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Design, Test, Integration and Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS (DTIP), 2013 Symposium on

Date 16-18 April 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 75
  • Influence of excitation waveform and oscillator geometry on the resonant pull-in of capacitive MEMS oscillators

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (211 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a simple framework for determining the resonant pull-in of MEMS oscillators, either parallel-plate, CC-beam or cantilever, under two-sided sinusoidal, square-wave or pulse-actuation. Furthermore, the values of the resonant and static pull-in amplitudes are calculated and tabulated, in all the considered cases. View full abstract»

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  • Electrostatic actuation gap reduction method and analysis for square plate resonator on SOI substrates

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (808 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a simple process method for obtaining submicron capacitive electrode gaps for lateral vibrating square plate resonators and the resulting advantages. A novel electrostatic actuation method is proposed to achieve submicron electrode resonator gaps below the fabrication limitation given by conventional optical lithography. The structures are built of single crystal silicon using silicon-on-insulator wafers without complex process steps. The process sequence and simulation results for submicron electrostatic gaps are reported. View full abstract»

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  • Comparative analysis of zinc oxide and aluminium doped ZnO for GHz CMOS MEMS surface acoustic wave resonator

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (958 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    CMOS integration in RF MEMS have become dominant due to the growing demand of mobile and wireless communication system. Usage of off chip resonators is not efficient since it leads to large area and high interfacing loss. Integration of CMOS with SAW resonators is a possible solution to reduce the loss. In this work, a SAW resonator was developed using AZO/Al/Si layers in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. AZO was chosen as the piezoelectric layer to achieve high electromechanical coupling coefficient for good SAW performance. This paper highlights the comparative analysis of two different piezoelectric materials: pure Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Aluminium doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) for GHz CMOS MEMS SAW resonator. S parameter measurements were performed for the fabricated designs to get the resonance frequencies and the electromechanical coupling coefficients were recalculated. The design and finite element modeling simulation was conducted using COMSOLTM to verify the performance of the resonator using both Al-doped ZnO and pure ZnO via the simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • Solder paste for highly dissipative power electronic assemblies

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (309 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work highlights the interest of silver oxalates precipitated in hydro-alcoholic media as new soldering material. The silver-oxalate-based solder can be decomposed starting from temperatures as low as 90°C and leads to the formation of temporary nanometric grains of metallic silver having a high propensity for sintering. The final material is a porous silver network that can be used as high thermal conductivity electronic interface material with performance around 100 W/m.K for samples made at moderate temperature (<;300°C) and low pressure (<;0.5 MPa). The micrometric size of the oxalate powders reinforces this interest because safety procedures induced by nanoparticles handling are not required in our case, in contrast to existing soldering products made of silver nanoparticles. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of temperature effects on single-photon avalanche diodes fabricated in a HV-CMOS conventional technology

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the thermal characterization of a CMOS SPAD (Single-Photon Avalanche PhotoDiode) detector. The sensor and the readout electronics have been monolithically integrated with a conventional 0.35μm HV-CMOS process. In-pixel electronics allow to operate the device in a time-gated mode to reduce the probability to detect the sensor noise within a given frame. The thermal effects on the device have been characterized for two different reverse bias overvoltages of 1.0V and 2.0V within the temperature range between -20°C and 60°C. It will be demonstrated in this paper that the combination of time-gating the sensor in the nanosecond scale with the reduction of the working temperature to -20°C decreases in 5 orders of magnitude the expected noise counts per frame with respect to the continuous operation at room temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Multiparametric MEMS biosensor for cell culture monitoring

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (303 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) multiparametric biosensor system based on living cells is presented. The biosensor system includes two biosensing techniques; resonant frequency measurements and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) on a single device. The multiparametric sensor system integrates uses the upper electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) resonator and as working microelectrode for ECIS technique. The QCM consists of a thin AT-cut quartz substrate with two gold electrodes on opposite sides. Bovine aortic endothelial live cells (BAECs) were successfully cultured on this hybrid biosensor. The QCM upper gold electrode used for generating the acoustic wave is also used for ECIS measurements of the live cells. Gravimetric and impedimetric measurements were performed over a period of time on the same cell culture to validate the device's sensitivity. The time necessary for the cells to attach and form a compact monolayer is the same in the case of gravimetric and impedimetric measurements. This hybrid biosensor will be employed in the future for water toxicity detection. View full abstract»

