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Sustainable Energy Technologies (ICSET), 2012 IEEE Third International Conference on

Date 24-27 Sept. 2012

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  • On the dynamics of Photovoltaics vs Nuclear power

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1225 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the last decade the dynamic development of Photovoltaics (PV) vs Nuclear was tremendously different. While PV starting at very low levels of installed capacity and high costs increased its capacities considerably and managed to bring down the costs remarkably with respect to nuclear the situation was vice versa: capacities stagnated and costs increased. In this paper we analyze the comparative dynamics especially of economics and try to identify the future prospects for capacity increases. An important role in this context play the discussion of upfront investments, construction times, interest rates and corresponding generation costs. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of residential grid-tied PV systems without net-metering using load management

    Page(s): 6 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1164 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Load management and self-consumption is becoming common for distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation. The objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of load management and battery storage in residential grid connected PV systems without net metering. The power consumption of the home loads was divided into time manageable, storage capable and non-manageable. Load management to displace the time manageable and storage capable loads from evening hours to PV generation hours increased self-consumption by up to 50%. The addition of batteries to a grid tied PV system can increase self consumption to 100%, but there was no net cost savings due to the cost of the batteries and power conditioning unit. Grid tied PV systems with no net metering should be designed for daytime loads only to maximize cost effectiveness. View full abstract»

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  • Life cycle analysis of an off-grid solar charging kiosk

    Page(s): 12 - 17
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (849 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Solar power has a huge potential in electrifying rural communities, particularly in the developing world. It offers the possibility of a clean, affordable energy source which may reduce the environmental impact of existing, fossil fuel based sources. The life-cycle carbon emissions resulting from off-grid solar powered lighting solutions are an important factor influencing the environmental impact of implementing such solutions. This issue is particularly relevant when assessing the case for carbon financing for such a project. However, few studies have addressed the carbon saving potential of such off grid systems. Here, we analyse a distribution model known as a Solar Charging Kiosk which enables access to photovoltaic electricity for rural, off-grid communities. Using a kiosk which has been established in the Bugesera region of Rwanda as a model system, the carbon savings avoided from reduced use of kerosene based lighting are calculated based on real system performance and usage data of customers of the kiosk. Strategies to further increase the emissions mitigation potential of the system are proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of parasitic circuit elements in RF energy harvesting circuit

    Page(s): 18 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1348 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents effects of the parasitic circuit element parameter in RF (Radio Frequency) energy harvesting circuit. The RF energy harvesting circuit is composed of a loop antenna, a 6-stage Dickson charge pump and an output capacitor as an energy storage element. The parasitic circuit element parameter effects are discussed based on PSIM simulation, experiments with an equivalent RF power source and experiments on site. These results show the leakage current of the output capacitor and forward voltage drop of the diode affect the output voltage, and the junction capacitance of the diode affects the resonant frequency. In addition, the effects of parallel connection of two RF energy harvesting circuits are introduced. View full abstract»

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  • Interleaved zero-voltage-switching active-clamped current-fed full-bridge isolated dc/dc converter for fuel cell applications: A case study analysis

    Page(s): 23 - 29
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3945 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An interleaved soft-switching active-clamped current-fed full-bridge isolated dc/dc converter has been studied. Its steady-state operation and analysis for wide input voltage and varying power transfer capacity are discussed. Interleaving two full-bridge current-fed converters reduces the input current ripple. Phase-shift modulation with parallel input series output interleaving is adopted. The power density of the converter increases with small devices' ratings and less current/thermal stress on the semiconductor switches. The converter utilizes the energy stored in the transformer leakage and magnetizing inductance to maintain zero-voltage-switching over wide range of source voltage and load variation. It improves the converter efficiency and allows high switching frequency operation. View full abstract»

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  • Modelling of multi-pick-up bi-directional Inductive Power Transfer systems

    Page(s): 30 - 35
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1398 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Bi-directional Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) systems allow contactless power transfer between two sides and across an air-gap, through weak magnetic coupling. These systems essentially constitute high order resonant circuit and their complexity increases with increasing number of pick-ups. A mathematical model which provides an insight into the behaviour of bi-directional IPT systems with multiple pick-ups would therefore be invaluable at design stage. This paper develops a multivariable dynamic model for bi-directional IPT system with multiple pick-ups. A 1.5 kW bi-directional IPT system with 3 pick-ups is simulated in PLECS and the results are presented with comparisons to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model. Results of the simulation indicate that the proposed model accurately predicts the behaviour of bi-directional IPT system with multiple pick-ups and can therefore be used as a valuable tool for both dynamic analysis and controller design. View full abstract»

