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Smart Objects, Systems and Technologies (SmartSysTech), Proceedings of 2012 European Conference on

Date 12-13 June 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Dispersion Effects at High Bandwidth Localization for UHF RFID Tags

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (985 KB)  

    Position estimation of UHF RFID tags is a feature, which brings new applications to the fore, e.g. indoor navigation, object localization, etc. This paper proposes a wide-band signal architecture for UHF RFID systems, estimating the distance between reader and tags on basis of signal propagation delay evaluation. However, the main focus is on dispersion effects, which arise if high bandwidth signals are utilized to estimate the range in the UHF RFID band. Therefore, this paper will shortly present the hardware used and the signals within the system, which result in distance measurements. It will be shown, that the reader??s non-constant frequency-dependent impedance over the whole bandwidth causes dispersion effects, which will distort the wide-band signals in a way, that negatively influences the resolution error. A comparison between experimental signals and derived signals including the distortion effects shows, that the large part of this distorting effect is owed to the reader??s impedance mismatching. View full abstract»

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  • Dual-Feed On-Metal Antenna Design for High-Performance, Radio- Powered UHF RFID Sensors

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1375 KB)  

    The following paper demonstrates a dual-port antenna design for radio frequency identification (RFID) smart sensors. The design has derived from a high-performance microstrip structure for UHF RFID on-metal applications based on a DiClad 880 substrate. The antenna is optimized to supply RF-powered smart sensors applying an EPC compliant RFID data logger IC combined with an RF energy harvester IC within the UHF frequency band around 868 MHz. View full abstract»

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  • Integrating RFID Transponders into Fibre-Reinforced Plastics by Using Textile Production Technology

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (637 KB)  

    Fibre-reinforced plastics are an important class of lightweight materials that find one focus of application in the aeronautics industry. Within the efforts of improving the cost-effectiveness of those materials, special attention has to be paid to the production, which accounts for the biggest fraction of a part??s costs. In order to improve material and information flows in production environments, the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is an enabler to enhance efficiency and productivity. Therefore, this contribution describes how RFID transponders can be integrated into fibre-reinforced plastics. Textile production technology is used to accomplish this task. Furthermore, the integrated RFID transponders are characterized in terms of electric properties. View full abstract»

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  • RFID Jamming and Attacks on Israeli e-Voting

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (667 KB)  

    The next generation of Israeli elections is proposed to run on an e-voting system which uses near-field RFID tags instead of plain paper ballots. In 2010 we investigated the system and identified several potential attacks which can be launched against the proposed system. In this work we report on the actual implementation of two of these attacks ?? zapping and jamming. These attacks have a critical effect on the security of the proposed system. View full abstract»

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  • Value Creation in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains using Customer- Centric RFID Applications

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (234 KB)  

    This study proposes an approach towards generating value in pharmaceutical supply chains using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. The approach focuses on the relationship between pharmacies, customers and manufacturers. Multiple explorative case studies were conducted and analyzed to identify potential areas for improvement in the supply chain (SC), and means of customer integration supported with Near Field Communication (NFC) devices. NFC is a standard for radio frequency communication between smartphones and related NFC devices, and allows data exchange between devices that are in close proximity (within a four inch area). Our findings allowed us to explore novel use-cases based on NFC and RFID technologies and their applications to enhance value realization in the downstream pharmaceutical SC. Keywords: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Near Field Communication (NFC), pharmaceutical supply chain, central information system (CIS), explorative case study View full abstract»

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  • User-centred Development of a Wireless Sensor Network-based Asset Management System for Mobile Measurement Devices

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)  

    Asset management systems (AMS) are associated with improvements in asset utilization and prevention of inefficient work processes in employees?? daily working routine. However, even if the AMS supports the business process perfectly it will fail if it does not fulfil the users?? specific needs. Despite the functionalities provided, each user - regardless of background, vocabulary, and experience - must be able to find easily and quickly all necessary asset information. One possible way realizing such a user adapted and accepted system is involving real end-users at specific times during the design process. This paper presents our approach of a user-centred development of a wireless sensor network-based asset management system including a methodology for usability testing and the results of the AMS test at the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS. View full abstract»

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  • Added Value Services for Smart Transport Systems: Case ALETHEIA Project

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB)  

