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Computer and Information Technology (ICCIT), 2012 15th International Conference on

Date 22-24 Dec. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 114
  • Author index

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 4
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  • A single sign on mechanism for multiple grid manager on Alchemi .NET based grid framework

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 436 - 440
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (423 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Grid computing has emerged as an important field synonymous to high throughput computing. Grid computing is widely regarded as a technology of immense potential for accessing geographically distributed resources using computer networks. To ensure this new paradigm fully functional it demands several key concepts like authentication and authorization. The most commonly used security specification for grid computing is global security infrastructure or GSI. It specifies all the security aspect relating grid computing like authentication, authorization, single sign on and delegation [8]. Among all the required security features of grid computing “single sign on (SSO)” is a crucial one. But single sign on feature is missing in Alchemi .NET framework, a middleware to setup grid in windows based operating system. The architecture of Alchemi .NET framework does not possess single sign on feature which is a major security related architectural issue that exixts in current alchemi system. In this paper we have proposed a mechanism to implement “single sign on” integrating with Alchemi .NET framework. In current Alchemi .NET framework's architecture, an user connects with Alchemi grid manager directly by giving username & password via Alchemi console. In our proposal a user has to go through the single sign on mechanism to be connected with grid manager via Alchemi console to submit a grid application. View full abstract»

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  • Gender effect cannonicalization for Bangla ASR

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 179 - 184
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a Bangla (widely used as Bengali) automatic speech recognition system (ASR) by suppressing gender effects. Gender characteristic plays an important role on the performance of ASR. If there is a suppression process that represses the decrease of differences in acoustic-likelihood among categories resulted from gender factors, a robust ASR system can be realized. In the proposed method, we have designed a new ASR incorporating the Local Features (LFs) instead of standard mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) as an acoustic feature for Bangla by suppressing the gender effects, which embeds three HMM-based classifiers for corresponding male, female and geneder-independent (GI) characteristics. In the experiments on Bangla speech database prepared by us, the proposed system has achieved a significant improvement of word correct rates (WCRs), word accuracies (WAs) and sentence correct rates (SCRs) in comparison with the method that incorporates Standard MFCCs. View full abstract»

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  • Scalability and performance analysis of CRUD matrix based fragmentation technique for distributed database

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 567 - 562
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (452 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Distributed processing is an efficient way to improve performance of a database management system significantly. Distribution of data involves fragmentation, replication and allocation process. Previous research works provided fragmentation solution based on empirical data which are not applicable at the initial stage of a distributed database. In this paper we have presented a fragmentation technique that can be applied at the initial stage when no experimental data are present as well as in later stages of a distributed database system for partitioning the relations. Scalability of our proposed technique also investigated for different situation those may arise in practical cases of a distributed database. Experimental results show that our technique can solve initial fragmentation problem of distributed database system properly also compete with other non initial fragmentation techniques quite good in later stages. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of the effect of having energy drinks on respiratory and heart function analyzing blood perfusion signal

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 113 - 118
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (290 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work, we evaluate the effect of having energy drinks (ED) using laser doppler flowmetry (LDF) technique by analyzing blood perfusion and ECG signal after having energy drinks on different healthy human subjects. After having energy drinks, it is observed that the amplitude of blood perfusion signal increases around two fold. Further analyzing frequency spectrum of the blood perfusion signal using Fast Fourier transform, we have determined the effect of having energy drinks on respiratory and heart function. A significant change in heart activity after having energy drinks has been observed. The amplitude of frequency spectrum of LDF signal related to heart activity increase around three fold. The amplitude of ECG signal and amplitude of frequency spectrum also increase in response to having energy drinks. A little change is observed in respiratory activity as the amplitude of frequency spectrum of LDF signal corresponding to respiratory activity increases around 1.5 times after having energy drinks. View full abstract»

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  • An efficient grid algorithm for faster clustering using K medoids approach

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Clustering is the methodology to separate similar objects of data set in one cluster and dissimilar objects of data set in another cluster. K means and K medoids are most widely used Clustering algorithms for selecting group of objects for data sets. k means clustering has less time complexity than k medoids method, but k means clustering method suffers from extreme values. So, we have focused our view to k medoids clustering method. Conventional k-medoids clustering algorithm suffers from many limitations. We have done analysis on these limitations such as the problem of finding natural clusters, the dependency of output on the order of input data. In this paper we have proposed a new algorithm named Grid Multidimensional K medoids which is designed to overcome the above limitations and provide a faster clustering than K medoids. View full abstract»

