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Assembly and Task Planning, 1999. (ISATP '99) Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE International Symposium on

Date 24-24 July 1999

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  • Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE International Symposium on Assembly and Task Planning (ISATP'99) (Cat. No.99TH8470)

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Page(s): 465 - 466
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Assembly line balancing with work zone and station load time windows constraints

    Page(s): 448 - 453
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    This paper presents the solution of a real problem concerning assembly line balancing with several types of incompatibility, and with the constraint that, for a given number of stations, the load of the stations must be located within a time window that is predetermined according to the average load time. The problem is solved by a two-phase heuristic solution procedure: a truncated dynamic programming procedure and an improvement phase, which involves local optimization and tabu search procedures View full abstract»

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  • Assembly oriented design

    Page(s): 45 - 50
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    Product design is still commonly component rather than assembly oriented. Industry requirements have inspired a more holistic approach which is presented here. In this, proactive DFA is used in a process centred around assembly sequence construction. Early analysis and evaluation is enabled by geometric reasoning and expert system tools. Details of underlying principles and implementation are given together with a case study illustrating the benefits of the approach View full abstract»

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  • Fourier analysis of robot trajectories in random tasks

    Page(s): 192 - 197
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    A new method for the study and optimization of manipulator trajectories is developed. The novel feature resides on the modeling formulation. Standard system descriptions are based on a set of differential equations which, in general, require laborious computations and may be difficult to analyze. Moreover, the derived algorithms are suited to `deterministic' tasks, such as those appearing in a repetitive work, and are not well adapted to a `random' operation that occurs in intelligent systems interacting with a non-structured and changing environment. These facts motivate the development of alternative models based on distinct concepts. The proposed embedding of statistics and Fourier transform gives a new perspective towards the calculation and optimization of the robot trajectories in manipulating tasks View full abstract»

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  • Framework of design interface module in ERP

    Page(s): 112 - 116
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    A design interface with process plan is an essential part of systems integration process in enterprise resource planning (ERP). By interfacing with a process plan module, a design interface module helps the sequence of individual operations needed for the step-by-step production of a finished product from raw materials. In order to carry out the process planing by means of a computer, it is necessary to develop a method of automatically obtaining the information required for process planning from 3D geometric data by means of a computer. The present study relates to a method of automatically extracting a feature necessary for integrating the process planing into a design by means of a computer from 3D geometric data taken from a CAD system View full abstract»

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  • A feature-based framework for attachment level snap-fastener design in product design for automated assembly

    Page(s): 51 - 56
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    With the emerging global markets, success in the industry is determined by rapid product innovation, providing new quality products from a single platform, cutting product development costs and time. Since design effort consumes most of the product development time, the need to reduce design cycle time is vital in being competitive. The paper describes a feature-based framework for attachment level design of snap fasteners for products for automated assembly that addresses reducing design cycle time. In the introduction the need for such a framework is described. In the following section, previous work related to design for assembly, and concepts related to plastic part design are presented. In the next section, the developed framework is described with the introduction of feature level abstractions that capture design for automated assembly criteria. An example part design is then illustrated using the developed framework. Finally, the conclusion summarizes the benefits from this feature-based framework for product design for automated assembly View full abstract»

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  • Application of screw theory to motion analysis of assemblies of rigid parts

    Page(s): 75 - 80
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    Screw theory is well known to do kinematic computations. Recently it has been used to create kinematic models of assembly features so allowing assembly analysis. Motion limit analysis uses the mathematics of screw theory to model the ability of mechanical assembly features to allow or constrain rigid body motions in six degrees of freedom. A user of this theory is able to determine the directions and quantitative amounts of possible finite rigid body motions of a part that is being added to an assembly via calculation applied to a defined set of assembly features. The ability to calculate rigid body motions of a part is important for enabling in-process adjustment during assembly to precisely establish key assembly dimensions. MLA software is a part of a suite of software programs used to do assembly analysis View full abstract»

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  • An evolutionary simulated annealing algorithm for optimizing robotic task point ordering

    Page(s): 157 - 162
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    High productivity requires that robot manipulators perform complex tasks in minimum time. The paper presents an evolutionary simulated annealing (ESA) algorithm for optimizing an important class of complex tasks of point-to-point moves, such as mechanical assembly, electronic component insertion, and spot welding. This algorithm combines the basic principles of two major heuristic search methods: simulated annealing and genetic algorithms. Indeed, these methods are commonly used to solve the well-known traveling salesman problem (TSP), and the point ordering problem in robotics is very similar to the TSP in mathematics. The three algorithms have been implemented in a computer-aided design (CAD) software system, CATIA. Experimental results show success factors for using ESA View full abstract»

