By Topic

Sustainable Technologies (WCST), 2012 World Congress on

Date 19-22 Nov. 2012

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (17 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Copyright notice]

    Page(s): 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (25 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 3 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (48 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Workshop 1: Sustainability, technology and society

    Page(s): 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (35 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Session 1: Sustainable technologies

    Page(s): 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (34 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Nuclear power for the vision 2030 of Abu Dhabi and improvement of air quality

    Page(s): 7 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (711 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There has a been great deal of discussion ongoing in the United Arab Emirates to look for sustainable forms of energy. As one of the leading countries in production of greenhouse gas it has become essential for the nation to look for alternative sources of energy. Abu Dhabi is establishing its first nuclear power station in the near future so it is also important to look at the adverse effect of this energy source and try to control the potential hazard related to it. Air quality issue improvement and nuclear waste disposal are two main issues related to nuclear power station. This paper will focus on the role of nuclear power to attain the 2030 vision of Abu Dhabi and how nuclear power can also help to improve the air quality of this region. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Energy regeneration from decelerating vehicle

    Page(s): 12 - 15
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (574 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Up to now most car braking systems use hydraulic braking technology, which converts the excess of kinetic energy into heat, effectively resulting in an energy loss. Regenerative breaking technology supposedly deals with this problem by converting kinetic energy back into electrical energy that can then be reused for example during acceleration. Current hybrid vehicles are equipped with regenerative braking technology which makes them particularly interesting for situations with frequent deceleration, like city traffic. However, the technology used in these vehicles has its limitations and therefore does not stand on its own, but is assisted with conventional hydraulic brakes. This paper looks at removing this limitation and allowing a vehicle to fully rely on regenerative braking technology to deal with any braking situation ranging from simple slow down to full emergency braking. To enable this, multiple generators with different gear ratios are used. The additional benefit of this construction is that the generators can be used as electrical engines and ensure proper acceleration at any speed. The paper shows that the overall efficiency of the system is very close to the efficiency of the generators used while achieving braking performance similar to conventional braking mechanisms. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Automated processing and uninterrupted supply of hydrogen: A road map of future green energy

    Page(s): 16 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (785 KB)  

    A comprehensive hydrogen processing unit (HPU) is presented for uninterrupted supplying of it at desired pressure rate. The pressurized Hydrogen is used for the cooling of large size generators in integrated gasification combined cycle power plants. It can also be seen as one of the future sources of fuel for automobile applications. Thereby, it reduces the chances of green house gases emission. Equally, Hydrogen can be utilized as a future source of energy for the automobiles. A novel HPU clubbed with highly reliable and efficient process automation system is proposed. The work includes a comparison between the proposed and the existing systems in terms of system reliability. The algorithm for system reliability is developed on MATLAB platform. The effectiveness of real-time featured proposed HPU is validated by computer simulation. The entire process automation system is designed and simulated on FT-View32 Works. It meets the specifications guided by IEEE C37.1-2007, IEC 61131-3 and IEEE 1413-2010. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Energy gathering by micro turbines for low voltage appliances

    Page(s): 21 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1002 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a city environment, the wind is often less predictable and can be re-directed in many different ways by all kind of obstacles. Therefore large size wind turbines would not work effectively, not to mention the requirement for planning permission related to their installation. In an attempt to overcome these problems, this paper looks at the designing of 3 vertical micro turbines with a maximum diameter of 30cm, which generate electric power for low voltage DC loads. The paper looks at the design, simulation and building of a combination of Savonius-type, H-type and Darrieus type blade turbines. The results indicate that the most efficient turbine combines the principles of different blade designs, resulting in a power coefficient of 42%, an average total efficiency of about 32% leading to a high electric power output, a good self-starting characteristic, and low starting and cut-in wind speeds of 2.25m/s and 2.75m/s respectively. On top of that, the turbine has a simple mechanical structure and a can be produced cheaply. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The role of accessibility in energy and waste saving

    Page(s): 27 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (347 KB)  

    This paper presents some recommendations about the inclusion of accessibility criteria in the design of tourism resources in order to involve elderly and disabled people in their energy and waste saving policies. With these criteria, tourism entities contribute to the development of sustainable tourism, and consequently, to build environmentally-friendly tourism infrastructures and services. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Session 2: Green computing [breaker page]

    Page(s): 31
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (33 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Interactive shopping with mobile wallet

    Page(s): 32 - 36
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1078 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we introduce the idea of credit card image loaded on mobile phone in the form of an application which will forbid user to carry cash and provide a navigator which will help them to navigate to the required shop. The use of credit card based purchasing is on the rise. Use of mobile phones has increased proportionately with persons. User tries to do their every work through mobile phone. Interactive shopping with mobile wallet aims to provide an interface to the user by which they would be able to find the shop of their choice easily with the help of navigator and provides an easy payment method. If user knows the exact location of the shop; it will save their time for the search of shop. Individuals possess more than one credit card which sometimes poses difficulty in their management. Interactive shopping with mobile wallet facilitates user to easily pay for the purchased item by a single click on the credit card image and it will be detected by a credit card reader and user will get a credit card validation message from bank i.e. whether his credit card is valid or not. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Storage-based smart grid communication framework