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  • A tracking based BEM algorithm for OFDMA channel estimation in high Doppler spread

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 235 - 239
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (179 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we investigate the Channel Impulse Response (CIR) estimation in an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) uplink using a tracking based Basis Expansion Modeling (BEM) algorithm. By introducing a new tracking term in the BEM coefficients that gives the rate of change of the coefficients, the algorithm is particularly suitable for high mobility application. Specifically, the algorithm estimates the BEM coefficients for each OFDMA block in an iterative manner based on using a new objective function that takes into consideration first order variations in the coefficients of the current and adjacent blocks. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of an LDPC coded FSO communication system with different modulation technique under turbulent condition

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 240 - 243
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (281 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication is an attractive and cost-effective solution for high-rate image, voice, and data transmission than an RF channel. Atmospheric turbulence-induced fading is one of the main impairments affecting FSO communications. To design a high performance communication link for the atmospheric FSO channel, it is of great importance to characterize the link with proper model. Different modulation techniques have already been proposed for FSO communication in various publications. In this paper, an analytical approach is presented to evaluate the bit error rate performance of an LDPC coded FSO communication employing on-off keying (OOK), binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) and Q-ary pulse position (QPPM) as modulation technique. The performance results are evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER). It is found that LDPC coded FSO system with QPPM provides significant coding gain over uncoded system compare than other modulation techniques. View full abstract»

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  • High performance decision based median filter for salt and pepper noise removal in images

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 107 - 112
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1307 KB)  

    A high performance decision based median filter is proposed for removal of salt and pepper in images. It is an enhanced Adaptive Switching Median filter which initially detects noise pixels iteratively through several phases and replaces the noisy pixels with median value. It calculates median value without considering noisy pixels to improve the performance of median filter for high density noise. Detection of noise is done by expanding the mask until 7×7 to maintain local information extraction. Moreover, the processing pixel is replaced by last processed pixel if the algorithm fails to detect noise free pixel at 7×7. If the noise free median value is not available at 7×7 processing window, the last processed pixel take into consideration if it is noise free. If the last processed pixel is noisy, the algorithm select a window size with 15×15 dimension and calculate the number of 0's and 255's in the processing window. Then replace the processing pixel with 0 or 255 which is more in number in the selected window. Experiment result shows that it can provide very high quality restored images for images that are contaminated by “salt & pepper” noise, especially when the noise density is large. View full abstract»

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  • Night mode face recognition using adaptively weighted sub-pattern PCA

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 119 - 125
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1530 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The face recognition problem is made difficult by the great variability in head rotation and tilt, lighting intensity and angle, facial expression, aging, partial occlusion (e.g. Wearing Hats, scarves, glasses etc.), etc. Principal components from the face space are used for face recognition to reduce dimensionality of database images. However, this paper discusses on adaptively weighted sub-pattern PCA (Aw-SpPCA) based face recognition system for dark images that have captured at night. It is really difficult to capture good quality picture at night for lacking of light source with traditional acquisition devices like camera or mobile phone. The computational photographic concepts have been applied to enhance the quality of the capture images at night automatically. Multi-scale retinex color restorations (MSRCR) technique has been applied for overcome this problem. Moreover, for recognition phase of this propose method, unlike PCA based on a whole image pattern, Aw-SpPCA operates directly on its sub patterns partitioned from an original whole pattern and separately extracts features from them. Aw-SpPCA can adaptively compute the contributions of each part and then endows them to a classification task in order to enhance the robustness to both expression and illumination variations. Experimental results show that the proposed method is competitive. View full abstract»

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  • A novel 3-Layer user authentication system for remote accessibility

