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Security Technology, 1999. Proceedings. IEEE 33rd Annual 1999 International Carnahan Conference on

Date 5-7 Oct. 1999

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  • Proceedings IEEE 33rd Annual 1999 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (Cat. No.99CH36303)

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Page(s): 19 - 20
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A new public-key cryptosystem family based on feedback shift registers

    Page(s): 318 - 326
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    Nearly all public-key cryptographic algorithms are based on hard problems of number theory, which are related to each other. That is to say, if one of these algorithms is broken, the other's security will be threatened. This work presents a new public-key ciphering mechanism that isn't based on any of the classic cryptographical problems. The method consists of permuting the elements of the field GF(2L). The permutation is constructed by composition of bijective transitions based on the feedback functions of the feedback shift registers. The permutation algorithm is transmitted as a nonlinear equation system, where the difficulty of solving it conveys the security of the cipher. At the implementation level, the proposed scheme makes use of NLFSR (non-linear feedback shift registers), modifying the feedback function at each iteration. The resulting ciphering mechanism is able to generate any permutation View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of a nonthreatening barrier for deployment in special usage holding areas

    Page(s): 38 - 41
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    This paper describes a barrier topping designed to be less visually aggressive, but equally effective, to orthodox security barriers. These generally employ one or more components which have the potential to physically injure a person contained within the compound, should they attempt to breach the barrier. The concept on which the barrier is based is one of passive resistance rather than visual deterrence, with particular focus on the defeat of an outside rescue attempt or the use of ropes and bringing aids from within. The design is based on a 120° sector of a 1000 mm diameter section fitted to the top of an existing wall structure. The free edge of our 120° sector is fitted with a series of stiff, steel pickets, approximately 900 mm long, 72 mm wide and spaced at 154 mm centres. These pickets project downwards from the 120° sector at approximately 45°. The effect, when standing at the base of a wall fitted with our shroud, is similar to standing under a small verandah or roof. The steel pickets, in combination with the 120° sector, make it effectively impossible to climb unaided over the barrier. The design removes the threats of height and sharp deterrent barriers, which are often unsuitable for use, particularly in juvenile institutions and psychiatric hospitals View full abstract»

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  • New microwave sensors for intrusion detection systems

    Page(s): 49 - 53
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    Intrusion detection systems based on the utilisation of continuous wave (CW) radar and Doppler effect have several advantages over electrooptic sensors, namely, their ability to work in dark or smoky spaces, and under adverse weather conditions. However, they pose some practical problems such as: their inability to provide any range measure, nor to distinguish between different targets; high sensitivity to unexpected motion which leads to the need of precise delimitation of the area under surveillance, making its use difficult in certain applications; remarkable vulnerability to electronic countermeasures and high sensitivity to interference from other sensors. The advances in microwave and signal processing technologies permit the affordable use of spread-spectrum techniques, and particularly, the development of sensors based on frequency modulated continuous wave radar, which is the goal of this paper. These new sensors overcome the above mentioned limitations: since its operation no longer lies on the Doppler effect, they are insensitive to unexpected motion; as they are able to determine ranges and therefore separate different targets, they can illuminate a broader area than the one under vigilance, thus simplifying their installation. In addition, they provide the number of targets in the area of interest; due to the use of spread-spectrum signals, they offer higher robustness against interference, either deliberate or generated by other sensors. A prototype of this kind of sensors, operating at 22 GHz, is presented View full abstract»

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  • Human factors considerations for aviation security technologies

    Page(s): 152 - 157
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    All of the civil aviation security technologies being used worldwide have one thing in common-the ultimate decision about whether a bag will be placed on a plane rests in the mind of a human. Continued improvements in aviation security accordingly require human factors interventions to further enhance person-machine performance. This paper discusses the nascent field of aviation security human factors within the aviation psychology discipline. Prior to the Pan Am 103 tragedy, the human component and contribution to aviation security was not considered in terms of its impact on overall system effectiveness. This catastrophic event led to the United States Aviation Security Improvement Act of June 1991 which established the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Aviation Security Human Factors Program. The program's mission is to study and improve human performance in civil aviation security. Current research and development efforts encompass all significant human roles, responsibilities, activities, and impacts within the aviation security system View full abstract»

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  • Fully integrated digital imaging in an access control and security system

