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Microwave Measurement Conference (ARFTG), 2013 81st ARFTG

Date 7-7 June 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 43
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): c1
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  • ARFTG organizers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 5
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  • Cross-connected waveguide lines as standards for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave vector network analyzers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    This paper describes some investigations into establishing primary standards of loss for waveguide Vector Network Analyzers (VNAs) operating at millimeter- and submillimeter-wave frequencies. The standards comprise straight sections of waveguide, where the waveguide line is orientated such that the waveguide aperture is at right-angles to the waveguide apertures on the VNA test ports. This 'cross-connected' waveguide forms a section of waveguide that is effectively below cut-off. The mechanical discontinuity between the cross-connected waveguide and the VNA test ports also generates significant reflection. The combined effect due to these two loss mechanisms - cut-off attenuation and discontinuity reflection loss - can be predicted from electromagnetic theory and so can be used to establish sections of cross-connected waveguide, of various lengths, as primary standards of loss. The paper describes these standards in detail and compares experimental results, obtained using a VNA operating in the 50 GHz to 75 GHz band, with values predicted by electromagnetic modeling software. View full abstract»

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  • New calibration solutions for multi-channel probes using an added port for thru measurements

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new method is proposed for calibrating multi-channel probes placed in multiple quadrants for wafer or chip level measurement. It uses an additional ground-signal-ground probe to enable thru measurements in a conventional calibration procedure, avoiding the need for custom calibration kits. The inherent delay inconsistencies in the proposed method are shown to be small enough to have minimal effects on the measurement uncertainties, in most practical cases. View full abstract»

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  • High resolution wideband calibration procedure for RF time-domain measurement of non-linear devices

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (994 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a high resolution wideband calibration procedure for RF time-domain measurement of nonlinear devices. This calibration is based on the use of wideband multi-sine signal and is applied to a 4 channel Track and Hold Amplifier (THA) based measurement setup. The absolute magnitude and phase calibration is performed with a calibrated coherent interleaving sampling oscilloscope as reference. The new calibration procedure without any IF calibration assumption allows a 10 kHz resolution over 3 GHz bandwidth. A 40 W GaN high power amplifier, driven by a pulsed RF signal at the input, is characterized with this time-domain measurement setup. The fully calibrated measurement setup has the capability to give an accurate visualization of time-domain distortions on input/output voltage and current waveforms within the pulse. Calibrated rising and falling transitions of the pulse are also exhibited. View full abstract»

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  • The impact of characteristic impedance on waveform calibrations

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 4
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    We examine the impact of characteristic impedance on mismatch corrections for temporal waveform calibrations based on high-speed electro-optic sampling measurements. We show that failing to measure and account for the characteristic impedance of coplanar lines can lead to statistically significant errors in the calibrations in both the time and frequency domains. View full abstract»

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  • Comparing accuracy of waveguide VNA measurement calibrated by TRL calibration using different length of line standard in terahertz band

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    We have evaluated the measurement uncertainty for rectangular waveguide Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) measurements in the WM-250 (WR 1.0), 750 GHz - 1.1 THz frequency band. We developed a new waveguide flange design for precise connections and dimensional measurements to establish traceability to SI in VNA measurements. TRL calibration method is useful for VNA calibration in the millimeter wave frequency region, but TRL line standards become thin, fragile and then increment of the risk of breakage of line standard at connection/reconnection cycle. This is the total investigation of measurement uncertainty for VNA measurement at Terahertz band comparing between both calibrations performed by single thin line and double thick lines as TRL line standards. View full abstract»

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  • Edge-related calibration and measurement characteristics in pulsed profile S-parameter analysis

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pulsed profile S-parameter measurements have been performed for decades but as measurement hardware characteristics have changed (in terms of resolution, dynamic range and basic data acquisition); there may be gains to be made in re-examining calibration and measurement details. One candidate area is with pulsed stimulus measurements where edge-related performance is of interest and there are many choices with regard to modulator position, levels of correction of the modulation dynamics and correction indexing. By time-indexing error coefficients as well as raw S-parameter data, in a phase coherent fashion, some improvement in the corrected results near pulse edges seems possible in a number of cases when resolution is high. View full abstract»

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  • An improved electric field probe with applications in high efficiency PA design and diagnostics

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1502 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An Electric Field Probe is described, which has substantially improved bandwidth and spatial resolution compared to previously reported work [1]. Calibration tests on the reported probe shows a flat amplitude and phase response up to 6GHz. A novel calibration technique is described, which has enabled direct observation of device plane voltages in high power RFPAs. Results show evidence of various anomalous effects, including variation of voltage across the periphery of high power RF devices. View full abstract»

