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Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2013 Twenty-Eighth Annual IEEE

Date 17-21 March 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 521
  • Foreword

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1
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  • APEC history [1986-2013]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • The APEC conference committee

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1
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  • Sponsors & exhibitors

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 8
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  • APEC 2013 Professional Education Seminars - Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • APEC Announcement and call for papers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 69
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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 29
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  • APEC 2013 [Copyright notice]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1
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  • A zero voltage and zero current soft-switching PWM DC-DC converter with synchronous phase shifting hybrid rectifier

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1902 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new prototype of a secondary-side phase shifted (SPS) soft-switching PWM dc-dc converter is presented in this paper. In the proposed dc-dc converter, soft-switching operations are achievable from full to no loads by utilizing the parasitic inductances of the high frequency (HF) transformer. Beside that, no circulating current occurs in both of the primary and secondary side full-bridge circuits, consequently the related idling power can be minimized. The wide-range soft-switching principle is described in details by actual performances oriented the circuit description. The essential performances, steady-state and switching characteristics of the proposed dc-dc converter are originally demonstrated in experiments by a 1kW-50 kHz prototype, and its practical effectiveness is verified. View full abstract»

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  • Inherent volt-second balancing of magnetic devices in zero-voltage switched power converters

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 9 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (739 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Small mismatches in inductor-applied volt-seconds may arise in power converters due to asymmetries in circuit parasitics or modulation waveforms. These small mismatches can have significant impact on circuit operation, including the saturation of magnetic components, loss of regulation, and decrease in converter efficiency. Various auxiliary circuits and control methods have been developed to prevent volt-second imbalances from being applied to magnetic components. In this work, an inherent feedback specific to Zero-Voltage Switched (ZVS) converters is examined which automatically compensates for volt-second mismatch. A closed-form linearized relation between volt-second mismatch and inductor current offset is derived. This relation is then verified through simulation and experimental results using two prototype circuits comprised of an inductively loaded full-bridge and a dual active bridge (DAB) converter. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid transformer ZVS/ZCS DC-DC converter for photovoltaic microinverters

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 16 - 22
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1006 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a high boost ratio dc-dc converter with hybrid transformer for non-isolated photovoltaic (PV) microinverters. The proposed converter incorporates the resonant operation mode into the traditional high boost ratio active-clamp coupled-inductor PWM converter, achieving ZVS turn-on of the switches and ZCS turn-off of the diodes. As a result of the inductive and capacitive energy being transferred simultaneously within both turn-on and turn-off intervals of the main switch, the dc bias of the magnetizing current is reduced and hence the size of magnetics can be reduced. The magnetizing inductance is designed with a small value to utilize ripple magnetizing current to assist ZVS of main switch, while maintaining low RMS conduction losses. The voltage stresses on the active switches and diodes are maintained at a low level and are independent of the wide changing input PV voltages as a result of the resonant capacitor in series in the energy transfer loop. The experimental results based on 250 W prototype circuit show system CEC efficiencies greater than 96.7% over 20 V to 45 V PV voltage range. View full abstract»

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  • A high efficiency hybrid resonant PWM zero-voltage-switching full-bridge DC-DC converter for electric vehicle battery chargers

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 23 - 30
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1332 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a high-efficiency zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) dc-dc converter combing resonant and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) power conversions for electric vehicle battery chargers. A half-bridge LLC circuit, which operates at series resonant frequency, shares the lagging-leg with a phase-shift-full-bridge (PSFB) dc-dc circuit to guarantee ZVS of the lagging-leg switches of the full bridge from zero to full load. A secondary-side hybrid-switching circuit, which is formed by the leakage inductance, output inductor of the PSFB dc-dc circuit, a small additional resonant capacitor and two additional diodes, is incorporated at the secondary side of the PSFB dc-dc circuit. With the hybrid-switching circuit providing a clamp path, the voltage overshoots that arise during the turn-off of the rectifier diodes are eliminated and the voltage stress of bridge rectifier is clamped to the minimal achievable value, which is equal to secondary-reflected input voltage of the transformer. The sum of the output voltage of LLC resonant circuit and the resonant capacitor voltage of the hybrid-switching circuit is applied between the bridge rectifier and the output inductor of the PSFB dc-dc circuit during the freewheeling phases. As a result, the primary-side circulating current of the PSFB dc-dc circuit is instantly reset to zero achieving minimized circulating losses. The experimental results based on a 4 kW prototype circuit show 98.6% peak efficiency and high efficiency over wide load and output voltage ranges. View full abstract»

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  • A dual-channel isolated resonant gate driver for low gate drive loss in ZVS Full-bridge converters