    Page(s): 191 - 196
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    Traditional analogue Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) systems provide an effective means of monitoring and alarm verification. However, for some facilities the cost of both equipment and installation for these systems is prohibitive. These systems also suffer from “information overload”-an operator cannot watch every CCTV monitor all the time, and finding the exact frames you want on videotape can take a considerable amount of time. Recent developments in Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and “camera on a chip” image sensors mean that it is now possible to develop a totally digital intelligent camera that overcomes some of the deficiencies of standard analogue CCTV systems. This paper describes a camera under development (patents pending) which takes advantage of these technology developments to provide a digital imaging system that is fully integrated with an access control and security monitoring system View full abstract»

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  • Non-noticeable information embedding in color images: marking and detection

    Page(s): 293 - 297
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    One of the problems arising from the use of digital media is the ease of obtaining identical copies of digital images or audio files, allowing manipulation and unauthorized use. Copyright is an effective tool for preserving intellectual property of those documents but authors and publishers need effective techniques preventing copyright modification, due to the straightforward access to multimedia applications and the wider use of digital publications through the WWW. These techniques are generally called watermarking and allow the introduction of side information (i.e. author identification, copyrights, dates, etc.). This work concentrates on the problem of watermarking embedding and optimum detection in color images through the use of spread spectrum techniques, both in space (direct sequence spread spectrum or DSSS) and frequency (frequency hopping). It is applied to RGB and opponent color component representations. Perceptive information is considered in both color systems. Some tests are performed in order to ensure imperceptibility and to assess detection quality of the optimum color detectors View full abstract»

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  • Biometric identification system based on keyboard filtering

    Page(s): 203 - 209
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    We have revised several authentication systems based on biometric technology to resume advantages and disadvantages. Because pure hardware biometric systems of user authentication have low rate on results over computational and economic cost, alternate biometric methods of low computational cost based on software development, are also being evaluated. We have developed a first prototype of a software system to elicitate sets of 20 password stroke samples, named attacks, with a population of 10 different users totalling 200 attacks. The results obtained demonstrate that users follow generally certain patterns when they are writing their password, and is possible to reinforce the user's password authentication method by means of the analysis of user stroking patterns. In addition it is necessary to increase the population size and number of samples to establish standard and reliable rules. Finally, it is very difficult to find a general user pattern applied to every password View full abstract»

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  • Face identification by means of a neural net classifier

    Page(s): 182 - 186
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    This paper describes a novel face identification method that combines the eigenfaces theory with the Neural Nets. We use the eigenfaces methodology in order to reduce the dimensionality of the input image, and a neural net classifier that performs the identification process. The method presented recognizes faces in the presence of variations in facial expression, facial details and lighting conditions. A recognition rate of more than 87% has been achieved, while the classical method of Turk and Pentland achieves a 75.5% View full abstract»

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  • Solid state simulation of movements for the test of volumetric intrusion detectors

    Page(s): 95 - 100
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    The determination of sensitivity changes of volumetric intrusion detectors by means of walk tests is current practice in many test laboratories but suffers from repeatability. This situation is of special importance in relation to approval tests. A concept was worked out in order to determine the response threshold value of intrusion detectors by means of a test apparatus which fits in a normal room and is able to test even dual technology detectors. The apparatus utilises a solid state design for passive infrared detector testing as well as for the test of Doppler detectors View full abstract»

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  • An user authentication infrastructure for extranet applications

    Page(s): 354 - 362
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    An extranet is used to connect businesses with their suppliers, customers or other businesses that share common goals in a way that automates their administrative interactions using Internet technology. The security of the communications over Internet is considered an essential feature. To guarantee secure operation the aid of some user authentication infrastructure is needed. This paper introduces a public key infrastructure (PKI) and user identification scheme to be used in extranet applications. The flexibility of the system allows it to fit the usual hierarchical organization structure View full abstract»

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  • Modeling voice variability through MCE techniques in speaker recognition systems

    Page(s): 247 - 250
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    Speaker recognition is becoming a highly reliable mean for access control and secure-information exchange. However, before its effective use in practical applications, there are still important problems to solve. One of these problems is the degradation of the recognition performance through time due to different factors that introduce a noticeable variability into the voice signal characteristics. In this paper, trying to contribute to the analysis of voice variability in speaker recognition systems, we present some experimental results based on a speech modeling technique known as Gaussian mixture modeling (GMM) trained through a minimum classification error (MCE) criterion. Our major contribution should be to study the vulnerability of the system and to test a start-up process suitable to provide a stable performance along time View full abstract»