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  • A power electronic controller for PV-tied Grid-connected system with single parameter sensing for mppt using boost converter and line-commutated inverter

    Page(s): 36 - 40
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1491 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple power electronic controller employing boost converter and SCR based line commutated inverter (LCI) for interfacing PV array with utility grid has been proposed. The variable voltage of PV array is boosted to a fixed value and is connected to the line commutated inverter, which operates with a fixed firing angle more that 90°. The grid voltage and firing angle will determine the constant dc voltage of boost converter. As the output of boost converter is maintained constant, any variation in PV array output voltage will result in variation of dc link current. Thus MPPT is achieved by tracking dc link current alone. The complete scheme has been constructed and experiments have been conducted on a 84 V, 4.7 A PV array interfaced with a utility grid of 110 V and the results are furnished. An 8051 μC has been employed for generating trigger pulses to the SCRs and a simple analog controller for varying the duty ratio of the boost converter. The experimental results are compared with simulation results and a close agreement between them is observed. View full abstract»

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  • Single-sensor HCC PWM control of 3-phase boost type AC-DC converter giving unity power factor

    Page(s): 41 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1420 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The bi-directional boost type improved power quality ac-dc converter (IPQC) is capable of providing transformerless power transfer between a high voltage dc (HVDC) link and a relatively low voltage ac system with improved power quality at input ac mains in terms of high power factor and low total harmonic distortion (THD). The current forced control (CFC) strategy is implemented in the three-phase bridge topology of the IPQC with closed loop control, adopting the hysteresis-band current control (HCC) pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. This paper presents unity power factor operations, in the rectification and inversion modes, with near sinusoidal line currents; of the IPQC that employs power MOSFETs. Simulation results confirm the efficacy of the control technique. View full abstract»

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  • An efficient isolated bi-directional half bridge resonant DC/DC converter

    Page(s): 48 - 53
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1638 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Facing the rising pressure of global environment changing rapidly, energy crisis and energy saving, the technology needs of the bi-directional DC/DC converter (BDC) which has the advantages of high efficiency, small size, good dynamic performance and low cost are increasing. This paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional isolated bi-directional DC/DC converters, furthermore, an isolated, high efficiency, high power density LLC resonant bi-directional DC/DC converter with symmetrical topology is proposed. Through studying the calculation method of the LLC resonant circuit parameters, a 5kW, 580V/400V BDC prototype model is designed. The corresponding equivalent circuit model is established in the Cadence Pspice environment. Simulation results verify the correctness of the bi-directional DC/DC converter with symmetric topology and the calculation method of resonant circuit component parameters and show that the BDC can realize ZVS for the power switches on the resonance side and realize ZCS for the rectifier diodes on the rectifier side in the whole load range. The converter reduces loss and electromagnetic interference (EMI) and improves efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • A Modular Multi-level Converter (M2LC) based on Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) technology

    Page(s): 54 - 59
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1148 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new Modular Multi-level Converter (M2LC) topology, which is based on an Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) technology. The modified M2LC topology employs an IPT system to control the capacitor voltage of each module, thereby decoupling the capacitor voltage balancing control from the load current control. The IPT system maintains the capacitor voltages within a narrow band around a nominal value, simplifies the control algorithm and offers new advantages, such as operation at low output frequency, implementation of simple control schemes and reduced energy requirements over the existing topology. The concept is validated using simulations for a single-phase three-level M2LC and compared with the existing topology to demonstrate the performance improvements associated with the modified topology. View full abstract»

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  • Controller Synthesis of a Bidirectional Inductive Power Interface for electric vehicles

    Page(s): 60 - 65
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1646 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Bidirectional Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) systems are preferred for Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) applications. Typically, bidirectional IPT systems consist of high order resonant networks, and therefore, the control of bidirectional IPT systems has always been a difficulty. To date several different controllers have been reported, but these have been designed using steady-state models, which invariably, are incapable of providing an accurate insight into the dynamic behaviour of the system A dynamic state-space model of a bidirectional IPT system has been reported. However, currently this model has not been used to optimise the design of controllers. Therefore, this paper proposes an optimised controller based on the dynamic model. To verify the operation of the proposed controller simulated results of the optimised controller and simulated results of another controller are compared. Results indicate that the proposed controller is capable of accurately and stably controlling the power flow in a bidirectional IPT system. View full abstract»