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  • Ionic gel based carbon dioxide gas sensor

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1196 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a CO2 gas sensor based on an impedance change of ionic gel (IG) according to the CO2 gas concentration. The sensor consists of an IG film patterned on electrodes. The impedance of the IG changes when the IG absorbs CO2 gas. CO2 gas concentration can be detected by measuring the amount of impedance change. Our proposal sensor has a merit that power consumption is very low (<;1μW). It is because ionic liquid (IL) and IG have selective gas solubility and high impedance. The high impedance means that large current is not required for the measurement. View full abstract»

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  • Multiparametric MEMS biosensor for cell culture monitoring

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (303 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) multiparametric biosensor system based on living cells is presented. The biosensor system includes two biosensing techniques; resonant frequency measurements and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) on a single device. The multiparametric sensor system integrates uses the upper electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) resonator and as working microelectrode for ECIS technique. The QCM consists of a thin AT-cut quartz substrate with two gold electrodes on opposite sides. Bovine aortic endothelial live cells (BAECs) were successfully cultured on this hybrid biosensor. The QCM upper gold electrode used for generating the acoustic wave is also used for ECIS measurements of the live cells. Gravimetric and impedimetric measurements were performed over a period of time on the same cell culture to validate the device's sensitivity. The time necessary for the cells to attach and form a compact monolayer is the same in the case of gravimetric and impedimetric measurements. This hybrid biosensor will be employed in the future for water toxicity detection. View full abstract»

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  • Suspended integration of pyrolytic carbon membrane on C-MEMS oral presentation

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1499 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pyrolytic carbon materials contain high internal surface area, desirable pore structure, and controlled surface functionalities, making them effective for gas purification, separation, storage, and chemical reactions. This research describes a two-step (i.e., photolithography and pyrolysis) procedure to integrate suspended porous carbon membranes on C-MEMS from SU-8 photolithography precursor. The suspended SU-8 film was first generated simultaneously with micro-post array during lithography through controlling exposure parameters. A followed pyrolyzing process converted the structure into carbon microelectrode array with the pyrolytic membrane on top of it. It was demonstrated that stress generated during pyrolysis could be applied to control the porosity of membrane, and such high-porosity membrane can find various applications, especially in the field of filtration, selective gas permeation and carbon microreactors. The electrochemical property of this integrated structure has been explored through cyclic voltammetric measurements. It shows that the specific capacitance increase of almost 4 times after the pyrolytic carbon membrane integration, which indicates its potential use in energy-related fields. View full abstract»

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  • Reversible acoustical transducers in MEMS technology

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (307 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Silicon microphones are already common in mobile applications and offer several advantages compared to conventional systems. In this paper a possibility is examined to use microphones also as electrostatically driven loudspeakers. The potential of these devices is demonstrated and the challenges to perform as speaker are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • MEMS 3-axis inertial sensor process

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2322 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a modified MEMS foundry process allowing the production of 3D inertial sensors. The new MEMS process is suitable for a wide range of applications that use 3D accelerometers or gyroscopes. One-axis and three-axis designs can be produced with the same process, and the fabrication of complex inertial measurement units, particularly the assembly process, is simplified. View full abstract»

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  • A highly sensitive biosensor based on a 3D gold nanostructure modified screen-printed electrode for glucose detection

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (627 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, we investigated a simple glucose biosensor based on a 3D gold nanostructure modified screen-printed electrode. The 3D gold nanostructure was electrochemically fabricated on the working electrode of a commercially available screen-printed electrode using an aqua regia dissolved bulk gold solution as the precursor. Potassium ferricyanide and glucose oxidase were then sequentially coated onto the prepared nanostructure for glucose detection. Glucose detections illustrated that the proposed devices could perform a sensitivity of 71.12 μA mM-1cm-2 with a linear detection range from 0.27-5.6 mM. A fast response time of less than 2 s was observed. Moreover, only a 5mL of glucose specimen is required for the detection due to the incorporation of the commercially available screen-printed electrode. View full abstract»

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  • Operation placement for application-specific digital microfluidic biochips