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 441 - 445
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (193 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    User authentication through password matching is an age-old issue. It has been popularly being used in the computing world for its simplicity, flexibility and remote accessibility. Although people later developed and deployed some other authentication systems like Biometrics Authentication and Token-Based Authentication; despite proving higher degree of security, they all suffer from an orthodox problem-remote accessibility to an Internet-Based System. Again, for remote access, the general trend of using textual passwords is not guaranteed to be highly secured and, most often, they are seen breached by the intruders using some common password breaking algorithms. Hence, a more reliable, robust, secured and allover simple authentication system for remote accessibility is yet needed in digital world. In this paper, we propose a 3-Layer user authentication system for remote access of Internet-based systems that is guaranteed to be more secured, robust and reliable as compared to its existing counterparts. Besides, the proposed system ensures flexibility, reduced complexity and simplicity as well. View full abstract»

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  • Issues in implementing electronic governance: Bangladesh perspective

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 345 - 353
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2164 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on various approaches of implementing electronic governance in developing countries and explores the specific factors related to the challenges and opportunities in implementing electronic governance. Since, the models for implementation of electronic governance greatly varies because of certain technical and socio-economic aspects, it is essential to analyze the features related to implementing electronic governance not as a whole rather on a specific basis. As a developing country with lots of limitations like extreme shortage of resources, limitations in financing, absence of proper development planning, lack of skilled human resources, unavailability of stable and fair democracy and more importantly, a number of unavoidable circumstances including natural disasters, it is a must to analyze the concerns. In this paper, we especially present the adaptability of e-governance in the prime sectors of government for developing countries. Moreover, we provide specific recommendations for implementing e-governance in the most feasible, cost-effective, and efficient manner. Analyzing the conducted survey result through statistical procedures also derives a couple of significant factors in implementing e-governance. This paper also aims to point the possible solutions in handling the barriers to implement electronic governance. The supporting framework for integrating the overall socio-economic activities under the information and communication technology framework is also conveyed in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • A novel architecture for nanometer scale low power VLSI design

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 490 - 494
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (463 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power consumption is one of the major threads in CMOS technology. International technology road-map for semiconductors (ITRS) [1] reports that leakage power dissipation may come to dominate total power consumption. Although Leakage power was negligible at 0.18μ technology and above, in nano scale technology, but when the technology is decreases these leakage powers are the top most concern for VLSI circuit designer. As the technology feature size shrink static power consumption dominant the dynamic power exponentially and this static power consumption is known as a sub-threshold leakage. Sub-threshold leakage is a leakage that is arises by creating a weak inversion channel between drain to source. However, tunneling current through gate oxide insulator, channel punch through current and gate current due to hot-carrier injection are also responsible for semiconductor power consumption. Although gate-oxide thickness will be reduced as the technology decreases in nano scale, but this reduction causes sub-threshold leakage. So, there were several method was proposed to tackle the leakage. However, every proposed method has some trade-offs between power, delay and area, in this paper novel common vdd and gnd technique is proposed to overcome the semiconductor leakage and this technique has excellent tradeoffs between power, delay and area, moreover this method will be new weapon for low power VLSI circuit designer. View full abstract»

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  • Agent based framework for providing security to data storage in cloud

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 446 - 451
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (247 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cloud system framework must ensure appropriate security for data storages along with satisfied timing constrain and performance. Usually, data in cloud are very dynamic and different types of data demand different level of security. Hence, if different cloud data storages can be provided with different level of security, managing data will be more flexible and efficient; the performance of system will increase as well. Therefore, in order to ensure adequate security for different data storages in cloud, we have proposed a three tier security framework. We have analyzed the performance with respect to overhead for different security services such as confidentiality, integrity and authenticity and showed that data classification according to different level of security enhances the performance of the system that provides security services to the data in cloud. View full abstract»

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  • A biologically plausible neural network training algorithm with composite chaos

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 15 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (397 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Chaos appears in many real and artificial systems. Inspired from the presence of chaos in human brain, we attempt to formulate neural network (NN) training method. The method uses a composite chaotic learning rate (CCLR) to train a neural network. CCLR generates a composite chaotic time series consisting of three different chaotic sources such as Mackey Glass, Logistic Map and Lorenz Attractor and a rescaled version of the series is used as learning rate (LR) during NN training. It gives two advantages - similarity with biological phenomena and possibility of jumping from local minima. In addition, the weight update may be accelerated in the local minimum zone due to chaotic variation of LR. CCLR is extensively tested on five real world benchmark classification problems such as diabetes, time series, horse, glass and soybean. The proposed CCLR outperforms the existing BP and BPCL in terms of generalization ability and also convergence rate. View full abstract»

