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Smart Grid Engineering (SGE), 2012 IEEE International Conference on

Date 27-29 Aug. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • Development of Battery and Charger Integration System (BCIS) for EV charging stations

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (506 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The popularization of electric vehicles (EVs) will give rise to challenges that include expenses for capacity upgrades, power supply shortages, and long waiting time to charge. We have therefore developed a Battery & Charger Integration System (BCIS) to support the burgeoning infrastructure for EVs. The system enables charging time reductions in simultaneously multiple EVs charging by shifting the charging power peak and using power of stationary batteries. This paper outlines the BCIS and the results of an experiment and simulation of charging time reductions. View full abstract»

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  • Key ICT solutions for realizing smart grid

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (661 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Smart Grid is receiving plenty of attention as the next generation energy management system which allows both bulk renewable energy installation and optimized energy production and consumption. In order to realize Smart Grid, it is said that ICT, Information Communication Technology, takes important roles, and we acknowledge following two ICT solutions are especially significant. The first is Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) which is the last mile network solution connecting energy suppliers with their consumers, and the second is the Energy Management System (EMS), which provides various measures for optimized energy supply and demand. Both solutions are based on new requirements in electric power market and many challenges exist in deployment of these solutions. In this paper, technologies and ideas which solve these challenges in both AMI and EMS areas are provided to realize Smart Grid based on our implementation and development experiences of these solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Current status of implementation for smart and resilient community in Japan

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The widespread shortage of electricity occurred by the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred in March of 2011 has made us keenly aware of the need for households, offices, factories, and local governments to maintain their own power sources that are not completely dependent on electric power companies. In constructing such power sources, locally generated and consumed renewable energy from solar and wind sources would be mainly utilized. However, such power sources would affect the power grid through fluctuation of power output and the deterioration of power quality. Therefore, a new social infrastructure to supply electric power would be required. As a countermeasure of the problem, it would be suitable to create resilient and expandable distribution networks that are of appropriate scale for their respective regions instead of large-scale networks all at once. The network will add new clusters when needed, and have them collaborate with each other where regional governments are the main entities. In this paper, the current status and features of the government driven developments for smart grids and communities in Japan are introduced, and cluster-oriented expandable networks are discussed focusing on resiliency of the grid against natural disaster. View full abstract»

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  • A modified Newton-Raphson method for unbalanced distribution systems

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (627 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The increasing penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) has drastically changed the topology of distribution systems. In order to fully consider this new scenario in steady-state studies, there is a need for an accurate load flow method that (a) models three phase unbalanced feeders and loads appropriately, and (b) uses a Jacobian so that the state of the system can be ascertained using analytical matrix methods. Many modern load flow techniques have been proposed for solving distribution systems. However, the majority of these methods fail in providing a clear insight on the network states due to the absence of Jacobian matrix computation. Conversely, traditional Newton-Raphson (NR) methods provide the calculation of the Jacobian matrix, but these methods have lost popularity due to their poor convergence in distribution system studies. Using recent developments of the single-phase NR solutions, an improved three-phase NR-based load flow solution is proposed to study unbalanced distribution systems and is presented in this paper. The proposed method is used to solve the IEEE test systems consisting of 4, 13, 34, 37, and 123 buses. Convergence performance is discussed in detail. View full abstract»

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  • Japanese test facilities for smart grid

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Japanese government policy for carbon emission reduction is based on the increasing of generation capacity for photovoltaic to 28GW by 2020 and 53GW by 2030. Even if renewable energy sources are expected to contribute to the emission reduction, there may be some technical difficulties to integrate a large amount of renewable sources to the existing electric power system. Difficulties and challenges associated with the renewable energy sources are mainly related to the location of the sources and to the unstable output of the generation. Smart grid technologies are the key to solve these challenges. This paper introduces a smart grid test facility developed starting from 2010 in Amagasaki Japan. The aim of the facility is to create an advance environment with a large amount of renewable sources integrated. In a Mitsubishi factory, 4MW of photovoltaic panels are connected to a distribution grid in several combinations and voltage level. The test facility is used to develop and test new algorithms, systems and equipments for the smart grid of 2020. The paper focuses on equipment and technologies to ensure high power quality in the power system especially regarding frequency and voltage stabilization. View full abstract»

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  • A novel mechanism for surveillance transmission in smart grid