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  • Phase-shifterless phase-noise measurement of microwave oscillators using high-Q cavity frequency discriminator

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 3
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    This paper presents application of high-Q cavity resonator in phase-shifter less technique. A mathematical analysis is presented to show the dependency of the measured phase noise in terms of loaded quality factor and resonance frequency of the high-Q cavity resonator. Experimental measurements resulted from different methods for a synthesized oscillator at 9.976 GHz show great validity and accuracy of the proposed technique. This technique needs no tuning for the phase-shifter and can introduce better sensitivity compared to the setup that uses a delay-line as a frequency discriminator element due to much lower insertion loss particularly at high carrier frequencies. The sensitivity of -113 and -135 dBc/Hz at 10 and 100 kHz offsets form the carrier frequency of around 10 GHz was achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Filter-less diplexer enables active harmonic load-pull at ka band

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 4
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    As circuit element losses increase with frequency and availability of power amplifiers reduces also, active control of harmonics by means of a traditional filter and hybrid diplexer becomes problematic. In this paper a technique is presented that allows the reflective filters to be removed, and lower loss couplers to be used, resulting in much less power being needed to control the second harmonic, and also a useful reduction in the fundamental load-pull power. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated using a GaN based HEMT device, and then some of the extensions possible are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Next-generation comb generators for accurate modulated measurements

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1938 KB)  

    When calibrating instrumentation used for measurements at RF and microwave frequencies, periodic pulse-shaped signals are used during phase calibration. However to support measurements of narrowband (a few % of the carrier frequency) signals, the repetition rate of the pulse-shaped signal has to be decreased dramatically from GHz to kHz. The signal-to-noise ratio required to measure such a signal is "more than a challenge" for state-of-the-art instrumentation. A new approach is presented which combines two dividers, a psseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) generator and a logical "and" operation which triggers a pulse generating unit. These degrees of freedom allow to concentrate energy within a given bandwidth around a specified fundamental frequency and its harmonnics, supporting a frequency spacing in the order of kHz in combination with fundamental frequencies in the order of GHz. Another new "tone selective bit sequence" approach is also explained. View full abstract»

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  • Linear versus nonlinear de-embedding: Experimental investigation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 5
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    The manuscript presents a comparison between nonlinear and linear de-embedding procedures for the identification of the I/V dynamic characteristics at the transistor current-generator plane. These approaches, without the need for modeling device trapping and thermal effects, allow to retrieving the waveforms of the electrical quantities at the current generator that governs device performance in terms of output power and efficiency. It will be demonstrated that the accuracy of the selected procedure determines the accuracy of the obtained results. Simulations and measurements carried out on a 0.25 × 600 μm2 GaN HEMT are reported as case study. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesized pulsed bias for device characterization

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 4
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    In this work we present a method capable of realising perfectly shaped bias pulses in practical measurement setups. With the proposed technique any user-defined pulse-shape can be generated, only limited by the bandwidth of the generation and acquisition system (i.e., speed of the DAC, modulator/driver and ADC). The detrimental effects on the pulse shape due to the connecting cables, the parasitic effects of the bias network and the non-linear loading provided by the device, can be fully eliminated. The unique capabilities of this method are experimentally demonstrated by accurately realizing sub-100ns voltage pulses with amplitudes up to 35V at the device reference plane. View full abstract»

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  • Test port cable instability and VNA measurement errors

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3092 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Test port cables are often analyzed to determine the quality of their stability performance. However, the actual impact of their instability often is overlooked or not accounted properly. Cable stability measurements using traditional methods, such as using a short, do not correlate to the impact of cable instability on DUT measurements. An alternative method is presented that use ECal to analyze cable stability that provides a greater degree of insight on how DUT measurements are impacted by cable instability. In addition, methods to minimize the impact of cable instability are examined. View full abstract»

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  • Figures of uncertainty for noise measurements

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we introduce two figures of uncertainty (FOU) for the assessment of noise figure measurements. These figures of uncertainty are readily determined if the scattering parameters of the device under test (DUT) are available. The two FOUs provide two types of information. On one hand side, they allow for a simple consistency check of the two measurements. On the other side, they give a measure for the accuracy and reliability of the noise figure, which in many cases may be limited due to second stage corrections. We suggest to include the two FOUs routinely as supplements for noise figure measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Technology for calibrating vector signal analyzer in aspect of FSK demodulation error