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  • Failure recovery planning in assembly based on acquired experience: learning by analogy

    Page(s): 294 - 300
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    For complex tasks in flexible manufacturing as well as service applications, robots need to reason about the tasks and the environment in order to make decisions. This paper presents a method for recovering from execution failures based on analogies with previous failure recovery episodes. The basic principles that explain the success of a failure recovery strategy are extracted based on several deductive as well as inductive transformations. In recovery planning based on these learned principles, the inverse transformations are applied View full abstract»

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  • A procedure to solve the CORV problem

    Page(s): 361 - 367
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    Sequencing units on assembly lines in order to attenuate rate variations in resource consumption is a problem that has received growing attention in recent years. In this work, we deal with a particular case, the constrained output rate variation (CORV) problem, that seems to be better adapted than other views to real industry problems, especially in car production systems. After giving a general introduction and formulation, a procedure is described to obtain the searched sequence View full abstract»

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  • A reference framework for life-cycle design of complex products

    Page(s): 117 - 122
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    Due to legislation and public awareness of industrial impact on environment, the producers will be more and more expected to recycle their own products after usage and to design products for easy recycling. For complex products, many uncertainties about the future end-of-life treatment make it difficult to achieve a satisfactory design. So it is necessary to permanently manage the products life-cycle, in a way that follows the evolution of relevant information, either contextual data or enterprise data. The reference framework proposed to support life-cycle design is based on a three-level definition of a product and its recyclability. It allows one to manage the information changes and consecutive corrections View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis and planning in graspless manipulation

    Page(s): 238 - 243
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    Graspless manipulation is a process in which objects are manipulated by making use of the environment surrounding it. Graspless manipulation enables a robot to handle objects that cannot be rigidly grasped due to the environment presenting obstacles in the way of its fingers. However, in the manipulation, the handled objects can easily slip out of the robot's fingers. Therefore it is necessary to make a plan for robust manipulation, suitable for various environments. We propose a planning method for graspless manipulation. First, considering the stability of the manipulation itself, a stability index is proposed. Then, the topological relationships are expressed among the object and its environment. Using the stability index, feasible motions are obtained as a safe route from one state of relationships to another. By means of these regions being connected, a plan of a manipulation can be obtained. The proposed method is simulated and experimented View full abstract»

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  • Hierarchical constraint satisfaction for high-level dimensional inspection planning

    Page(s): 374 - 380
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    Coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) are very precise Cartesian robots that are used for dimensional inspection. High-level inspection planning for a CMM involves spatial reasoning, to determine how to orient the part on the CMM, which probes to use, how to orient the probes, and what measurements to perform. Current planners are incomplete or only solve the problem partially. In this work, we map the inspection planning problem to a hierarchical constraint satisfaction problem (CSP). The solutions to the CSP are inspection plans of good quality. We show how to extract approximate solutions using efficient clustering methods, which do not entail search and backtracking as prevalent in other planners. We describe our implemented planner and experimental results View full abstract»

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  • Operation center closed loop economy-assembly and disassembly for reuse in one plant

    Page(s): 152 - 156
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    In the operation center closed loop economy different enterprises are cooperating in refurbishing and reproduction of various product groups. The organisational structure of such an operation center is described as a network. By clustering different product groups semiautomated disassembly technologies in combination with internal and external information flow lead to efficient processing. Measures for quality assurance confirm reusable and reintegrationable parts and components, which assumes new qualification structures of the employees View full abstract»

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  • Jacobian-based modeling of dispersions affecting pre-defined functional requirements of mechanical assemblies

    Page(s): 20 - 25
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    Presents a method to mathematically model 3-D tolerance chains around a desired functional requirement of a mechanical assembly. The modeling process uses the concept of virtual joints associated with the toleranced functional elements in a tolerance chain. These virtual joints simulate small possible dispersions of the toleranced functional element in terms of three general small translations and three general small rotations assuming to result from manufacturing inaccuracies. Using standard Jacobian-based computations, it becomes possible to model the effects of such small dispersions of each element in a kinematic chain around a point of interest on an assembly, in particular around the desired functional requirement. The main focus in the paper is on the important ability of the developed tolerance model to explicitly include the effects of dispersions on two types of functional element pairs in a chain around a functional requirement, namely internal pairs (pairs on the same part) and kinematic pairs (pairs on different parts in contact) View full abstract»

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  • Modelling and solving the SALB-E problem

    Page(s): 356 - 360
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    This paper deals with the so-called SALBP-E (simple assembly line balancing problem-efficiency) problem, which consists of maximising the efficiency of an assembly line (defined as the product of the number of stations by the cycle time) in the framework of the assumptions that characterise the SALB problems. We propose mixed integer linear programming models and heuristic procedures, based on a fix-and-relax approach, to solve them View full abstract»