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (422 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Herein, we propose a novel resilient forwarding mechanism to address the contradictory problem between transmission performance and power saving problems. Through automatic backup and transmission line switch, self-healing and autonomous troubleshooting can be achieved for online monitoring in transmission grid. Autonomous surveillance transmission network can be achieved through transmission line indicators. Even though several parts of the transmission network are breakdown, resilient forwarding mechanism may still provide robust pre-alarming and data transmission services. We also evaluate the performance of our approach by reducing the transmission latency to improve network performance. We further analysis the transmission latency gain with resilient forwarding mechanism through simulations. It is shown that our mechanism outperforms the conventional scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Trial of carbon-free micro-grid project in Japan

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A 100% CO2-free micro-grid project using cutting-edge technologies in Japan is presented. At first, the overview of new project located in Rokkasho in Japan is introduced. Then the project results are evaluated on self-sufficiency rate in the community using a kind of dispatchable demand response and direct load control, the direct control of heat pump water heaters with a tank. The ratio is also evaluated when battery and control system are demonstrated. The analysis results between the battery capacity and ratio are introduced at last. View full abstract»

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  • Enabling high-density energy storage: Design characteristics of Thermal Matrix Energy Storage and a highly conductive gas mixture

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (985 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Thermal Matrix Energy Storage (TMES) is a rapidly emerging, environmentally attractive, and scalable option for economical bulk energy storage. Its tremendous scalability readily enables commercial- to utility-scale management and balancing of highly variable generation and load. Scalability combined with TMES peak operating temperatures of 1,250 to 2,500 Kelvin make this heat-based storage technology unique in reaching high energy densities. Promising storage applications include high temperature industrial processes and large scale electrical energy storage. TMES is further poised to play a critical role in the new field of coal- and gas-fired generating plant recycling, enabling cost-effective transformation of high air-pollution power producing facilities into grid-scale green energy storage operations, supporting high-penetrations of renewable wind and solar power generation. Research has focused on meeting stringent green targets while ensuring that costs are driven out of the design without sacrificing safety, product life, and reliability. A key part of this development, a high heat transfer gas mixture with low aerodynamic loading is proposed, and controlled test results against known gases and interaction with graphite are presented. Behavior is examined through several test fixtures specifically designed to provide critical heat transport characteristics and performance for a range of temperatures and pressures. Additional detail presented includes TMES chamber design, insulation design, and expected longevity. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of expected energy generation in multi-area interconnected systems with renewable energy generating units

    Page(s): 1 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A methodology to evaluate the expected energy generation (EEG) of multi area interconnected systems with renewable energy generating units as well as conventional fossil fuel based units has been presented in this paper. Renewable energy generating units such as solar and wind generators are practical alternative to meet the huge electrical energy demand with minimum cost. Extending the segmentation method of evaluating EEG the method also evaluates expected export/import among the electric utilities working in the interconnected system. The availability of renewable energy generator that varies during different time of the day has been taken into account. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation analysis for the design of high performance smart meter

    Page(s): 1 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The key performance indicators of the available utility monitoring systems for electricity, water and natural gas, to present day are often limited to the values of how much does the end user consume, and what the price for consumption is. The evolving intelligent power meters are aimed at providing the utility companies and the end users with information useful for optimal consumption without significantly changing lifestyles. The key performance indicators of the smart meters, however, are often limited to simply observing the consumption trends. In this paper, a simulation model is developed to support the design of high performance smart meters. The key highlights of the intelligent smart meters were set to be modularity, scheduling, and inter-connectivity of the information for the three utilities. This paper is intended to indicate the significant performance indicators relevant to the emerging intelligent metering devices. View full abstract»

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  • AODV adaptation for semi-static smart grid monitoring systems

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1002 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the main implementations of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is monitoring equipment. These types of equipment can range from transmission line systems to hydro usage data collection in residential areas. The functionality of WSNs can also be extended to sending commands or instructions to external systems based on varying conditions or emergencies. Mesh networks have proved valuable in smart grid applications based on the self-configuring, self-healing nature of the mesh networking protocols. Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol has been chosen as a base for redesigning a routing protocol to monitor transmission lines and collect data. Lowering overhead in network traffic is crucial to decreasing latency times, which is the motivation for our proposed design. Our design exploits the static nature of the data collection and Smart Grid monitoring networks. AODV-Uppsala University (AODV-UU) is a reactive, self-healing, and self-configuring routing protocol designed for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). Due to the fact that high frequency periodic rediscovery of neighbors is not necessary with a more static network topology, neighbor discovery in AODV-UU has been modified to lower the control overhead traffic. Additionally, through extending the lifetime of valid routes our design can throttle down control messages used for route maintenance. The modification was implemented in a real-time prototype and our results show increased throughput and a lower end-to-end delay of data transmission. View full abstract»