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  • Classical arithmetic logic unit embedded on reversible/quantum circuit

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 478 - 483
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reversible circuit dissipates less heat than irreversible circuit. A promising use of reversible circuit may be embedding of reversible circuits in irreversible general purpose computers to allow low-power design. In this paper, we embed an n-bit classical ALU on reversible circuit, which can perform addition, subtraction, EXOR, EXNOR, AND, NAND, OR, NOR, and NOT operations on n-bit data. The quantum realization of our n-bit ALU requires 27n - 10 primitive quantum gates with quantum circuit width of 4n + 5. The known reversible n-bit ALU capable of performing only mod 2n addition, subtraction, negative subtraction, EXOR, and no-operation requires 22n - 10 primitive quantum gates with quantum circuit width of 2n + 5. With a marginal increase of quantum primitive gate count and nearly doubling the quantum circuit width, our ALU implements a larger set of operation needed for general purpose computing. View full abstract»

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  • An approach to real-time portable device for face recognition system

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 126 - 131
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (615 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Face is the most visible organ of human which can be used to differentiate one person from another. Embedded face recognition is quite a challenging era of biometric which can be used in different applications. There are currently commercially available systems for face recognition, but they are bulky, expensive, and proprietary. In this paper we will discuss about a real-time, portable, low cost face recognition system, developed by us, we named it as RPIPD-v1 (Real Time Portable Image Processing Device Version 1) which can work as a standalone system. This system can detect and recognize human faces and there is no such portable device that is capable of having this feature together. Our main aim was to glue these two tasks (Face Detection & Face Recognition) and build a system with the hardware and software to demonstrate the performance. The accuracy of our device is about 60% in distinguishing known and unknown faces. This is a general output of our device for critical situations. For the best performance of recognizing a face we need to highlight the individuals face with proper lighting and the individual's face must be in front of the camera properly. This device is made totally portable and standalone. Small size and low power enables this device to be placed in unique environments, collecting images autonomously for face recognition and other image processing applications. Low cost is another advantage which will allow this device to be used in various places as an effective solution. View full abstract»

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  • New sufficient conditions for Hamiltonian paths

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 21 - 25
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (157 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A Hamiltonian path in a graph is a path involving all the vertices of the graph. In this paper, we revisit the famous Hamiltonian path problem and present new sufficient conditions for the existence of a Hamiltonian path in a graph. View full abstract»

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  • BER performance analysis of a multi user Alamouti-MRC system on secured text message transmission

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 244 - 248
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (315 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates the effect of antenna diversity for a double transmit and multiple receive antenna supported wireless communication system that employs multi user Alamouti's space time block coding (STBC) and maximal ratio combining (MRC) scheme on secured text message transmission. The FEC encoded Alamouti-MRC transmission system under investigation implements RSA cryptographic algorithm and deploys various multi-level digital modulations (16-PSK, 16-DPSK and 16-QAM) techniques over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and Rayleigh Fading Channels. It has been observed from the study that in case of without receive antenna diversity the system shows comparatively worst performance in 16-DPSK scheme and satisfactory performance in 16-QAM. It is noticeable that the system performance is improved with increase in number of receive antenna. The performance analysis shows that with implemented Alamouti-MRC scheme (6 receive antenna) under 16-QAM digital modulation, the system provides excellent performance over a significant low signal to noise ratio (SNR) values. View full abstract»

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  • Towards a schedulable fault tolerant HW-SW mapping for real time systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 563 - 568
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (321 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An important part in the design of real-time systems is the allocation and scheduling of the software tasks onto the hardware architecture. This faces the challenge of meeting deadlines, completion times, earliest start times and tolerating faults. Unfortunately, these processes are far from trivial due to the wide range of complex constraints that typically appear in real-time systems. The lack of edibility and expressive power in existing scheduling frameworks makes it difficult to model the system accurately. Moreover, the designed system must be cost-effective in terms of resource utilization which implies the need for an optimization approach. In order to tackle these deficiencies this paper proposes a schedulable fault-tolerant hardware-software mapping methodology for real time systems. The design optimization approach decides the mapping of jobs to nodes such that the timing constraints of the application are satisfied. Experimental studies show that the proposed method outperforms existing dominant work. View full abstract»