    Page(s): 37 - 43
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (714 KB)  

    In this paper we theoretically investigate the optimization problem of leveling load fluctuations on the electrical grid by means of widely distributed energy storage, and pervasive communication between grid and consumers. Allowing real-time exchange of load and generation forecasts along with storage capacity, the optimization simultaneously minimizes electrical fluctuations on the grid as well as energy costs. The optimization problem lies within the constraints of minimum, forecasted, and learned energy requirements for consumers, thermal and renewable generation capacity, weather forecasts, and storage levels, as well as within physical and stochastic models to provide accurate forecasting of energy demand on the grid. Distinct hierarchical structures of these constrains based on increased penetration of renewable generation are necessarily considered. The optimization problem, and its solutions, become the basis for a pervasive communication framework that lead to a “just-in-time” model of energy distribution, while utilizing energy generators at their maximum efficiency. This paper shows that such a conceptual framework leads to a truly “smart” grid, and is relatively generic and easy to adapt to distinct grid structures and generation sources. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Experimental setup of wide area monitoring using Zigbee IEEE 802.15.4 technology and RF FM technique

    Page(s): 44 - 48
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1057 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is important for a modern power grid to be smarter in order to provide reliable and sustainable supply of electricity. Traditional way of receiving data from the wired system is a very old and outdated technology. For a quicker and better response from the electric system, it is important to look at wireless systems as a feasible option. In this paper, wireless network based architecture has been adopted for monitoring and optimizing the electric grid. In the proposed system, we have considered the operation station as a smart sensor node and a number of wireless transmitters and receivers have been used in the network. Crossbow wireless network kit with Zigbee technology has been used in our system for wireless data transmission. The system was also tested with RF transmitters and receivers for better understanding of the problem associated with Zigbee and also finding potential ways to solve that problem faced during the lab experiment. LABVIEW software has been used to control and monitor the received data. For using the proposed system for Distributed Generation (DG), a MATLAB based program is proposed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A cybernetic approach to control employee attitude for implementation of green organization

    Page(s): 49 - 53
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (222 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Today the focus on green computing is increasing rapidly as it has a serious impact on the sustainability of both the environment and social life. For governments and business personnel the environmental issues like climate change due to increased pollution, and constant depletion of natural resources are becoming a major concern as this has a direct impact on higher energy demands and thereby causing increase in energy costs globally. The business organizations are taking green initiatives and practices to make their organization, truly a green organization. It has been observed that the employee attitude is the major factor in greening of any organization and thus it needs to be monitored and controlled. This paper proposes a solution to monitor and control the employee attitude by providing an automatic control system based on cybernetics theory. In the proposed system, the top management is the control device, and their objective is to keep the employee attitude in the positive direction to make a green organization. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Cell phone based video streaming system

    Page(s): 54 - 57
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (489 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a system through which one can stream video of a certain area using a cell phone or from the internet. The radical part of it is that the camera which will be streaming video for that particular area will be a cell phone too. The user will not have to purchase additional hardware to use this software. Two Cell phones will serve the purpose. One Cell phone will broadcast live video of the area under supervision and the other cell phone can access that video remotely using this application. Communication has always been provided at the expense of valuable time, usage of complex systems and high cost. We are about to change this trend by our new application. The user can now monitor activities going on at home just by using the mobile phone. This research is aimed to provide monitoring of one's home specifically and other purposes generally at the expense of saving time, easiness and cost effectiveness. The user does not need to restrict him to any boundary for just connectivity purposes. The user can get in touch with his family; staff or belongings, anytime from anywhere in the world on the mobile or web and view live video of any location around the world. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Session 3: Sustainable technologies

    Page(s): 58
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (33 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Multilayer education for sustainable building Retrofit with renewable resources

    Page(s): 59 - 64
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In Central Europe population is declining whereas the number of new buildings keeps rising. To avoid building waste and high energy demand, the existing building stock should be seen as a resource that can be utilized by retrofitting. Thermal insulation in particular reduces heating energy demand. The use of insulation materials made from renewable resources helps to reach environmental protection targets by reducing waste and CO2 emissions. The project Renew Building aims to accumulate knowledge about retrofit materials and techniques from renewable resources and transfer it further to a multilayer group of disciplines involved in the building process: planners, builders, craftsmen and building owners. The knowledge will be accessible in a database with free and unlimited access after revision according to practical requirements of the target groups. To successfully reach the goal of developing a cross disciplinary exchange and encouraging the use and acceptance of regional, renewable resources in the field of sustainable retrofitting, knowledge is spread via multiple pedagogical formats: on-site and e-learning training sessions for planners and craftsmen, lectures at Vienna University of Technology, via virtual platform, brochures, and by advising experts during the construction process of demonstration buildings. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Improved cookstove carbon offset project in Kenya How a single technology can benefit both the environment and the local populations

