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Power and Energy Conference at Illinois (PECI), 2013 IEEE

Date 22-23 Feb. 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 45
  • 2013 IEEE Power and Energy Conference at Illinois (PECI 2012) [Title page]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1
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  • [Copyright notice]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 3
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  • Applications of Gallium Nitride in power electronics

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electrical properties of Gallium Nitride (GaN) offer several advantages over Silicon (Si) for creating switching devices for power electronics. Already this emerging technology is showing improvements in power density and efficiency in certain applications. The following paper reviews the current state of the art of GaN devices. It discusses challenges in implementation, such as the mistriggers that result from dV/dt's across the miller capacitance. It examines third quadrant operation for negative gate to source voltages. A strategy for mounting devices from Efficient Power Conversion is provided. Finally, two switched capacitor circuits are presented with experimental results. The first is a voltage doubler operating at 893 kHz with a peak power of 480 W and an efficiency of 94.4 %. The second is a three-phase, three-level inverter with preliminary test results operating at 300 kHz. View full abstract»

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  • Fluoride-plasma-treated bimodal-gate-oxide ALGaN/GaN MOSHEMT for normally-off operation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 8 - 12
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1082 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-performance enhancement-mode (E-mode) AlGaN / GaN MOSHEMT has been achieved by CF4 plasma treatment and bimodal-gate-oxide deposition scheme. ALD-Al2O3 is utilized to prevent deep F- ion implantation into the 2DEG channel, while sputtered-SiO2, is employed to suppress the plasma-induced leakage current and increase the gate swing. Compared with the depletion-mode counterpart, thus-fabricated E-mode MOSHEMT exhibited 2.56 V shift in Vth, but only 8% degradation in Imax, demonstrating the promise of the bimodal-gate-oxide scheme for realizing E-mode operation of GaN-based MOSHEMTs. View full abstract»

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  • Sputtered-gate-SiO2/AiGaN/GaN MOSHEMT for high breakdown voltage achievement

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 13 - 17
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (984 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    By using RF magnetron sputtering with oxygen compensation, high-quality SiO2-on-GaN with a breakdown field of 9.6 MV /cm was achieved. A post-annealing treatment was then developed to remove the sputtering-induced epilayer damage, which not only recovered, but also improved the electron concentration and mobility of the 2-D electron gas by 21.7% and 5.5%, respectively. A high-performance SiO2 / AlGaN / GaN MOSHEMT was thus fabricated, which exhibited a maximum drain current of 594 mA/mm and a breakdown voltage of 205 V at the gate-drain distance of 2 μm. This breakdown voltage performance of the device is among the best of GaN-based MOSHEMTs reported to date, thus is ideally suited for high-power applications. View full abstract»

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  • Exergetic analysis of power plants operating on biomaterials

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 18 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (681 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is growing interest worldwide in biomaterials for power generation as substitutes or supplements for hydrocarbon fuels. In this paper, biomaterials-based power generation is evaluated and compared with widely used hydrocarbon-based generation. Exergy, the theoretical maximum work extractable from a system as it interacts with a particular reference state, is used as the parameter to measure the overall effectiveness of the thermomechanical energy conversion and detect inefficiencies. The destruction of exergy happens when irreversible mechanical or chemical processes occur during power generation. Combustion constitutes the main portion of the exergy destruction in power plants and biomaterials have a significant advantage over fossil fuels when the amount of exergy destruction is compared between the two. This exergetic study on power plants operating on biomaterials will be further developed into economic and environmental research. View full abstract»

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  • Laboratory emulation of a photovoltaic module for controllable insolation and realistic dynamic performance

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 23 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (746 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a high fidelity, easy-to-implement photovoltaic (PV) module emulator is presented. The proposed emulator can replicate the electrical behavior of a sunlight illuminated PV module in an indoor environment. The construction of this emulator requires only a PV module and basic laboratory equipment, while still providing dynamic performance that closely matches that of an illuminated PV module in an outdoor environment. The output I-V characteristics of the PV module under real sunlight and that of the proposed emulator were experimentally obtained and compared, such that the functionality of the proposed emulator was verified. An in-depth analysis of the PV module output small-signal impedance is also presented to illustrate the dynamic performance of this emulator. View full abstract»