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)  

    The paper addresses the problems about calibration of vector modulation error: first, lacks traceability. Second, lack of error setting. To solve the problems in the aspect of FSK demodulation of vector signal analyzer, we propose new solutions to calibrate vector demodulation error, namely, use analog PM signal with certain parameters, to construct an "equivalent FSK signals" with modulation error. The signals' modulation error such as EVM can be traced to PM frequency and modulation index, and is also adjustable within a wide range. This technique can be used for calibrating VSA and Radio Communication Tester in the aspect of FSK Demodulation Error. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement on technology using CW combination to calibrate vector signal analyzer

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1356 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper addresses the problems about calibration of vector modulation error such as EVM: first, lacks traceability. Second, lack of error setting. To solve the problems, we proposed “CW combination method” three years ago, which is using combination of CW to calibrate vector signal analyzers in the aspect of MPSK modulation. This paper presents the technical improvement of “CW combination method” in 3 terms: 1, improved traceability formulas of MagErrRms and PhaseErrRms, the new formula is more accurate. 2, improvement on operational method and uncertainty analysis. 3. application in the calibration of high-order modulation such as 16QAM, 64QAM. Based on improved “CW combination method”, metrology standard of EVM, MagErrRms and PhaseErr to calibrate Vector Signal Analyzer is established, and expanded combined uncertainty of EvmRms is less than 0.151% in the range of 0~30%. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave interferometric method for metal sheet thickness measurement

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (453 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new microwave method capable of contactless thickness measurement of metal sheets with high resolution has been proposed. First experimental results in X-band are reported. The method is based on precise interferometric phase evaluation of a signal reflected step by step from two surfaces of a metal sheet whose thickness is to be measured. This is achieved using interference between the reflected and reference signals. Micrometer resolution at 10 GHz can be expected. View full abstract»

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  • Using a fiber optic link to extend network analysis measurement for spatially dispersed components

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 3
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    Vector Network Analysis can be applied to equipment where the input and output ports are spatially disparate and not easily connected to conventional network analyzer equipment by adding a fiber optic transmitter and a fiber optic receiver connected by fiber optic cable. Due to the very low distortion of fiber optic cable, long lengths of this cable may be used to perform measurements without introducing significant measurements distortions. Calibration must be performed to remove the effects of the fiber optic transmitter and receiver equipment. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient noise extraction algorithm and wideband noise measurement system from 0.3 GHz to 67 GHz

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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    An efficient and accurate noise parameter statistical extraction algorithm is proposed and validated experimentally using a high performance Silicon MOSFET transistor. The proposed algorithm is applicable to most devices with high input reflection coefficients and operating over wide bandwidth. Measured data agree well with theoretical expectation. View full abstract»

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  • 2D multisine mapping for robust 2 band PA modeling and 2D predistorter extraction

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1197 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is concerned with the behavioral modeling and predistortion of power amplifiers used with discontinguous multi-band signals with wide band separation. A new 2D multisine excitation signal is proposed to assist with the system identification of such PAs. The experimental application of this new 2D multisine excitation to a GaN HEMT PA reveals that the normalized PA outputs of both band saturates for approximately a unity average combined output envelope power leaving half of the 2D output state space unmapped. The physical origin of the phenomena is briefly discussed. This saturation property suggests in turns that the Zernike polynomials may be profitably applied to the identification of the predistorter gain functions when using spline representation. View full abstract»

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  • Load Pull verification of a novel Class B/J design tool: Second harmonic clipping contours

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (683 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel extended formulation of the “continuous mode” voltage waveform equation is presented for RF power amplifiers. This leads to the complete determination of a new design tool termed the “second harmonic clipping contour”. This tool allows the designer to quantify the effect of a non ideal fundamental load impedance on the Class B/J second harmonic matching conditions. This tool is shown to enable the designer to work more effectively with complex wide band matching networks that avoid areas of the smith chart which will cause clipping of the current waveform and hence, undesirable nonlinear behavior. Complex waveform analysis is shown displaying the predicted current waveform clipping when the second harmonic impedance violates the clipping contour boundary. View full abstract»

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  • Experiment design for quick statistical FET large signal model extraction

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (290 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Process variations influence the accuracy of designs and yield in production. This paper addresses the implementation of these variations in large signal FET models, with particular attention on the organization of measurements as to speed up the direct extraction of the model parameters. View full abstract»

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