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  • Fault semantic network for micro grid diagnosis and control

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (803 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Micro grid is a localized grouping of distributed generation, storage system and load, all operating as a single system and providing electric power and heat. It can either operate in parallel to the main grid or in an islanded mode in case of faults in the grid. However, technical challenges of current practices include distribution protection, control and fault diagnosis, protection strategies and load management. This paper demonstrates the development of advanced automated fault detection, diagnosis and protection system and algorithms for the micro grid system using fault semantic network. View full abstract»

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  • Low-latency smart grid asset monitoring for load control of energy-efficient buildings

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the smart grid, demand-side is tightly coupled with the condition of the smart grid assets such as the transformers in a substation, capacitor banks, relays, etc. A fault occurring in any of those assets or an incident causing power quality degradation within a distribution system may trigger load control actions in energy-efficient buildings. In case of such critical conditions, load control actions need to be activated in a timely manner. Therefore, the status of the smart grid assets needs to be monitored in near real-time. Recently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have emerged as promising monitoring tools in many fields including military, health and critical infrastructures. However, transmitting delay-critical data in the smart grid via WSNs needs data prioritization and delay-responsiveness. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of two schemes, namely the delay-responsive, cross layer (DRX) data transmission scheme, and the fair and delay-aware cross layer (FDRX) data transmission scheme in various smart grid environments. We consider an outdoor substation, an underground transformer vault and an indoor power room. We show that DRX has lower end-to-end delay than FDRX. On the other hand, delivery ratio of both DRX and FDRX degrades in the outdoor substation when compared to the underground transformer vault. Furthermore, DRX and FDRX are able to satisfy the tight delay requirements of the smart grid. View full abstract»

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  • Factors affecting on the next generation protection on smart grid based on Wi-Fi wireless technology

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (499 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Protecting the distribution grid in a smart and cost-effective way can be a major challenge when faced with the complexity of expanding network topologies. Wireless communication based relays is the next generation suitable protection for smart grid. A new laboratory transmission line protection scheme using Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) communication protocol for data sharing between the two relays located at the ends of the transmission line is presented in this paper. Various factors that can affect data transmission through the wireless communication network are studied. The D-Link DWL-G700AP Access Points are used. They have the ability to transfer files with a maximum wireless signal rate of up to 54Mbps. View full abstract»

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  • New protection philosophy for protecting complex smart grid with renewable resources penetration

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (446 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The smart grid holds potential to benefit customers, the environment and utilities. Yet still remaining are questions about its costs, the need for still nascent technologies to further develop and how attractive the smart grid will be for the average energy consumer. The paper introduces novel application for wireless technology based protection to protect complex smart grid. The paper presents novel Wireless Fidelity Wi-Fi communication protocol for protecting complex power system configurations such as tapped smart grid with complex configuration. The technique has the feature of the differential protection principle. The measured data at each relay can be exchanged through the relays using Wi-Fi protocol. In such a case, the onsite measured data for each relay can be transmitted and received for all other relays. Then a final decision is issued from relays related to the faulted area and other blocking signals are issued for no faulted area. Such scheme of protection can cover any complicated configuration system with many taps of transformers. View full abstract»

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  • Wide area synchronized frequency measurement system architecture with secure communication for 500kV/220kV Egyptian grid

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (133 KB)  

    Continuous and reliable supply of electricity is required for Egypt's socio-economic development. With a highly urbanized population and a high growth electricity demand, a systematic expansion of the electricity generation facilities and other infrastructure developments are imperative to cope with household demand. At the same time, economic growth will hinge on the provision of adequate and reliable power to vital sectors like industry, agriculture, tourism and transport sectors. Against this background, the Egyptian power system has had to confront some major operating problems in voltage regulation, power flow control, protection, and stability. Wide-area monitoring systems (WAMSs) utilizing synchrophasor measurements can help with understanding, forecasting, or even controlling the status of power grid stability in real-time. This paper introduces infrastructure to cape with the world in solving the wide area power system from the protection to coordination and then control action. The architecture of the wide-area synchronized measurement used for on-line monitoring and application is discussed. The paper introduces real time structure of a number of Frequency Disturbance Recorders (FDRs) devices deployed across various locations in the Egyptian power grid and connected to a server through a secure communication infrastructure for collecting data, displaying many of parameters such as voltage, current, phases, etc. and provide some data analysis for future control and analysis. It has served utilities, academics, and policy makers with reliable and valuable synchrophasor data from 500kV/220kV Egyptian grid. View full abstract»