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  • Input voltage control of SEPIC for maximum power point tracking

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 30 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (930 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The SEPIC (Single Ended Primary Inductor Converter) topology is an excellent choice for a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) converter in small solar energy systems. To achieve MPPT, the input voltage of the SEPIC, corresponding to the photovoltaic (PV) module's output voltage, must be regulated. In this paper, a model is derived with the voltage on the input capacitor as the plant output. The model is used to design a closed-loop controller to regulate the PV module voltage to match the output of an MPPT algorithm. Simulation and experimental validation are given. View full abstract»

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  • Dithering digital ripple correlation control for photovoltaic maximum power point tracking

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 36 - 41
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1118 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work develops and simulates a new maximum power point tracking algorithm for use in switching power converters for photovoltaic applications. Building upon previous work in ripple correlation control (RCC), an average-based RCC approach is introduced which makes use of quasi steady-state converter operation to drive the converter duty ratio to the optimal value. Dithering Digital Ripple Correlation Control (DDRCC) combines the need for high PWM resolution with the need to operate at the panel MPP. Together these two requirements can be used to form a complementary solution in which the technique of PWM dithering for improved average PWM resolution, forms the ripple required for RCC. By sampling data at two selected times during each dithering cycle, the converter is able to converge to the maximum power point of the PV array while avoiding complications previously experienced using the RCC technique at the converter switching frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive perturb & observe MPPT algorithm for photovoltaic system

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 42 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (871 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power from the PV module. There are number of techniques available in literature. Perturb and observe (P &O) method is widely used because of its low-cost and ease of implementation. The P&O method oscillates close to maximum power point (MPP), when atmospheric conditions are constant or slowly varying. However, when irradiance and temperature are changing rapidly, this method fails to track MPP with rapid speed. In order to consider rapidly varying atmospheric conditions an adaptive control algorithm is proposed, by measuring the short circuit current at different irradiance levels and temperatures. In this proposed method current perturbation is considered instead of voltage perturbation. The proposed method has faster dynamics and improved stability compared to the conventional P&O method. The effectiveness of proposed MPPT algorithm is verified using digital simulations. View full abstract»

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  • A graph-theoretic approach for addressing trenching constraints in wind farm collector system design

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 48 - 52
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (636 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the topic of automatically computing cable layout designs of large scale wind farms. A network of cables in a wind farm's electrical collector system collects power generated by turbines and brings to the wind farm substation. Frequently, sections of the land area of a large wind farm are restricted for excavating and burying these cables, i.e. trenching. Such restrictions might arise from the landowners, presence of water bodies etc. It is important to take into consideration these real-life constraints in the process of automating designs of optimal wind farm electrical collector systems. This paper presents a graph-theory based methodology for addressing these trenching constraints in optimal collector system designs. The developed methodology has been tested on a real-life large wind farm. View full abstract»

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  • Offshore wind farm with DC collection system

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 53 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (671 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper sets forth a novel dc-based topology utilizing series-connected permanent-magnet synchronous generators for offshore wind farms, as an alternative to the common ac topology. The system's design, namely, the individual wind turbine power electronics, the collection system topology, and the overall system control is presented. An efficiency analysis suggests that the proposed dc topology leads to energy savings due to the reduced number and different type of energy conversion stages, as well as a variable-voltage control strategy. The stability and operation of the multi-branch topology are briefly discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple reference frame theory for harmonic compensation via doubly fed induction generators

