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Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion (ESARS), 2012

Date 16-18 Oct. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 128
  • Modeling and simulation of aircraft automatic power distribution system

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electric power distribution system is an important part in modern aircraft electric power supply system. In this paper, the fundament of the aircraft electric power distribution system is briefly described through an example. According to the aircraft electric power characteristics defined in National Military Standard, the models of important components in the distribution system are established, such as GCU, GB, BTB, TRU. The logic relations of these components are abstracted. The approaches to establish distribution system models are discussed. The distribution system of the new type of aircraft is simulated applying the models. The validity of the models is verified by comparing the simulation waves and the experiment wave. View full abstract»

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  • Knowledge-based system for aircraft electrical power system reconfiguration

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (262 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Aircraft electrical power system (EPS), in charge of supplying power to aircraft electric systems, needs a reconfiguration capability in order to overcome cases of EPS component failures. During the design phase, EPS reconfiguration elicitation is a complex task due to the high number of failure combinations and to the aeronautical operational constraints, which are to be taken into account. Therefore a knowledge-based system is developed in order to help designers for such a task. It is based on the implementation of two different types of rules: mandatory and know-how rules. EPS connectivity is managed by graph-theory algorithms. The knowledge-based system is capable of producing several reconfiguration solutions. The knowledge-based system functioning is illustrated in detail on a simplified EPS. Results on an actual and modern EPS are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Concept of experimental EHAS power pack design

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (402 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    EHAS (Electro Hydrostatic Actuation System) is progressive technology used in the design of advanced aircraft hydraulic systems. This paper describes the design process of an experimental EHAS power pack, which is suitable for already built fourth generation inherently unstable combat aircraft. The power pack is going to be modified to fit in available commercial parts uncertified for aviation, for instance power relays, ultra capacitor cells, control blocks, sensors, etc. Still, relevant results for an optimal power ratio between the power source, EAU[7] (Electronic Accumulator Unit), and the hydraulic accumulator determination are expected. Due to better energy distribution control, it will be possible to set the power pack to several operation modes, such as economic, normal, high performance and emergency modes. It is intended to perform series of measurements to make clear if several power pack operation modes are as beneficial as expected. Verification of the EAU capabilities is another part of the intended experiment. Moreover, it is planned to measure ultra capacitor heat generation and to observe behaviour of the power pack during simulated EAU malfunctions. View full abstract»

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  • Toward optimising energy storage response during network faulted conditions within an aircraft electrical power system

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (212 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Energy storage can be employed in a variety of compact electrical power system applications to meet peak load demand, maintain power quality during network disturbances and variable load conditions, and to increase overall system efficiency. Within the literature to date, the development of control and management strategies of energy storage for these applications has focussed on normal network operation with limited coverage on the behaviour of such technologies under abnormal conditions and how this will impact the power system as a whole. Within the context of an aircraft electrical power system, this paper will highlight the potential risks of the inherent, suboptimal operation of certain existing control strategies during fault conditions. To address this control issue, a method of optimising the behaviour, control and protection of energy storage during both normal and network faulted conditions is of considerable interest. This paper will discuss the technical challenges and constraints associated with achieving this optimal performance. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of different electrical HVDC-architectures for aircraft application

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (305 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with an integration of High Voltage DC (HVDC1) in the onboard power supply system. Conventional aircraft grids have a main voltage of 115 V AC (star voltage) with a variable frequency of 360...800 Hz. Newer aircraft try to integrate 230 V AC generators in the grid to save cable weight. With the “More Electric Aircraft”- concept HVDC grids could be integrated in future airplanes. In all concepts the airport infrastructure has to be considered. The ground power supply is based on mobile Ground Power Units (GPUs) or an inverter supplied by the airport grid (Fig. 1). The ground supply allocates 115 V AC with a fixed frequency of 400 Hz and a maximum power of 90 kVA per unit. Changing to an HVDC-grid has a lot of advantages. Higher voltage means lower cable weight. Furthermore, the electrical converter architecture can be optimized. Especially the converters inside the loads can be built much lighter when using a DC supply. This paper compares different possibilities of HVDC integration. Ancillary conditions like carbon fiber reinforced plastic fuselages and a possible ground power supply with conventional technology are taken into consideration. The attention is focused on an efficient cabin power supply. But to make a global assessment, the entire onboard power supply system is analyzed. View full abstract»

