stretch of the job, which is defined as the ratio of the amount of time that the job spends in the system to the processing time of the job. For a given sequence of jobs, we measure the performance of an algorithm... View full abstract»

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  • Finding double Euler trails of planar graphs in linear time [CMOS VLSI circuit design]

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):319 - 329
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)

    The paper answers an open question in the design of complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) VLSI circuits. It asks whether a polynomial-time algorithm can decide if a given planar graph has a plane embedding ε such that ε has a Euler trail P=e1e 2...em and its dual graph has a Euler trail P*=e 1*e2*...em* where e View full abstract»

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  • Error reduction for extractors

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):191 - 201
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (192 KB)

    An extractor is a function which extracts (almost) truly random bits from a weak random source, using a small number of additional random bits as a catalyst. We present a general method to reduce the error of any extractor. Our method works particularly well in the case that the original extractor extracts up to a constant function of the source min-entropy and achieves a polynomially small error.... View full abstract»

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  • On counting independent sets in sparse graphs

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):210 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (132 KB)

    We prove two results concerning approximate counting of independent sets in graphs with constant maximum degree Δ. The first result implies that the Monte-Carlo Markov chain technique is likely to fail if Δ⩾6. The second shows that no fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme can exist for Δ⩾25, unless P=NP under randomized reductions View full abstract»

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  • Hardness of approximating the minimum distance of a linear code

    Publication Year: 1999, Page(s):475 - 484
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (25)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (192 KB)

    We show that the minimum distance of a linear code (or equivalently, the weight of the lightest codeword) is not approximable to within any constant factor in random polynomial time (RP), unless NP equals RP. Under the stronger assumption that NP is not contained in RQP (random quasi-polynomial time), we show that the minimum distance is not approximable to within the factor 2log(1-ε)n View full abstract»

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