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 60 - 64
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a method of using multiple reference frame theory for harmonic compensation of nonlinear loads using a doubly fed induction generator. The most significant low-order harmonics to be compensated are calculated using a multiple reference frame harmonic observer. This method of measuring and compensating harmonics is accurate straightforward, easily implementable and effective in the mitigation of any harmonic in the system. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance of this proposed method. These results validate the effectiveness of the method in compensating the targeted harmonics in the system. The currents obtained in the fundamental reference frame can be further employed for control of active and reactive power flow. View full abstract»

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  • How a smarter grid could have prevented the 2003 U.S. cascading blackout

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 65 - 71
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electrical grid is caught in a political and technological energy war over what can most efficiently, safely, reliably and cost effectively provide commercial power for an increasing national load. The answer lies in research of the 2003 Northeast Blackout and introducing an emerging technology; Smart Grid (SG). This paper summarizes the blackout's key events, driving factors and tipping point for its cascade in order to highlight the critical benefits of Smart Grid Technology (SGT). Industry research suggests that SG could have prevented the cascade, had it been complete and implemented in 2003. This paper presents the essential elements of SGT (with industry research ongoing) that can achieve three things; (1) prevent cascading blackouts of this magnitude, (2) recover as quickly as possible from emergencies (terrorist attacks, natural disasters, etc.), and (3) provide a solution to this energy war with a portfolio of energy technologies. View full abstract»

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  • Decentralized control of smart grid with fixed and moving loads

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 72 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), as intermittent loads, create frequency disturbance in power system. The system needs to balance the power generation and demand. However, in regional smart grid systems fed by renewable energy sources and moveable loads, the power transfer through tie line interconnections is strongly coupled with system dynamics. This makes the frequency stability and control process very slow. In this paper, an overlapping decomposition technique of large-scale system control is used to decouple the renewable energy penetrated power system regions. A decentralized controller is then designed to maintain the frequency in a short time. Micro-hydro Simulation results demonstrate a fast frequency control process to regulate the system under input power variation from wind turbine and load from PHEVs. View full abstract»

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  • Value of demand response in the smart grid

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 76 - 82
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (715 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we raise the question: What is the value that demand response management (DRM) can bring to generation companies and consumers in the smart grid? The question is fundamental for understanding the efficiency and impact of DRM on the future power grid. To answer this question, we first establish a Stackelberg game framework that captures the hierarchical communication architecture of the energy system, and the rational behaviors of the consumers and the market operator. We define the value of demand response based on the Stackelberg equilibrium (SE) solution to the hierarchical two-person game problem, and the standard optimal solution to economic dispatch problem. In order to compute the equilibrium solution, we show that a consistency principle can be used to characterize the SE of the game in which the follower responds to the dual variable of the leader's problem. We use logarithmic utility functions to illustrate the solution concept and show that in some cases, DRM provides conflicting values to the gencos and consumers. View full abstract»

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  • Test bench for emulating electric-drive vehicle systems using equivalent vehicle rotational inertia

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 83 - 87
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new approach for emulating an electric-drive vehicle (EDV) system on a test bench setup consisting of a dynamometer, flywheel, and an electric propulsion unit is investigated. The equivalent rotational inertia of a vehicle is used to obtain a suitable control method based on vehicle and test bench dynamics. MATLAB/Simulink is used to model the test bench and simulate the control scheme for a standard driving schedule. Moreover, the effect of eliminating the large flywheel from the test model is investigated and changes to the control scheme are discussed. Simulation results of both cases are presented and compared. The results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink are validated using the ADVISOR software and found to be almost the same with minor deviations. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic modeling and stability analysis of an experimental test bench for electric-drive vehicle emulation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 88 - 94
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1121 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes dynamic modeling and stability analysis of one of the dynamometers in an electric drive vehicle test bench designed based on two electromechanical dynamometers. The studied dynamometer is comprised of two electric machines coupled mechanically by one shaft. One of the electric machines acts as the traction motor and injects power to the shaft; the other machine emulates the road condition and absorbs power. This machine acts as a constant power load to the traction motor and degrades system's stability margins. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental parameterization procedure for a wound- rotor induction generator