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  • Benefits of higher voltage levels in aircraft electrical power systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (129 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In new aircraft architectures the electrical power is in perpetual growth, because the present hydraulic and pneumatic systems are being eliminated and replace by electrical systems. Therefore the increase of electrical power has to be managed. With the constantly increasing electrical power demand onboard of aircraft, new electrical voltage levels are actually alluded, in order to respond to these challenges. Many advantages of high voltage alternating current (HVAC) and high voltage direct current (HVDC) in the aircraft electrical power system (EPS), in compliance with the aviation's jargon, namely 230V AC constant or variable frequency and +/- 270V DC (or 540V DC between positive and negative potentials), are presented in comparison with the conventional 115V AC with constant or variable frequency and 28V DC ESP. The adoption of higher voltage levels must comply with the system requirements. Power quality, weight comparison as well as applicability are exhibited at power generation, distribution and load level. Issues regarding the simultaneous supply with HVAC and HVDC are discussed. Current technological research for these changes will be overviewed. View full abstract»

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  • A modular CAN based data acquisition system for flight simulators

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1209 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a data acquisition and actuation system developed for flight simulator systems. The acquisition system is modular and distributed and uses a Controller Area Network (CAN) bus to interconnect the various modules with the computers where the simulation runs. Nine different modules were developed according to the needs of flight simulation systems. The requirements of these modules were defined in cooperation with EMPODEF-TI, a leading company in this area. Until now the system was successfully implemented in three training flight simulators, two for the Socata TB 30 Epsilon aircraft and one for the Schweizer E300C helicopter. The former flight simulators are being used daily by the Portuguese Air Force (FAP) in pilot training. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and simulation of a 24-pulse Transformer Rectifier Unit for more electric aircraft power system

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2478 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a study on a three-phase 24-pulse Transformer Rectifier Unit (TRU) for use in aircraft electric power system. Four three-phase systems with 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° phase shifts are obtained by interconnection of conventional transformers in zig-zag configuration. The system is modeled in details using Simulink (SimPowerSystems). Simulation results are presented and the obtained performance is compared with those of a 12-pulse TRU. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of the electromagnetic interference effect on the speed sensor of an aircraft starter generator

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1105 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An electronic system is compatible with its electromagnetic environment if it satisfies the following two criteria: it does not emit (unintentional) electromagnetic energy above a certain minimum level, and it is not susceptible to malfunction if unintentional electromagnetic energy below a certain level is incident on it. This paper presents a study on the effect that electromagnetic interference has on the speed sensor an aircraft starter generator. An experimental setup was created to generate the radiated emissions, and results were plotted on the oscilloscope. Results obtained by measurement were also compared to the theoretical results. View full abstract»

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  • Energetic Macroscopic Representation as an efficient tool for energy management in a hybrid electrical system embedded in a helicopter

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (630 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The project is based on the design of an electric network embedded in a helicopter. The electric network supplies the aircraft auxiliaries. It is powered by a turbo alternator and hybridized with other electric sources in order to fulfil the demand of the auxiliaries and to limit the consumption on the main source. In this paper, the studied hybrid system is composed of the main source (the turbine and the alternator), the secondary source (batteries and supercapacitors) and the load representing the auxiliaries. The model of this electric network is organized by using the Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR). A Maximal Control Structure (MCS) is determined by inversion rules of the EMR model. An energy management strategy is defined to share the power supplied by each of the electrical sources. This share depends on the dynamic of the load. Simulation results, using Matlab Simulink™ software, are presented. View full abstract»

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  • MAAT high altitude cruiser feeder airship concept

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1281 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents results of preliminary investigations into the development of a new class of airship. Specific focus is given to photo-electric harvesting as a primary energy source, power architectures and energy audits for life support, propulsion and ancillary loads to support the continuous daily operation of the primary airship (cruiser) at stratospheric altitudes (~15km). This concept is substantially different to those of conventional aircraft due to the airship size and the inherent requirement to harvest and store sufficient energy during “daylight” operation to guarantee safe operation during “dark hours”. The study also considers the integration of photo voltaics with various electrical architectures, in a safety critical environment. View full abstract»

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  • Energy management of aircraft electrical systems - state of the art and further directions

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (494 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This review paper summarizes state-of-the-art energy management methods applied to electrical systems of large aircraft. An electrical load management based on fixed priorities of the loads is considered a conventional implementation as applied in today's aircraft systems. It can cut and reconnect loads depending on their importance. The advantages and disadvantages of such a system are presented. Further implementations are depicted that are able to eliminate certain drawbacks of such a typical load management. Most promising is the exploitation of so-called slow responding loads which can be handled like an electrical storage. The optimization potential on future energy management functions is finally discussed and conclusions are drawn. View full abstract»