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  • Novel switched capacitor-filter compensator for smart grid-electric vehicle charging scheme

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (409 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel FACTS-based hybrid switched capacitor-filter compensator developed by the First Author is validated for smart grid-electric vehicle battery mobile/onboard charging schemes. The proposed scheme includes a low cost switched hybrid AC-DC filter connected between AC and DC sides of the rectifier in the DC common bus, and it is controlled by a novel tri-loop dynamic error-driven Weighted - Modified PID controller. A buck-boost DC/DC chopper is utilized on the DC side of the rectifier to achieve the best charging mode for fast impact and minimal inrush battery charging conditions. The buck-boost chopper is regulated using a hybrid Voltage-Current-Power weighted tri-loop dynamic error-driven controller. A pulse width modulated switching scheme is utilized by both the FACTS device and DC-DC buck-boost chopper in order to turn on/off IGBT/MOSFET switches. Using the proposed Modified grid scheme, better dynamic performance with minimum inrush currents and voltage excursions can be achieved. Enhanced DC bus stabilization and improved power factor and power quality are achieved using the modified grid scheme, compared with a basic battery charging scheme without the novel FACTS Device. The effectiveness of the scheme is validated using MATLAB/Simulink/Sim-Power Toolbox. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Microgrid protection strategies

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (749 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Microgids have been proposed to improve reliability and stability of electrical system and to ensure power quality of modern grid. In this paper, different protection strategies are investigated for adaptive safety protection. It is essential to protect a Microgrid in both the grid-connected and the islanded mode of operation against all different types of faults. This paper describes Microgrid protection and safety concept with central control and monitoring unit where multifunctional intelligent digital relay could be used. This central control & monitoring infrastructure is used for adaptive relay settings strategy for Microgrid protection. Also FPGA based decision making is proposed for Microgrid protection to shortening response time and ensure adaptive protection. View full abstract»

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  • A novel FACTS hybrid modulated filter/capacitor compensator

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel Switched/Modulated C type Filter/Capacitive-Compensator developed by the First Author is presented and digitally validated for smart grid applications. The proposed FACTS filter/compensation device comprises a hybrid series and shunt switched capacitor banks installed in series with the transmission line and in shunt at Generator bus. This hybrid filter/compensator scheme is controlled by a novel dynamic time-scaled and multi-regulator/ multi-loop error driven inter-coupled weighted modified PID controller. The effectiveness of the proposed FACTS hybrid series-parallel device for a Single Machine-infinite bus SMIB-study system, with pulse width modulated switching strategy is validated using the MATLAB-Simulink digital simulation software environment. The coordinated, inter-coupled dynamic controller scheme ensures the FACTS filter/compensation device effectiveness in reducing inrush current conditions, transient voltage excursions, improving voltage stabilization, regulating feeder voltage, reducing total harmonic distortion, and improving power factor at both generator and load buses. The unified SMIB-study system with the inserted FACTS device is validated for normal operating conditions, open circuit and short circuit fault conditions, load-excursions, and load rejections. View full abstract»

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  • Risk-based microgrid design and protection — Demonstration at UOIT

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (561 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper demonstrates the risk based analysis of a protected microgrid at the University Of Ontario Institute Of Technology. Microgrids are necessary to mitigate and manage power fluctuations associated with emerging power system solutions. This microgrid has been designed to meet the energy needs of the university in the most efficient manner. This design will consider what types of generation, distribution and storage techniques should be implemented on the campus in order to reduce and/or eliminate the consumption from public utilities. The microgrid has been simulated in EMTP-RV and Simulink. A multilayered optimization process was used to improve key performance indicator values of the grid design. This paper will present the simulation results and the path to optimization. View full abstract»

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  • Infrastructure and forecasting models for integrating Natural Gas Grid within smart grids