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  • Features extraction and classification for Ictal and Interictal EEG signals using EMD and DCT

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 132 - 137
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (306 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a record of electrical signal to represent the human brain activity. Many researchers are working on human brain as they are fascinated by the idea of secret, thought and feeling from the external and internal stimuli. Feature extraction, analysis, and classification of EEG signals are still challenging issues for researchers due to the variations of the brain signals. Different features are used to identify epilepsy, coma, encephalopathies, and brain death, etc. However, we have observed that extracted features from same kinds of signal transformations are not effective to differentiate the epilepsy periods including Ictal (active seizure period) and Interictal (interval between seizures) of EEG signals. In this paper we present a new approach for feature extraction using high frequency components from DCT transformation. We also combine the new feature with the bandwidth feature extracted from the empirical mode decomposition (EMD). These features are then used as an input to least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) to classify Ictal and Interictal period of epileptic EEG signals from different brain locations. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the existing state-of-the-art method for better classification of Ictal and Interictal period of epilepsy for benchmark dataset. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesizing fault tolerant safety critical systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 452 - 457
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To keep pace with today's nano-technology, safety critical embedded systems are becoming less tolerant to errors. Research into techniques to cope with errors in these systems has mostly focused on transformational approach, replication of hardware devices, parallel program design, component based design and/or information redundancy. It would be better to tackle the issue early in the design process that a safety critical system never fails to satisfy its strict dependability requirements. A novel method is outlined in this paper that proposes an efficient approach to synthesize safety critical systems. The proposed method outperforms dominant existing work by introducing the technique of run time detection and completion of proper execution of the system in presence of faults. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of a coherent chaos-shift keying technique

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 249 - 254
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The transmission of binary information by using chaotic switching named as chaos-shift keying (CSK) with the generation of chaos using cubic map is presented. A system has been proposed for calculating the analytical bit-error rate (BER) of a coherent chaos-shift keying (CSK) digital communication system under an additive white Gaussian noise environment with the consideration of ideal synchronization at the receivers. The bit-error rate of the CSK system is compared with the conventional modulation techniques like ASK, FSK, and PSK. Generating the chaos with the simple cubic map, it is shown that the performance of coherent CSK system can be improved with the variations of the initial conditions of chaos generation. The bit-error rate of the CSK system is improved for both single-user and multiple-user environment. View full abstract»

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  • Multischeme Spray and Wait routing in Delay Tolerant networks exploiting nodes delivery predictability

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 255 - 260
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (567 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Delivering message in Delay Tolerant Networks is challenging due to its sparse nature and intermittent connectivity. Therefore efficient routing is very important for these networks. Here, we focus on the Spray and Wait routing schemes for Delay Tolerant Networks to avoid identical spraying technique and blind forwarding by mobile nodes. To avoid those problems, we first define an adaptive spraying scheme based on the delivery predictability of nodes. We then formulate an equation based on the number of remaining copies of messages to select a specific spraying technique each time. Thus, we propose to employ multiple spraying techniques during the spray phase of our scheme. Simulation results show that our Multischeme Spray and Wait routing performs better in different network scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptation of spray phase to improve the binary spray and Wait routing in Delay Tolerant Networks

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 261 - 266
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1274 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Delivering messages in Delay Tolerant Networks is a nontrivial challenge due to its sparse nature and intermittent connectivity. Therefore efficient routing of messages is vital for these networks. In this work, we aim to adapt the spray phase of the Binary Spray and Wait routing scheme in Delay Tolerant Networks to avoid large communication overhead suffered by the scheme. We define an adaptive spraying scheme to allow nodes to switch to the wait phase without lingering the spray phase unnecessarily. Binary Spray and Wait routing permits nodes to enter the wait phase when the remaining number of copies of a message reaches one. However, we permit nodes to consider the time to live value of a message instead of the number of copies to enter the wait phase. We formulate an equation to obtain a switch value to compare against the time to live value of a message to migrate to the wait phase. Furthermore, we compare our scheme with that of other schemes through simulations. Simulation results show that our proposed adaptive spraying scheme performs better than that of others in different network scenarios. View full abstract»

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