    Page(s): 65 - 70
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (767 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The dependence on inefficient cookstoves using firewood in Kenya has far-reaching consequences on the environment, health and economic development. The CDM Program of Activities presented in this paper, aims to manufacture and distribute on the long term 100,000 improved cookstoves (called Konsava stove) to rural households in Kenya, in order to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Results of performance tests of the Konsava stove show a thermal efficiency of 24.3% and a specific fuel consumption of 147g/l. Fuel wood savings are assessed at 58.8% compared to the traditional open three stones cooking stove widely used in rural Kenya. Thus, the implementation of this new sustainable technology is expected to significantly contribute not only to the improvement of environmental conditions (climate change mitigation, reduced deforestation), but also to rural populations livelihoods (improvement of indoor air quality, savings of money and/or time collecting firewood). View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Integration of a stand-alone photovoltaic solar system into Gaza Strip residential buildings

    Page(s): 71 - 74
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (646 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several concerns face the world nowadays in the field of energy. Gaza Strip, the Palestinian Territories, shares a great deal of these concerns considering its limited resources. One main problem that faces Gaza Strip is the intermittent fuel supply. This has significantly affected electricity supply and, subsequently, economical growth and people's health and safety. This paper tackles this problem form a different point of view. It considers the current interruption of electrical power as an opportunity that could be invested to encourage people to use renewable energy sources to compensate this energy shortage. Therefore, an emergency photovoltaic system has been suggested as a first step in this regard. The system is a standalone PV system that could be simply installed and used in residential buildings. PV area has been estimated, and system installation has been three-dimensionally modelled. System performance has been compared in two cases: PV installation on the roof and on the southern façade. Results show that both examined cases are feasible due to the abundant availability of solar energy in Gaza Strip. A simple stand-alone PV system with 5 m2 PV panels can meet the basic needs of Palestinian households in the cases of emergency or daily power interruption. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An examination of the total factor energy efficiency for Chinese provinces (1999–2010)

    Page(s): 75 - 76
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Our paper examines the energy efficiencies of 28 provinces in China for the period 1999-2010 by the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method. Tobit model is used to test the determinants of total factor energy efficiency in China dividing the outputs into the desirable output and undesirable output. Our empirical results show that in the period of 1999-2003, the provincial total factor energy efficiency shows to be U-shape, but in the period of 2004-2010, they are mildly increasing. These results indicate that the total factor energy efficiency can reflect the real economic development after considering the pollution emissions. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Session 4: Sustainable technologies

    Page(s): 77
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (31 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Comparison of various pretreatments of wheat straw for biomethanation

    Page(s): 78 - 82
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (905 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A study was conducted on biomethanation from pretreated wheat straw blended with cattle manure (40∶60). Various pretreatments treatments included like dilute acid treatment, alkali treatment, grinding, and combination of calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate treatment. Methane yield (m3/kg VS) form these treatments were observed in 5L batch reactors 0.242, 0.336, 0.276, 0.342 respectively compared to the untreated control group which is 0.200 m3/kg VS. The physical structure of wheat straw was also changed by using pretreatments. It is observed that after combination of calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate treatment the contents of wheat straw as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin were degraded significantly compare to other treatment taken in present study. It showed that biogas yield improved using combination of 3% calcium hydroxide with 3% sodium carbonate treatment for wheat straw. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A biophysical evaluation of a MSW-to-energy system

    Page(s): 83 - 87
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1175 KB)  

    A biophysical understanding of the MSW-to-energy facility located at the São João landfill in São Paulo is performed using emergy synthesis. The implementation of a plan for environmental compensation in fulfillment of State's requirements was also assessed. Emergy based indices are calculated to assess the environmental pressure and sustainability status of the biogas project. The study was conducted by combining the study of emergy indicators and the net emergy yield ratio to determine long-term sustainability and measure global environmental stress. The Emergy investment to the use of biogas is relatively low and profitable. The implementation of the project for environmental compensation does not change the Emergy investment significantly, but the energy recovery is high. The conclusions justify the effort invested in developing MSW-to-energy plants and are applicable for policy makers in a highly sensitive sector to achieve sustainability goals - recovery of energy. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An empirical study to investigate oral health problems in Egypt: The case of Alexandria University

    Page(s): 88 - 94
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (582 KB)  

    Internet users have increased dramatically in Egypt in all services provided specifically in health area. Patients now tend to surf the Internet for medical information just to avoid long queues and reduce cost while visiting physicians. However, the increasing number of patients complaining from oral dental problems, insufficient number of dental clinics and ignorance towards general and oral dental health reveals the clear need for investigating and evaluating the dental problems in Egypt. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.