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  • Hardware in the loop emulation of synchronous generators for aircraft power systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (463 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Testing a piece of equipment under realistic operating conditions typical of a complex power system such as those for more electric aircraft application requires a significant effort in terms of costs and complexity of the experimental test rig. Significant advantages can be achieved by using the Power Hardware in-the-Loop (HIL) concept whereby the performances of a device under test are evaluated in an emulated environment of the remaining components of a complete system. This paper describes the application of the Power HIL concept to the emulation of a wound field synchronous generator of the type used in aircraft power systems. Modeling assumptions are detailed in the paper together with an experimental procedure for parameter extraction. The emulation is realized by a bespoke three phase MOSFET based inverter with appropriate output filters controlled by an FPGA based solution used for real time emulation. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of a fault-tolerant electromechanical actuation system for helicopters using Modelica

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1482 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper focuses on the modeling of an electromechanical actuation (EMA) system for a safety critical application such as controlling a helicopter swashplate. Based on an example system design, specific EMA system characteristics such as functionality, typical failure cases, reconfiguration mechanisms, and their effects on the electrical network are considered. The presented modeling approach aims towards an integrated template model for swashplate actuation using EMAs in different topologies. The implementation of the component failure cases in the model is described. A fault injection mechanism based on configurable scenarios is presented. Finally, some relevant simulation results are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical and experimental study of Spread Spectral Domain Reflectometry

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wire on-line detection technology is significant to aircraft wire fault diagnosis. Spread Spectral Time Domain Reflectometry (SSTDR), which is an effective method for wire fault detection on-line, is studied and analyzed in this paper for aviation field. Simulation platform and experimental system with FPGA as the core are established. Based on test results, this method is verified to be effective on real-time detection of wire carrying 115V/400HZ AC power signal. Through the analysis of theory and experiments, its detection accuracy and application field are obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a Fault Tolerant Control for Aircraft Electromechanical Actuators

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (346 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is a general trend in aerospace industry to increase the use of electrically powered equipment. This trend is usually referred to as “More Electric Aircraft” (MEA) or “Power-by-Wire”. Thus, new approaches to control system design have been developed in order to tolerate component malfunctions while maintaining desirable stability and performance properties. This paper gives an issue on integration of Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) and accommodation scheme for Active Fault-Tolerant Control Systems (AFTCS). The Electromechanical Actuator (EMA) in aircraft will be studied in particular. View full abstract»

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  • Unified coil solenoid actuator for aerospace application

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1252 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Solenoid is an electromagnetically operated actuator. One of the typical applications of solenoid is to operate valves in aircraft engine under harsh environmental conditions and high endurance requirements. Solenoid coil is wound around an insulator (e.g. PTFE / Polyimide/ Nomex etc) which is generally called as bobbin. Classical bobbin construction reduces the available window area for the coil winding. This successively reduces the number of turns that can be accommodated in the reduced window area. MMF (Magneto Motive Force) is the product of the number of turns and the magnitude of the coil current. Due to reduction in the MMF, the magnetic field strength of the solenoid reduces and the force generated by the solenoid gets decreased. The proposed topology of the solenoid eliminates the bobbin for reducing the size of solenoid coils or in other words more window area is available against the classical bobbin designs. The proposed method aims at generating higher force for the constrained size or generating the same force with less size and weight of the solenoid. View full abstract»

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  • The skin effect and proximity effect analysis of main feeder of air variable frequency AC system

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2015 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Modern aircraft with high-capacity air variable frequency AC system ask for a well-considered design of the main feeder, and on the basis of the research on the skin effect and proximity effect of its impedance can the optimization possible. The comparative study of impedance of typical main feeder configuration at different frequency level is given, in which the influence of conductor material and gauge, conductor spacing, ground plane elevation and phase sequence are discussed. A series of suggestions for the design are obtained, thereby ensuring the high quality of power supply. View full abstract»

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  • Power quality application of hybrid drivetrain

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (733 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a study on the power conditioning features of hybrid powertrain, especially regarding diesel-electric locomotives. Equipped with an embarked energy buffer for diesel generator support and utility grid interface, such a locomotive can be considered as a plug-in series hybrid vehicle. The driveline inductive components, like generator and motor windings and capacitive components like dc link capacitors can be used to provide STATCOM functions, and the energy buffer can be used for short-term grid support. The co-action of power electronics circuitries and diesel generator gives a possibility to observe the locomotive as a mobile versatile power plant for special rolling stock and emergency supply. With high power levels ranging from few hundred kilowatts to several megawatts, the locomotives can participate in large-scale power conditioning at standstill, bringing revenues to the operators even “off-line”. View full abstract»