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 31 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the switching frequency increases, to reduce the gate drive loss combined with the Zero-Voltage-Switching (ZVS) technique is meaningful for the widely used Full-Bridge (FB) converters. A dual-channel isolated Resonant Gate Driver (RGD) is proposed in this paper. The proposed RGD is able to provide two isolated complementary drive signals for two power MOSFETs in one bridge leg. Furthermore, the proposed RGD reduces about 79% gate drive loss compared to the conventional Voltage Source Driver (VSD). In addition, the negative gate drive voltage provided by the proposed RGD prevents the false trigger problem. The optimum design of the proposed RGD is given in detail. A 200-VDC input, 48-V/20-A output and 500-kHz phase-shift ZVS FB converter with the proposed RGD was built to verify the advantage and efficiency improvement. View full abstract»

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  • A novel three-level DC-DC converter with load adaptive ZVS auxiliary circuit

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 38 - 43
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multi-level converters are widely used to convert high voltage DC (typically above 500V) to an isolated DC output voltage that may vary from 12V to 300V, depending on the application. Typical applications can range from network server power supplies to battery chargers for purely electric vehicles. Almost all these industrial applications require the converter to operate from no load to full load. Zero-voltage switching is necessary for the efficient operation of the converter as it ensures reduced EMI, reduced switching losses and the proper operation of the switching devices. Most conventional ZVS techniques for multi-level converters fail to achieve ZVS typically below 50% of full load, while some ZVS techniques are able to do so, but they increase the design complexity of the overall system. Moreover such techniques may suffer from increased circulating current loess at certain load ranges (typically at high loads) thus offsetting the gain in efficiency achieved through ZVS. In this paper a simple yet novel ZVS auxiliary circuit that achieves ZVS even at no load, can optimize the circulating auxiliary circuit current necessary for ZVS as a function of load, thus maximize the efficiency of the converter for all load conditions, is proposed, analyzed and validated by experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of a ZVS bidirectional DC-DC converter with reduced voltage stress on high voltage side

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 44 - 49
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1108 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel isolated zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) bidirectional DC-DC converter (BDC) with coupled inductors is proposed in this paper. The series half bridge structure in the high-voltage side reduces the switch voltage stress to half of the high-side voltage, which extends the high-side voltage when using power MOSFETs. Furthermore, all the switches can achieve ZVS soft-switching performance at any load condition by adopting the active clamp circuits and the PWM plus phase shift (PPS) control strategy. Thus, the BDC can operate at high frequency to achieve high power density and still with high efficiency for high voltage dc bus applications. Finally, a 1.5kW 100kHz 48V/800V prototype is built to verify the effectiveness of the proposed circuit. View full abstract»

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  • A novel three-phase ZVS PWM DC-DC boost converter

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 50 - 54
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1142 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new three-phase dc-dc PWM boost converter is proposed in the paper. The proposed converter can operate with ZVS due to a simple auxiliary circuit that consists of just a single active switch and a few passive components and transfers energy through the three phase path with zero voltage switching (ZVS) capability with minimal electromagnetic noises. The number of components in the proposed circuit is reduced compared to previous proposed converters of the same type, resulting in lower cost and lower conduction losses. The paper presents the new converter then discusses its operation, steady-state characteristics and design. Experimental results obtained from a 1kW converter prototype are presented to validate the converter's performance and the concepts presented in the paper. View full abstract»

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  • A novel nonlinear switch cell topology

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 55 - 59
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1684 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Switch cells consist of an array of power switches and passive components which can replace the main switches in many power topologies, allowing reduced switching loss without altering the power topology directly. This paper discusses the development of a switch cell topology that utilizes a saturable resonant inductor to reduce the size and power loss of the cell. Additionally, the cell transfers energy stored in the inductor into a capacitor for efficient energy storage during the cell's conduction region. This energy is then transferred back to the system when the cell turns off, thus reducing the total switching energy. View full abstract»

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  • Novel scheme for Zero Voltage Switching of single stage photovoltaic micro-inverter

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 60 - 67
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1550 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) approach to improve the efficiency of a single-stage grid connected flyback inverter is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme eliminates the need for any additional auxiliary circuits to achieve soft-switching. ZVS of the primary switch is realized by allowing negative current from the grid-side through bidirectional switches placed on the secondary side of the transformer. The negative current discharges the MOSFET's output capacitor thereby allowing ZVS turn-on of the primary switch. Therefore, the switching losses of the bi-directional switches are negligible. In order to optimize the amount of reactive current required to achieve ZVS, a variable frequency control scheme is implemented over the line cycle. A 250W prototype was implemented to validate the proposed scheme. Experimental results confirm the feasibility and superior performance of the converter compared to the conventional flyback inverter. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Analysis of the synchronization control method for BCM/DCM current-mode flyback micro-inverter

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 68 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1042 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A micro-inverter could be directly integrated with a PV panel to generate grid-compatible AC power. Placing two flyback converters in parallel as the DC-DC stage and utilizing interleaving extends the power range of flyback micro-inverters. In this paper, open-loop interleaving technique for flyback micro-inverter operating at the boundary conduction mode (BCM) and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) with a master-slave relationship are analyzed first. Then, a novel interleaving phase synchronization control method is proposed to achieve high power conversion efficiency and stable operation at the same time. In DCM operation region the open-loop phase regulation will be utilized while in BCM a closed-loop technique will dominate. A 200 W interleaved flyback micro-inverter prototype is built to verify the proposed interleaving synchronization control method. Simulation and Experimental results are provided to show that the proposed closed-loop control method could achieve stable interleaving phase synchronization while maintain good efficiency and low THD performance. View full abstract»