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 95 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1821 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper sets forth an experimental parameterization procedure for a novel qd equivalent circuit model of a wound-rotor induction generator. The model incorporates magnetic saturation of the main flux path, and high-frequency effects using standstill frequency response testing. Notably, the procedure also yields the machine's turns ratio. View full abstract»

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  • A novel method for reduction of stray loss in induction motor

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 101 - 105
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1270 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As per IEC-60034-2-1, 2007, for a rotating electrical machine, the stray loss component increases with the decrease in the size of the machine. This causes a drastic reduction in the machine efficiency, especially in small a.c. motors. Using measures for reducing stray loss will greatly help in improving the efficiency of motors. This paper explores a novel method for reducing the stray loss in totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC) induction motors. The concept of diamagnetic shielding has been used to reduce the stray loss occurring due to leakage of flux from stator's outer surface. Electromagnetic Analysis based on Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used extensively for this study. The effectiveness of the method has been highlighted by analyzing flux plots generated by electromagnetic software, Maxwell. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal design of electromechanical devices using a hybrid finite element/air-gap element method

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 106 - 113
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (670 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper contributes a mathematical framework for rotating electric machine optimal design. The proposed method utilizes a hybrid finite element/air-gap macro-element method, with steepest descent optimization. In particular, the air-gap element is advantageous for torque optimization, since it directly yields a smooth magnetic field function in the air-gap and an analytic expression for torque, based on the magnetic potential solution at the vertices of the finite element mesh. The sensitivity of an arbitrary objective function with respect to changes in geometric design parameters can be used in the steepest descent method. For illustration purposes, the optimization process is applied to a simple electromagnet for torque maximization. View full abstract»

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  • A finite-element analysis approach to determine the parasitic capacitances of high-frequency multiwinding transformers for photovoltaic inverters

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 114 - 119
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Magnetic components such as transformers and inductors play a significant role in the efficiency and size/weight of inverter. They are also amongst the most difficult components to design, often requiring numerous design interactions and testing. Understanding and accurate prediction of parasitic winding capacitances of high-frequency multiwinding transformers in PV inverters is fundamental to improve performance, lower cost, and speed time to market. Parasitic capacitances are highly dependent on the winding geometry and the proximity of conducting surfaces. As the geometry of the components becomes more complicated, it is almost impossible to derive analytical equations that describe accurately the behavior of magnetic components. Currently, parasitic capacitances of the multiwinding transformers are only known with certainty once a prototype is built. Therefore a design-build-test cycle needs to be iterated, often at substantial cost and time. This paper presents a technique and method to quantitatively predict the parasitic capacitance of high-frequency multiwinding transformer by means of finite-element analysis (FEA). Comparison of the FEA results with a commercially constructed experimental prototype results shows good agreement. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of torque behavior of permanent magnet synchronous motor in field-weakening operation

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 120 - 124
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1540 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A variety of efficient control strategies for synchronous motors have been proposed in recent years. Many of them use the rotary or stationary two dimensional axes in order to make the control algorithm easier. However, trying to describe the motor behavior using just two axes is either impossible or at least not complete. Neglecting the real flux density distribution of motors, leads even to wrong or at least naive interpretation about the functionality of the machine. In this paper a new approach for understanding the torque development of a permanent magnet synchronous motor in the field weakening region is developed and verified with experimental results. The description of induced voltage and torque using flux density distribution in the air gap offers a deep insight into the functionality and behavior of a electric machine. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of back-EMF wave shaping on performance of PM brushless motor

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 125 - 129
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1305 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This research paper analyzes the effects of different winding layouts in an interior rotor, surface mounted, Permanent Magnet Brushless DC (PM BLDC) motor, with design parameters fixed. Generally the winding layout of the stator is fixed for a certain slot to pole configuration, but this paper explores the possibility of having suitable winding patterns as per need, using a concept of “Back EMF Wave Shaping”. It is shown that optimization of certain motor parameters, can be done by adjusting the winding arrangement. View full abstract»

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