    ??ALETHEIA ?? Semantic federation of comprehensive product information?? is a leading innovation project, sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) that was running from July 2008 to June 2011. In this project, a demonstrator has been developed. It demonstrates the possibilities of wireless sensor networks to enhance the quality of supply chains in European inland transports. After describing the motivation for the project ALETHEIA and providing an introduction to ??radio technology in the logistics industry??, the paper gives a technical overview about the realization of three scenarios, each covering typical problems of goods transport. The challenges that still lie in the integration and interoperability of this technology will also be discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Forward Error Correction in Long-Range RFID systems

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (211 KB)  

    In this paper the use of forward error correction (FEC) in long-range RFID systems according to the EPCglobal standard is investigated. A model describing the system behavior in the presence of frame-errors is presented and used to evaluate the improvements introduced by the FEC. Additionally the original EPCglobal system and the extended system are compared by means of a computer simulation. The results of the model analysis and of the simulations are presented, demonstrating the achievable improvements. View full abstract»

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  • Low-power UHF-RFID sensor tags for a complete monitoring and traceability of the cold chain

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (929 KB)  

    This paper focuses on the development of an intelligent monitoring system for logistic management. The system is a profitable combination of Radio-Frequency-Identification (RFID) Technology and variable sensor types, like temperature, humidity or gas sensors. Depending on the requirements, the integration of different sensors is possible. In this case the main attention is turned on the temperature monitoring in truck environment during the food transport. Of course, the setting is transferable on other applications like monitoring temperature of pharmaceuticals or controlling of humidity to prevent corrosion of car components during transport. Furthermore, the system is capable to communicate with the driver??s cabin and with a central base in case of temperature range violation, allowing the driver or the fleet manager to proactively intervene before damage occurs. View full abstract»

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  • Performance of BCH Codes and Transmit Diversity for MISO UHF RFID Communication

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (337 KB)  

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is used in environments with significant fading characteristic. In this paper the Electronic Product Code (EPC) Class-1 Gen-2 protocol is extended by spatial diversity (SD) and Forward Error Correction (FEC) in order to improve the transmission reliability. A dyadic backscatter channel is used. The respective channel model gives a good approximation for the RFID small scale fading characteristic. Based on simulations of the bit error-rate (BER) and the packet error-rate (PER) the improvement using FEC (a BCH code) and SD (with two tag antennas) are presented and the trade-off between FEC and SD is discussed. It is shown that a BCH encoded transmission can lead to 8 dB coding gain which is relatively constant for varying channel parameters. Higher gains (up to 27 dB) can be achieved by using two tag antennas, but varying the channel parameters results in a higher variance of the gain due to different correlation scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • Reliable Scanning of Tagged Special Containers with RFID Electromagnetic Reverberation

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (723 KB)  

    As reusable containers steadily spread in logistics, the analysis of attendant challenges is increasingly taking on importance. This paper describes the challenges for engine containers in the automotive industry and identifies approaches to meet them. Logistics providers can use radio frequency identification to identify this special type of container automatically and uniquely. View full abstract»

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  • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technologies for Locating Warehouse Resources: A Conceptual Framework

    Page(s): 1 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (382 KB)  

    In the supply chain, a warehouse is a crucial component for linking all chain parties. It is necessary to track the real time resource location and status to support warehouse operations effectively. Therefore, RFID technology has been adopted to facilitate the collection and sharing of data in a warehouse environment. However, an essential decision should be made on the type of RFID tags the warehouse managers should adopt, because it is very important to implement RFID tags that work in warehouse environment. As a result, the warehouse resources will be easily tracked and accurately located which will improve the visibility of warehouse operations, enhance the productivity and reduce the operation costs of the warehouse. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the reading performance of all types of RFID tags in a warehouse environment in order to choose the most appropriate RFID tags which will enhance the operational efficiency of a warehouse. Reading performance of active and passive RFID tags have been evaluated before while, semi-passive RFID tag, which is battery-assisted with greater sensitivity than passive tags and cheaper than active tags, has not been examined yet in a warehouse environment. This research is in- progress research and it seeks to (i) provide a general overview of the existing real-time data management techniques in tracking warehouse resources location, (ii) provide an overall conceptual framework that can help warehouse managers to choose the best RFID technologies for a warehouse environment, (iii) Finally, the paper submits an experiment design for evaluating the reading performance of semi-passive RFID tags in a warehouse environment. Keywords: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Reading Performance, Locating warehouse Resources View full abstract»

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  • A robust RFID inventory

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (964 KB)  

    Reading a set of RFID tags all at once is an important feature of the RFID technology for many applications. However, RFID inventory is not completely reliable as tags may be missed in unfavorable situations. In this paper, we propose an application level protocol based on an integrity checking mechanism supporting a reliable inventory process. The integrity information is self-contained in tag group and the protocol does not require any support from an external information system, enabling autonomous and standalone operation. View full abstract»