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  • Novel multi-input solar PV topologies for 1-φ and 3-φ stand alone applications to mitigate the effects of partial shading

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 76 - 83
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (806 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes novel boost type inverter topologies and their control scheme for solar Photovoltaic (PV) applications. The proposed topologies provide a single power stage, low part count, highly efficient solution for 1-φ and 3-φ stand alone applications. A notable feature of the proposed topologies is that they facilitate splitting of a given PV source into two or more sub-parts by offering as many input ports. Thus, they offer excellent features with respect to optimal arrangement and configuration of the PV panels and maximum power extraction, which are especially beneficial under partially shaded conditions. For analysis of the control strategy, a model is derived for one of the sections of the proposed system, which is then extended for the controller design of the overall system. The plant pole cancellation and reference signal frequency information approach is used for the compensator design to track the reference signal that includes both AC and DC components. The compensators are designed for a fast dynamic response and accurate reference tracking. The topology modification for the three phase loads has also been analyzed and evaluated. The system is simulated and results show the ability of the proposed configuration to produce desired high quality supply, fed from split sub-sections of a PV source. A laboratory prototype is developed with available PV panels for 1-φ topology. Experimental results obtained from this prototype validate the analysis and simulated results. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and design of smart PV modules

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 84 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1668 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper explores the design of a smart photovoltaic (PV) module- a PV module in which PV cells in close proximity are electrically grouped to form a pixel and are connected to dc-dc converter blocks which reside embedded in the back pane of the module. An auto-connected flyback converter topology processing less than full power is used to provide high gain and perform maximum power point tracking (MPPT). These dc-dc converters interface with cascaded H-bridge inverter modules operating on feed forward control for dc-link voltage ripple rejection. By means of feed forward control, a significant reduction in dc link capacitance is achieved by enduring higher dc link ripple voltages. The dc link electrolytic capacitors are replaced with film capacitors thus offering an improvement in the reliability of the smart PV module. The proposed configuration is capable of producing 120V/ 240V AC voltage. The PV module now becomes a smart AC module by virtue of embedded intelligence to selectively actuate the individual dc-dc converters and control the output AC voltages directly, thus becoming a true plug and power energy system. Such a concept is ideal for curved surfaces such as building integrated PV (BIPV) system applications where gradients of insolation and temperature cause not only variations from PV module-to-PV module but from group-to-group of cells within the module itself. A detailed analysis along with simulation and experimental results confirm the feasibility of the proposed concept. View full abstract»

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  • A novel solar panel optimizer with self-compensation for partial shadow condition

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 92 - 96
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (964 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The energy utilization efficiency of PV panel can be significantly affected by the partial shadow effect. Traditional solutions mainly focus on panel-level optimization but ignore the partial shadow happens on sub-string level which may also affect the efficiency. In this paper, a novel solar panel power optimizer with self-compensation for partial shadow condition is proposed. The optimizer can realize self-compensation for the unbalanced part inside the PV panel without changing the electrical connection. At the same time, the optimizer, which is implemented by simple multi-winding flyback topology, draws the compensation current from the output of the same panel, so that no other source is required for compensation. The simulation and experimental results show that the output power of the PV panel under partial shadow condition is significantly increased by applying the proposed circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Low voltage ride through control strategy for high-power grid-connected photovoltaic inverter

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 97 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a low voltage ride through (LVRT) control strategy for high-power grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverter, which can assure the PV inverter operates under grid faults with sinusoidal output currents. The control strategy of PV inverter is made up of inner current loops and outer voltage loop in a cascade structure under normal working conditions. The outer loop regulates the voltage on dc-link capacitance to the maximum power point of PV arrays, and the inner current loops are composed of four closed loops for positive sequence and negative sequence in synchronous reference frame. If the low voltage fault signal has been detected, the control system should shift to single loops control strategy for low voltage ride through. Finally, a laboratory prototype of 150 kW PV inverter with LCL filter has been implemented to test the theoretical analysis. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed LVRT control strategy have been verified by simulation and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Sub-module differential power processing for photovoltaic applications

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 101 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2084 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a sub-module differential power processing (DPP) architecture for solar photovoltaic (PV) applications is presented, along with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control scheme that requires minimum communication and no local current sensing. The efficiency, size and cost benefit of this architecture are analyzed, and the control challenges associated with this architecture are addressed. A hardware prototype is implemented and tested in a controllable indoor test setup that enables replication of real-world partial shading conditions. We experimentally verified a substantial increase in total system energy capture compared to module-level MPPT solutions, through the use of the proposed DPP architecture and control strategy. View full abstract»

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