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  • Micropart feature design for improving visually servoed assemblability

    Page(s): 26 - 31
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    Development of hybrid MEMS devices has demonstrated a need for automatic microassembly strategies. Visual servoing techniques have shown great promise as a control strategy capable of submicron precision while compensating many of the problems that exist in the micro domain, including thermal expansion of assembly devices and imprecisely modeled and calibrated sensors and actuators. This project develops rules for micropart design to aid in device assemblability with visual servoing techniques by ensuring that the microparts can be easily tracked and controlled using vision feedback. A criterion is presented that estimates part trackability based on the visual appearance of the part. This criterion is then used to microfabricate features to improve part trackability and hence, the assemblability of the device. The criterion considers the feature appearance when the part lies out of the optical system's depth of the field. A Fourier optics based approach is used to simulate the visual appearance of microparts represented by CAD models using high resolution optical systems. This simulation is used to automatically design microfabricated features on microparts View full abstract»

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  • Decision support system for dynamic production scheduling

    Page(s): 424 - 429
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    This paper presents a system to support decision-making of the production manager when scheduling the manufacturing orders. This system is mainly appropriate for small and medium size enterprises with productive systems like batch or job-shop. The manufacturing orders are dynamically scheduled considering namely deadlines and resource allocation. The system combines three modules: pre-scheduling, dynamic scheduling and re-scheduling. Each module applies heuristics to select the best solutions depending on the scheduling policies defined by the production manager View full abstract»

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  • Supervisory control technique for assembly workstation

    Page(s): 88 - 93
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    Proposes a control problem statement in the framework of supervisory control technique for the assembly workstations, which obviously are discrete event systems. A desired behaviour of an assembly workstation is analyzed. The behaviour of such a workstation is cyclic and some linguistic properties are established. A necessary condition for the existence of a supervisor that meets the production constraints is proved View full abstract»

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  • Real-time obstacle avoidance and motion coordination in a multi-robot workcell

    Page(s): 274 - 279
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    The novel framework of elastic strips allows real-time obstacle avoidance and implicit motion coordination for multiple robots in a shared workspace. It augments motion plans with a reactive component allowing the avoidance of unpredictably moving obstacles. The obstacle avoidance behavior is task-dependent so that task behavior is not suspended to avoid obstacles. The motion coordination behavior of robots can also be specified in a task-dependent manner. Motion coordination can be achieved by regarding other robots as obstacles or by real-time modification of the trajectory time parametrization. Multi-robot workcells can be programmed by planning the trajectories of all robots independently. Obstacle avoidance and motion coordination for the resulting trajectories are performed using elastic strips. The framework has been applied to the simulation of a multi-robot workcell View full abstract»

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  • A trajectory planner for manipulators using genetic algorithms

    Page(s): 163 - 168
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    Proposes a genetic algorithm (GA) to generate trajectories for robotic manipulators. The objective is to minimize the ripple in the time evolution of robot positions and velocities. Moreover, the manipulator is required to reach a predefined goal without colliding with obstacles in the workspace. The article presents the results for several redundant and non-redundant robot manipulators View full abstract»

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  • Optimal disassembly sequence generation for combined material recycling and part reuse

    Page(s): 146 - 151
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    From graphical methods for optimal disassembly sequence generation, a new concept is applied based on mathematical programming. The method described enhances flexibility and offers the possibility of extension of the original problem. This paper discusses optimal disassembly sequence generation and illustrates some of its possibilities by considering an instructive case View full abstract»

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  • Applying the equal piles problem to balance assembly lines

    Page(s): 399 - 404
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    The equal piles problem applied to assembly lines seeks to assign assembly tasks to a fixed number of workstations in such a way that the workload on each station is nearly equal. We present a new algorithm to treat this special application of the assembly line balancing problem. The algorithm uses a grouping genetic algorithm (GCA), based on an equal piles approach, and heavily modified with respect the precedence constraints between operations. The main concern is the quality of the resulting line in terms of balancing, and its suitability to the user's preferences. The essential and distinct concepts adopted by the method are described along with its step-by-step execution procedure and an illustrative example View full abstract»

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  • Using hybrid cc to simulate multi-tier peg-in-hole problems

    Page(s): 307 - 312
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    Many robotic assembly tasks can be viewed as multi-tier peg-in-hole, or “peg-in-maze” problems. Such tasks are hybrid system control problems since they combine continuous movement with event detection. This paper presents Hybrid cc as a software tool for simulating hybrid systems and uses it to simulate two-dimensional multi-tier peg-in-hole problems View full abstract»

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