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  • Rapid Prototyping System for RFID Sensing Applications

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1078 KB)  

    This paper presents a system allowing rapid prototyping and development of new SMART RFID sensing applications. The proposed system is composed of a new low-power passive 13.56 MHz RFID Analogue Front End (AFE) chip, sensors, rechargeable battery a micro-controller and memory. The AFE was designed and fabricated successfully based on using a 0.35 um CMOS technology. To allow re-charging a battery through the RF field, a new battery charger is designed and integrated within the AFE, this leads to a selfpowered system which is a new benefit in the RFID sensing and continuous monitoring. As application, a Shelf Life Time Tracker (SLTT) is developed. The SLTT is a supervision RFID system monitoring quality changes during transport of perishable foods. When addressed, the system will give a shelf life prediction based on the used quality model. This system will be used to make appropriate management decisions that maintain and increase value across a supply chain. In addition to the shelf life prediction, the SLTT allows the conditions monitoring (temperature, humidity, etc.). View full abstract»

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  • Improving Energy Efficiency for Small-Scale Solar Energy Harvesting

    Page(s): 1 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB)  

    Using a solar energy harvesting device in its optimal working point allows to maximize the harvested energy and to minimize the required number of solar cells for a given application. For larger photovoltaic installations, a corresponding maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is thus standard. However, in small-scale harvesting, the internal consumption of the required circuitry can often eat up the harvested energy surplus. Alternatively the operation at more or less constant voltage, realized by directly coupling the solar cells to a fixed voltage, e. g. of a rechargeable battery, can be used. In this paper we present a concept to switch between MPPT and direct coupling operation to maximize the harvester??s output. Our approach allows to increase the energy efficiency by making use of MPPT whenever it results in a higher energy output and avoiding MPPT overhead for lower irradiations. We outline the concept, motivate the approach and show a prototype implementation of a solar-powered wireless sensor node that incorporates our method. This prototype is experimentally evaluated to determine the achievable increase in harvested energy. Based on this evaluation, we assess the possible increase in energy efficiency for varying application areas by means of a simulation. We conclude that switching between MPPT and direct coupling can result in an increase of overall efficiency of several percent depending on the considered application. View full abstract»

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  • Tariff settings for smart home area networks

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)  

    Business and tariff models for smart homes have to be designed with aim to reduce the initial costs as well as simplify creating it. The appropriate tariff model should consider home users?? attitudes and behaviour that are subject to changes. In this process of tariff determining users should be given all necessary personal and statistical information on their usage. In this paper we propose two possible solutions for tariff setting: demand response model and responsive pricing model. View full abstract»

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  • Implantable RFID sensor platform to monitor vital functions of small animals controlled by network based software

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (970 KB)  

    Remote measurement of the physiology, so-called biotelemetry, is a key technology in the modern veterinary medicine. The usage of wireless implants has less impact on the behavior of animals than manual measurement methods and cause less disturbance than wired devices. But, common biotelemetry still uses proprietary communication and power concepts focused on small systems with one animal. Therefore, the University of Applied Sciences Offenburg is developing a low-cost RFID system called muTrans1, which is able to measure ECG, pressure, temperature, oxygen saturation and activity. The muTrans uses an own RFID sensor transponder and standardized commercial components and combines them to a scalable RFID system able to build-up RFID sensor networks with a nearly unlimited size. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of Feature Attributes for an RFID Conveyor Belt Application using Probabilistic Models

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (291 KB)  

    RFID conveyor belt applications are frequently found in fashion and retail logistics where individually tagged goods are packed into boxes for easy handling. Based on the item-level tagging of goods, these applications are used to identify individual tags and to perform the assignment of tags to their enclosing box. Several aspects such as the extended read range of UHF systems and multipath propagation degrade the detection performance. In this paper we discuss different feature attributes available to the underlying classifier within the RFID system. In particular we address the impact of using the phase information provided by the reader on the classification performance of the RFID system. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical Limits of ISO/IEC 14443 type A RFID Eavesdropping Attacks

    Page(s): 1 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (569 KB)  

    Inductively coupled ISO/IEC 14443 compliant RFID systems are used in many security-relevant applications. A key security feature is their very short range of about 10 cm. Eavesdropping attack scenarios are a well known and recognised threat for these systems. In this paper, we present a theoretical calculation of the maximum eavesdropping range of an inductive coupled reader-transponder communication with passive load modulation. Theoretical limits for eavesdropping distances are calculated for exemplary ISO/IEC 14443A transponder and reader configurations in different environments. According to our results the previously published range limits are stated as too high. View full abstract»