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (421 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate onchip all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis using microfluidics. The digital microfluidic biochips are based on the manipulation of liquids not as a continuous flow, but as discrete droplets on an array of electrodes. Microfluidic operations, such as transport, mixing, split, are performed on this array by routing the corresponding droplets on a series of electrodes. Researchers have proposed several approaches for the synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips. All previous work assumes that the biochip architecture is given, and consider a rectangular shape for the electrode array. However, non-regular application-specific architectures are common in practice. In this paper, we are interested in determining a placement of operations for application-specific biochips, such that the application completion time is minimized. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using several benchmarks. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of an all polymer piezoelectric film using a reel-to-reel continuous fiber process

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports a novel fabrication process of an all polymer piezoelectric film which consists of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film substrate, conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrode, and poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) piezoelectric film using reel-to-reel continuous fiber processing systems, and applicability evaluation results as a base material for low resonance frequency vibration energy harvesting devices. Existing piezoelectric films have been deposited on rigid silicon or inorganic materials which lead to high resonance frequency and low efficiency of energy generating under low frequency of human or animal motions. Therefore, we developed all polymeric piezoelectric films on very soft PET films. To deposit P(VDF-TrFE) film on PEDOT:PSS coated PET, low temperature coating process using low boiling temperature solvent (acetone) and annealing method (under 150 °C) was developed. Developed film achieved low frequency of 106 Hz. View full abstract»

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  • Development and process optimization of C2W self-alignment & temporary bonding system

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (446 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Size-free MEMS-IC integration is important for MEMS ubiquitous applications as well as to reduce its production cost. In our previous work, we have proposed a 2-step approach for MEMS-IC integration by using chip to wafer (C2W) self-alignment and temporary bonding, and then wafer level permanent bonding. In this work, a prototype system for C2W self-alignment and temporary bonding was developed, and the process parameters, e.g. volume of H2O, wafer temperature, and annealing process, were studied and optimized for better success-ratio and system performance. The results presented in this paper revealed that the proposed system is practically applicable to size-free MEMS-IC integration with reasonably high efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • AlGaAs/InGaAs thermopiles for infrared imaging using surface bulk micromachining technology

    Page(s): 1 - 3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (960 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work, modulation-doped AIGaAs/InGaAs micromachined thermopile-based infrared (IR) sensor is reported. The key features of the IR sensors are the incorporation of high mobility - modulation-doped AlGaAs/InGaAs heterostructure and a multi-layer Cr2O3 absorber combined with the surface bulk micromachined device structure to achieve high sensing performance. A responsivity of ~3000 V/W and a relative detectivity of 1.4 × 108 cm·Hz1/2/W at λ > 5 μm have been achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Model and measurement technique for temperature dependent electrothermal parameters of microbolometer structures

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (910 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A model and a measurement technique for the temperature dependent thermal impedance of microbolometer structures are presented. It is demonstrated that especially for automotive applications with an extended ambient temperature regime, a temperature impact on the thermal impedance has to be considered in electrothermal modeling. The modeling parameters can be determined with a demonstrated measurement technique which only relies on a single long pulse measurement and standard measurement equipment. View full abstract»

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  • Imaging and reliability of capacitive RF MEMS switches in III-V technology

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work, the bridge imaging and the reliability of surface-micromachined capacitive RF MEMS switches in III-V technology are presented. A low cost scanning technique allowed us to image the shape of the moveable bridge with a micrometer spatial resolution, thus quantitatively valuating its lowering as a function of the applied voltage. The reliability of the switches was tested under the application of different unipolar and bipolar voltage waveforms, showing that a significant improvement of the switch operation and lifetime can be achieved by applying high frequency bipolar square pulses with suitable durations. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and simulation framework for flow-based microfluidic biochips

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (655 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers and are able to integrate the necessary functions for biochemical analysis on-chip. In this paper we are interested in flow-based biochips, in which the fluidic flow is manipulated using integrated microvalves. By combining several microvalves, more complex units, such as micropumps, switches, mixers, and multiplexers, can be built. Such biochips are becoming increasingly complex, with thousands of components, but are still designed manually using a bottom-up full-custom design approach, which is extremely labor intensive and error prone. In this paper, we present an Integrated Development Environment (IDE), which addresses (i) schematic capture of the biochip architecture and biochemical application, (ii) logic simulation of an application running on a biochip, and is able to integrate the high level synthesis tasks we have developed for the top-down design of flow-based biochips. We show how the IDE can be used to design biochips for several applications. View full abstract»