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (799 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Almost all the current literature is focused on smart grids as a neat way to manage power generation and its delivery. This trend was acceptable in the period of idea generation and development; however in the delivery phase, we will have to further extend the concept and broaden its application. The smart grids should consider more energy related applications, e.g., including and monitoring the Natural Gas Grid and enhancing their role in supporting peak load shifting applications within the smart grid. This paper shares the current efforts for promoting smart grid concept by investigating integration of gas grid into smart power grids. Three ways for potential integration; in addition to PHEVs, and possible energy grid architecture, were presented. The importance of forecasting models on the energy grid infrastructure development and its infrastructure requirements were elaborated. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of micro-grid behavior while operating under various network conditions

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (466 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The proposed solution to handle the impact of Distributed Generators is the micro-grid concept. This concept allows conventional grids to be made suitable for large scale deployments of distributed generation. The dynamic structures of micro-grids change very often depending on various network factors. This dynamic behavior of micro-grids to alter operation under various network conditions is an area that needs to be more thoroughly investigated and understood in moving forward with the integration of the micro-grid concept to existing power supply grids. This paper presents the detailed modeling of a typical micro-grid when operated in islanded mode or when connected to a Standard IEEE T14 Bus system or when connected to an IEEE Standard 34 Bus system. Various power/load flow studies conducted give a detailed outline of the operation of the micro-grid under various conditions such as: islanded operation, operation when connected to transmission and distribution networks. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless communication requirements selection according to PMUs data transmission standard for smart grid

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (626 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Large power systems are facing new challenges, such as increasing penetration of renewable energy sources, in particular wind generation, growing demands, limited resources, and competitive electricity markets. Under these conditions, the large power systems have to be covered from the reliability of the protection coordination. Wireless communication tool to collect data from different units to cape with the world is proposed to solve the interconnected power system as wide area system from the protection to coordination and then control action. The paper introduces the communication performance for the wireless scheme used for collecting data from phase measuring units (PMUs). The performance of Long Term Evolution (LTE) from the point of view the communication standard and PMUs data transmission is discussed. PMUs data transmission parameters are studying. These parameters are compared with the performance of LTE communication network. The main wireless communication requirements to be applied on smart gird are given. The estimation of the performance of LTE in terms of latency and Bandwidth based on the standards from 3GPP is given. View full abstract»

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  • A methodology to design a stochastic cost efficient DER scheduling considering environmental impact

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (511 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electric power generation and transportation sectors are considered as main sources of gas emission today. Renewable energy and Electric Vehicles (EV) show potential as promising solutions for emission reduction and energy cost saving. However, the integration of renewable energy generation into the electric grid can be difficult, because of the source intermittency and inconsistency with energy usage; uncontrolled EV charging can also impose more burdens on power systems. Those situations can be improved through coordinated charging of EVs and optimized operation of distributed generators (DG) that not only mitigates fluctuations in generation and supply, but also reduces energy cost and the emission of pollutants (CO2, SO2, and NOx). Emerging smart grid also brings new options for Distribution System Operator (DSO) toward efficient and sustainable operation of the network. One of these options is the use of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) including DG, EV, and Demand Response (DR). Operating DER has several advantages for DSO such as having DER close to load centers which reduces total network power loss. Since DSO has several energy sources to satisfy the electric load demand in the network, it is necessary to deploy optimal scheduling for efficient usage of available energy resources. In this paper we discuss a stochastic scheduling in the distribution network considering uncertainty in renewable energy generation. The proposed model can be used to analyse the effect of using DGs and EVs on emission and operation costs of the network. Results clearly shows that cost saving could be achieved with proper planning and coordination of various DERs. View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of Static VAR Compensator for classroom and research applications in Smart Grid laboratory

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1097 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Smart Grid laboratory (SGL) has been established at Buffalo State College as a collaborative effort of two academic institutions, University at Buffalo and Buffalo State College (UB-BSC). It is equipped with state-of-the-art equipment and serves as a hands-on teaching tool for undergraduates, as well as a research lab for graduate students. This paper discusses the development of a Static VAR Compensator (SVC) for use with the SGL at Buffalo State College. An overview of the UB-BSC SGL is presented first. The SVC circuit and characteristics are discussed in brief. Next, the determination of SVC parameters is discussed, thoroughly. With these parameters, the modes of operation of the SVC have been simulated and the system has been implemented using UB-BSC SGL equipment, the procedures of this experiment are documented. Finally, the hardware results are compared with those of simulated results. View full abstract»

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