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  • Development of catenary and storage battery hybrid train system

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1740 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    East Japan Railway Company has been developing a catenary and storage battery hybrid train system to decrease negative environmental impact by diesel trains operating on non-electrified lines. A quick charge test and final running test have been under way since the beginning of 2011. The functions of the catenary and storage battery hybrid train system on a non-electrified section and an electrified section and the results of test runs are shown in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • The optimal design of high-powered power supply modules for wireless power transferred train

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (290 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the wireless power transfer technology is applied to the high-powered train system. Through applying wireless power transfer technology, many defects of original train system (wired power transfer) can be overcome. The optimal design of power supply module for wireless power transfer system is required to make a 100kW power supply. Three approaches for deciding optimal design of power supply module are discussed. Three approaches are on about induced voltage of pick-up modules in various size of power supply, heat generation due to the magnetic flux from primary coil and types of the power supplying cables. Coupled simulations about magnetic-heat transfer and electrical experiments are conducted. View full abstract»

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  • Prediction of dc-link current harmonics from PM-motor drives in railway applications

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2696 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Depending on the rotor magnet and stator winding configurations, the magnitude of the resulting flux-linkage harmonics in permanent-magnet (PM) motor drives can be substantial. The flux-linkage harmonics result into dc-link current harmonics that can cause the operation of certain track circuits (used to identify the presence of a train on a track section) to malfunction. Predicting the impact of flux-linkage harmonics on the dc-link current is therefore necessary since it may be an important factor to take into consideration when sizing the converter input filter. In this paper, the flux-linkage harmonics from an experimental railway traction PM motor are analyzed using two-dimensional finite element (2DFEM) simulations. Data from the 2DFEM simulations are then used to model the PM motor drive system in a real-time simulator (RTS) model. Output data from the RTS model are compared to experiments with good agreement. Additionally, the impact of resolver eccentricity, typically arising due to bearing wear, on the resulting dc-link current is investigated. A simple analytical model is presented to model resolver eccentricity. The proposed model is then used in the RTS model to analyze the resulting impact on the harmonic content of the dc-link current. View full abstract»

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  • Static switch based solution for improvement of Neutral Sections in HSR systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2155 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Since some decades thyristor based static switches are used for distribution grid applications. These static switches work in Medium Voltage range between 7 kVAC to 52 kVAC and have proved excellent reliability. High Speed Rail (HSR) systems are supplied by 25 kVAC one phase. To consume balanced power for HV three phase transport grids Neutral Sections (NZ) are disposed to change the power phase-to-phase. To reduce the effect of NZs in the HSR system a static switch based solution has been designed. Electrical, thermal and mechanical design of the power electronics is presented. The control strategy is designed to assure the train supply during the NZ crossing. The static switch is validated through Medium Voltage laboratory test in real electrical application conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental tuning campaign of control strategies for active pantograph under emulated catenary

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pantograph-catenary systems with their dynamic behavior resulted in being crucial components of new high-speed train systems. Structural modifications on pre-existing lines are very difficult and expensive, and they cause practicability issues. Thus, in order to alleviate the problems associated with the introduction of high speed trains (contact, abrasion, excessive oscillations of the catenary, etc.), active control of the pantograph can be introduced. In collaboration, ESIEE-Amiens and the University of Florence have been working on the evaluation and modeling of the catenary-pantograph contact, including intensive work regarding the definition and tuning of several control strategies for an active pantograph. In particular, ESIEE-Amiens has provided its OPAL-RT real time architecture with an implemented catenary model [1] and the University of Florence has provided its expertise on active control strategies of pantographs [2]. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency domain based power controller of energy storage device for a hybrid traction system in a DC-electrified railway

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (319 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the DC-electrified railway system that is fed by diode rectifiers at a substation, the substation cannot transmit DC electric power to an AC-grid. Hence, the electric power regenerated by a train should be consumed by other trains. Therefore, a regenerative brake cannot be used when other trains do not consume the electric power. In order to use the regenerative brake independent of the state of other trains, using energy storage device (ESD) for DC-electrified railway systems is examined in recent years. This paper deals with feeding line and electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) hybrid train system. This research aims at establishment of the design method of controlling electric EDLC power for using a regenerative brake for any conditions. In this paper, to smooth the power from the feeding line, the control method of EDLC power based on the frequency band of the motor power is proposed, and it is verified by the numerical simulation. View full abstract»

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