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  • Miniaturization of package for an implantable heart monitoring device

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (767 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A very first myocardial (heart muscle) implantable acceleration prototype-device, using a commercial MEMS accelerometer is presented in this paper. Procedures of design, fabrication, assembly and testing of the prototype are included in detail. Preliminary results of tests based on the regulations for implantable devices have been done successfully. The paper concludes with directions for improving the device. View full abstract»

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  • Diamond micro-electrode arrays (MEAs): A new route for in-vitro applications

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (510 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are extracellular devices allowing both recording and electrical stimulation of neuronal or cardiac cells. Interfacing cellular networks with MEAs leads to a better knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms of biological tissue and can be used for restorative purposes using neural prosthesis. We report the fabrication of in vitro 8×8 and 4×15 planar boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BNCD) MEAs using microtechnology. The BNCD for our MEA electrodes have been characterized electrochemically and we show that these devices offer good recording properties as compared to other standard electrode materials (such as Ti-Pt or Au). View full abstract»

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  • Protein preconcentration using nanofissures generated by nanoparticle-facilitaed electric breakdown at the junction gaps

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sample preconcentration is an important step to increase the accuracy of further detection, especially for the sample with extreme low concentration. Due to the overlapping of the electrical double layers in the nanochannel, the concentration polarization effect could be generated while applying an electric field. Therefore, a nonlinear electrokinetic flow is induced, which results in fast accumulation of proteins in front of the induced ionic depletion zone, so-called exclusion-enrichment effect. The main purpose of this work is to create nanofissures to achieve the preconcentration of proteins by the exclusion-enrichment effect. The sample of protein is driven by electroosmotic flow and accumulates at the specific location. In this study, the preconcentration chip for proteins was mainly fabricated by simple standard soft lithography with replica of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and fast nanofissures formation by utilizing nanoparticle-facilitaed electric breakdown phenomenon. A novel strategy of nanofissures formation utilizing nanoparticles deposition at the junction gap between microchannels was proposed and dramatically decreased the required electric breakdown voltage in this study. The experimental results indicated that the sample of protein with extreme low concentration of 1 nM was concentrated to 1.5×104-fold in 60 min by the proposed chip herein. View full abstract»

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  • Design and optimization of a novel bistable power generator for autonomous sensor nodes

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nonlinear energy generators are considered as an effective way to overcome the shortcut of narrow band of linear generators. Among them, bistable oscillators are especially of great potential. Many are realized with magnets and so are not well suited for miniaturization. This paper presents a novel bistable piezoelectric energy harvesting architecture without magnets. Modeling and design have been performed for this new architecture. A normalized expression is given so that the model is applicable to any scale. Chirp and band-limited noise excitations are used to evaluate the proposed harvester's performances. Numerical simulation and experimental tests are in good agreement and show that the new bistable generator has very good capabilities of combining large bandwidth and high output power. A design optimization strategy is then presented for different application environments. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of bonding interface prepared by room temperature bonding after flattening by thermal imprint process

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (622 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We developed the room temperature bonding of Au film flattened by thermal imprint process. The Au film surfaces were flattened by thermal imprint process. As a result, the flattening process was effective in case of the low bonding load or rougher Au surface. And we also apply developed process to bonding of seal ring patterns fabricated by Au electroplating. The surface of Au film could be successfully flattened by the thermal imprint process. As a result, large bonding strength was obtained for seal ring patterns with a width of 100 μm. View full abstract»

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  • A novel fabrication method of tapered-cone microneedle for drug delivery by using the microlens mask and UV contact printing

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study presents a novel and precision process to fabricate microneedle. The process includes microlens array mask with the contact printing in ultraviolet (UV) lithography. The tip of micro tapered cone microneedle utilizes the microlens array mask with geometrical optics. Due to the light pass through a plano convex microlen, a microlen have a focal point. An optical system is set up to characterize the optical performace of the machined microneedle, and then compared with their theoretical data. The derived results of the length of mcironeedle of special the height and the diameter microlens, the photoresist microcone mold can be fabricated. The micro cone tip will have great potential in the area of the drug delivery application. View full abstract»

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