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  • Remote access control by means of speech

    Page(s): 187 - 190
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    This work deals with remote user identity verification by means of voice. This problem can be separated into two tasks: speaker verification and remote performance of that verification. In this paper we are concerned with the last one, considering two main problems in it: data security and multiple access points. The proposed approach is a client-server distributed system, that solves two different situations: local access-remote verification (e.g., the “door” of a restricted area is managed by a remote system), and remote access and verification (e.g., bank operations by telephone or computer). We are concerned with open systems, so we use standard TCP/IP communication protocol, making it easier the integration of our verification system with other control systems View full abstract»

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  • Neural networks applied to gun and ammunition recognition from shooting sounds

    Page(s): 67 - 70
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    A system for the automatic recognition of the gun and ammunition used in a shooting is presented. The system is based on statistical functions and neural networks and it is developed under a graphical user interface (GUI) View full abstract»

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  • Campus security technology and university crime: a comparative investigation and analysis

    Page(s): 391 - 397
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    Violent crimes and property crimes at our nation's colleges and universities are alarming. Collegian studies estimate that between 25 percent to 35 percent of all college-aged women are sexually assaulted during their four years of undergraduate studies. Aggravated assaults, robberies, burglaries, theft, arson and vandalism are common problems occurring on campuses across the nation. Many college campuses in suburban and rural areas are the high crime neighborhoods in their communities. Currently, higher-education institutions are required to give students, parents, prospective students and employees annual reports on the number of serious crimes on campus. Moreover, the Campus Security Act of 1990 requires postsecondary institutions to publish and distribute an annual security report containing information about campus security policies and crime statistics. This study surveyed and compared the crime statistics and security technology among small and large campuses to ascertain if there was any association to levels of crime reported to the security technology services provided. More specifically, this study investigated the crime statistics of small and large campuses to the safety and security options available at campuses. This study reports on whether the security hardware systems available at small and large educational institutions are similar or different and whether any of the systems are integrated with another system for more thorough protection View full abstract»

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  • Gryffin TALOS taut wire perimeter detection system real world experiences

    Page(s): 428 - 431
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    The development of taut wire detectors over the last 30 years has continued to ensure acceptance of this technology in the perimeter security applications. There are a number of features which make such systems attractive for security, applications which include resistance to environmental affects, low nuisance alarm rate and high probability of detection. A taut wire fence constructed of barbed wire will also act as a deterrent and adds a barrier delay time to the perimeter. In 1998 the initial concepts of a novel design for a new taut wire sensor were described at the Carnahan Conference sponsored by the IEEE. This paper is the second in a series which formally releases the product to production under the trade name Gryffin TALOS. The mechanical design of the sensor has been refined for field applications and provides an improved detector with superior sensitivity and robustness. The system is modular in that the sensor screen may be defined as separate sensor elements communicating along a serial bus structure to a master controller. Each sensor processor as a self contained module may be ganged on the serial bus from 1 to 255 sensor processors. A master controller analyses the collective output of the sensor screen and annunciates a result onto a network which may connect to multiple sensor screens. The refined mechanical operation and the signal processing of the sensor output is described as well as data analysis of the combined sensor screen. The paper concludes with a description of test methods and new applications View full abstract»

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  • The Vocal Passport, a technique to outline profiles of criminals from their voice recordings

    Page(s): 77 - 79
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    Vocal Passport is a technique within forensic acoustics, in which, through the analysis of unknown speech recordings, one is able to acquire information or clues about some characteristics and personal parameters of the speaker involved (sex, age group, social background, behavior or emotional state, region or zone from which his dialect or speech style comes, etc.). The purpose of this technique is to help determine the identity of the speaker. To cover these different areas of information we have specialists the disciplines of acoustics, phonetics, dialectology, speech pathology, psychology, etc. Nevertheless, it's not always possible to gain all these types of data in every work case. The latest source of information to be incorporated to our study of speaker profiling has been that concerning information on the speaker's behavior and emotional state View full abstract»

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  • An on-line signature verification system using multi-template matching approaches

    Page(s): 477 - 480
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    Signature verification is a natural and friendly approach in biometrics-based verification. As we know, the system can achieve a better performance if more training samples are collected. However, routinely signing the patterns is a boring and inconvenient process to obtain enough training samples at the initial enrolment. In this paper, we have proposed a multi-template matching approach to identify the individual via few training samples. Some experimental results were conducted to show the effectiveness of our proposed methods View full abstract»