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  • EMI Susceptibility Analysis of Contactless Smart Cards

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1101 KB)  

    This paper describes a novel methodology to verify, through simulation, whether contactless smart cards have the capability to reject RF interference from mobile phone transmissions. In this test bench the immunity test signals are injected indirectly into the contactless chip card under design by using a model of a well known EMC test device, the GTEM cell. A GTEM cell is used for this purpose because it is the only real-life test environment that allows exposing the DUT with a localized plane wave from 13.56 MHz up to multi-GHz frequencies. A comparison of the simulations with measurements, using the proposed methodology, shows excellent agreement. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless RFID Chip Impedance Measurement by Using an Reader and a Statistically Analysis

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (582 KB)  

    For the development of an RFID tag it is important to have a good knowledge of the input impedance of the RFID IC in order to design a matched antenna. A new approach for a wireless chip impedance measurement, that only requires an RFID reader and at least three similar tag antennas that have different impedances is presented. The antennas are connected to the IC and for each combination the minimum activation power and/or maximum distance is measured. From these results the chip impedance is calculated. Starting from the procedure with three antennas, the method is expanded to use more test antennas and a statistically technique. View full abstract»

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  • Comprehensive traceability system of milk samples using RFID

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (569 KB)  

    When collecting milk production, a refrigerated bulk tank lorry makes collections from dairy farms in the area within a few hours. Before pumping the milk from each farm's tank, the driver collects a sample to be saved and transported in the cabin for further analysis in a laboratory. The quality of the milk sets the price of the tank, which becomes a means of all batches in it. Therefore, farmers are not encouraged to produce higher quality milk, but only to satisfy a minimum standard. Moreover, there may be even bigger problems, as the detection of antibiotics in the tank. If this is the case, the samples are analysed and the responsible farmer has to pay all other farmers for the whole tank, plus a fine. However, as the level of antibiotics detected is usually extremely low and as antibiotics rapidly deteriorate with high temperatures, it is often the case that the contamination is detected in the tank but not in any of the samples. Thus, the need for the samples to be kept in optimum - refrigerated - conditions during transportation to ensure a reliable result on the laboratory tests is a key issue. This paper presents a solution for the identification and tracing of these samples. A microcontroller-based system has been developed to control critical parameters (as the temperature related to GPS coordinates at all times), and uses RFID technology to register and trace the milk samples on their trip from farms to the laboratory. Keywords: Traceability, RFID, smart sensors, embedded systems. View full abstract»

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  • Pseudorandom Noise based Channel Coding Scheme for Tag to Reader Communication in UHF-RFID Systems

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (571 KB)  

    This paper presents the capabilities of using Pseudorandom noise (PN) codes as a channel-coding scheme for the tag to reader communication. A comparative of the standardized coding scheme and the PN is presented. To take advantage of the PN code??s orthogonality an example is shown using gold sequences of length 31 coding 16 symbols, which encodes the information that is backscattered by the tag. At the reader the corresponding correlation receiver is implemented to detect any of the 16 possible symbols. The decision is made using a maximum-likelihood method. This coding scheme will be compared to the EPCglobal GEN 2 standardized Miller codes in order to establish its advantages and disadvantages. View full abstract»

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  • A passive novel transponder for monitoring leakage in silicone breast implants by using RFID ISO 15693

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (727 KB)  

    In this paper, a complete passive transponder device has been discussed which is meant to monitor leakage in silicone breast implants. The passive tag operates in the HF frequency range of 13.56MHz using RFID ISO 15693 standard. The complete system consists of the transponder, reader and a PC. This paper focusses on the development of such a state of the art passive RFID transponder to monitor the wellness of the silicone breast implants periodically in order to detect leakage in the same. Keyword: RFID (Radio frequency identification device), EM (Electromagnetic) field, Passive Transponder, Silicone breast implants. View full abstract»

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  • Low Frequency Reader Design Approach for Metallic Environments

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (626 KB)  

    Low frequency transponder systems are the method of choice in metallic and hydrous environments. To achieve high energy efficiency in mobile reader devices the antenna circuit is designed for a high quality factor. Metal in e.g. industrial and medical environments has a significant influence on such systems. An analysis of the influences of metal on the reader circuit impedance and the energy transfer function is presented. A smart approach to compensate the detuning of resonant circuits in mobile devices due to metallic environment is given. Finally applications in metallic environments from the current research are presented. View full abstract»

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