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  • Solutions for anonymous communication on the Internet

    Page(s): 298 - 303
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    This paper gives a short overview on the currently existing technical solutions for anonymous communication. The problem of anonymous communication is defined, and its basic solution is described. Practical solutions, mostly based on the basic scheme, are discussed. They provide anonymity to connections in general, and anonymity in specific applications, like email and the World Wide Web. The different solutions are described, and a comparison is given. Additional remarks are made with respect to anonymity revocation, U.S. export restrictions, and the performance that can be obtained View full abstract»

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  • Virus attack to the PC bank

    Page(s): 304 - 310
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    The PC bank may be the most time-saving banking innovation since the ATM. However, it also brings new possibilities for thieves. This is mainly because we still haven't completely solved the growing problem of computer viruses and Trojans that can act on our computers against our will. Several methods are used against them, although none of these can be considered 100% effective. Even more, most personal computers have little or no virus protection, so they are very easy to attack. This can become a problem as nearly all PC banking systems rely on authentication with identification passwords. This system is very vulnerable and we show that it doesn't provide enough protection for users who want to make transfer operations from their accounts View full abstract»

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  • Automatic CCTV surveillance-towards the VIRTUAL GUARD

    Page(s): 42 - 48
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    The VIRTUAL GUARD is a general-purpose computer-based CCTV surveillance system for detecting potential criminal activity in public areas. The system monitors all activity in the surveillance area, the vast majority of which is people innocently going about their normal business. It will alarm when the observed activities of particular pedestrians and vehicles match any of the pre-defined suspicious behaviour criteria programmed into the system. At the same time as analysing movement behaviour, the system uses computer-controlled pan tilt zoom (PTZ) cameras to obtain close-up video recordings of any pedestrians and vehicles at the scene. The system can provide automatic surveillance in many different situations, from parking areas and commercial districts, to housing, recreational and transport facilities. It is particularly suited to the protection of government or commercial buildings located on city streets or other public areas where it is not possible to install perimeter fences View full abstract»

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  • Biometric identification through speaker verification over telephone lines

    Page(s): 238 - 242
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    In this paper, the identity of a remote user is verified through his voice by means of a simple telephone in order to gain access to a specific system or service. We have used state-of-the-art text-independent speaker modeling algorithms, likelihood normalization in the verification process, and channel normalization techniques. Several experiments are presented showing the negative effects of channel variability and temporal lapse between training and testing recordings, but we will show that using the appropriate parameterization, channel compensation and multisession training will allow us to obtain less than 1% of joint false acceptances and false rejections from single utterances of the speaker passport number View full abstract»

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  • Identification of individuals using fingerprints by linguistic descriptions fuzzy comparison

    Page(s): 227 - 232
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    One of the most reliable known methods of personal identification (besides DNA recognition) is the use of fingerprints of an individual. In the present paper it is sought to introduce a new method of personal identification through fingerprints by comparing two fingerprints (one known and the other unknown) by means of linguistic elements fuzzy comparison. For each fingerprint a linguistic expression will be generated from a type of grammar that will also be defined. The fuzzy comparison of the elements of these expressions will form the hit/no-hit between both fingerprints View full abstract»

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  • User performance testing of the Perimitrax buried cable sensor

    Page(s): 112 - 119
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    Beginning in the 1970's buried cable sensors have been used extensively to provide perimeter intrusion detection for a wide range of military, government and industrial facilities around the world. In 1998, the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (USAERDC), in partnership with Senstar-Stellar Corporation, conducted testing of the Perimitrax buried cable sensor. Perimitrax is a new product manufactured by Senstar-Stellar that features an advanced leaky coaxial cable and digital signal processor for intruder detection and includes an integrated command and control system for alarm display, maintenance, and diagnostics. The Perimitrax technology was first introduced at the 1996 Carnahan Conference. The purpose of this testing, sponsored by the U.S. Air Force, Force Protection Command and Control Systems Program Office, was to determine the performance characteristics of the installed Perimitrax product, when deployed in a wide range of deployment mediums. Testing was conducted at an ERDC facility that featured three types of soil and three types of pavement in which Perimitrax sensor cables were installed and tested. This paper reviews features and characteristics of the sensor, outlines the test protect undertaken, and presents a summary and interpretation of results in order to guide the user in its successful application View full abstract»

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