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  • Grid connection of micro hydropower, Mini Grid initiatives and rural electrification policy in Nepal

    Page(s): 66 - 72
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (574 KB)  

    This paper review different policies of on-grid and off-grid rural electrification in Nepal which are imposed by two different organizations, namely, Nepal Electricity Authority and Alternative Energy Promotion Centre. Also, the paper identifies different issues in rural electrification in changing context and different initiatives taken so far on connection of micro hydropower and mini grid development. The study reveals that grid connection and mini grid initiatives are not internalized and owned by the policy and institutional mechanism. Policy and institutional mechanisms need to be revised and restructured so as to adopt mentioned initiatives and to introduce synergy effects which are not often realized because of parallel policy and institutional mechanism. The policy and institutional mechanisms should develop suitable financing/investment mechanism not only based on subsidy but also on the principle of private sector involvement, business operation modality especially trading mechanism, technology transfer and capacity building, and institutional structure of mini grid based on decentralization and liberalization which could encourage competition in the sector as whole. Such policy provision and institutional mechanism make the flow of financial resource from urban to rural and also retain the human capital in the local level. View full abstract»

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  • The approach for HPP generation optimization under liberalized electricity market

    Page(s): 77 - 80
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1126 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In paper are proposed the original basic principles of HPP working conditions optimization under probabilistic electricity price and water inflow values. Developed model considers the most important technical parameters of HPP and allows making HPP's generation forecasts using time-varying input parameters. Paper includes description and results of case study performed to test proposed mathematical model and also analysis of the main support types for renewable resources. The elaborated model can be used for representing wide range of HPPs in electrical market and distribution network reliability analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic management of power system sustainable development with Smart grids application on transmission level

    Page(s): 81 - 84
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1284 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The article discusses the dynamic management of power system development and preconditions required for realization Smart grid technologies (SGT) and sustainable system development on transmission level. This paper presents research, which is based on the new energy policy of European Union in vision of a smart grid, to develop and deploy more reliable, secure, economical, efficient, safety, and environmentally friendly electric system. View full abstract»

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  • Genetic algorithm based simultaneous coordination of PSS and FACTS controllers for power oscillations damping

    Page(s): 85 - 90
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1041 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new design for the coordination control of power system stabilizer (PSS) and flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) devices to enhance the damping of power oscillations. The controller gains of a linearized power system are optimized instantaneously using genetic algorithm (GA) to achieve an objective function, which maximizes the function, so that the total damping ratios of the system are optimized. Here the power system employed with PSS and a SVC as well as TCSC based controllers. Finally, the proposed coordinated controller performance is tested with both eigen value analysis and time domain simulations. Four different control schemes for power oscillations damping of test power system are employed and the results are compared. View full abstract»

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  • Current control techniques for utility interface converters with low THD

    Page(s): 91 - 96
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1378 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses current control techniques for utility interface converters with low total harmonic distortion (THD), fast dynamic responses, and high stability for transient responses. A repetitive control technique with designed phase margin has been developed to reduce the THD of a single-phase boost AC/DC converter operating over a wide range of load variations. A green-mode control strategy is developed to adjust the control mode as well as the switching frequency for efficiency improvement. A predictive current loop controller is used to achieve fast dynamic response under wide input voltage variation range and a repetitive controller is designed to minimize periodic errors within the current loop bandwidth. A single-chip DSP controller is used to realize the proposed control scheme. Simulation and experimental results confirm the feasibility and performances of the proposed control scheme. View full abstract»

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  • PSCAD validation of delta-wye transformer as a harmonic filter for THD mitigation of line currents in three-phase bridge rectifier

    Page(s): 97 - 102
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1815 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The 3-phase diode bridge rectifier has the least line current distortion among 6-pulse rectifiers; however, its total harmonic distortion (THD) of 31.08% violates power quality standards. This paper reports distortion reduction by lowering magnitudes of harmonics in the line currents using a delta-wye transformer between the 3-phase utility and the diode bridge rectifier. The leakage inductances of the transformer windings provide a filtering effect on the line current harmonics thus providing THD mitigation of utility line currents. The efficacy of the technique is proved by Power Systems Computer Aided Design (PSCAD) simulations considering the bridge rectifier with and without the delta-wye transformer of vector group Dyl. Experimental results without and with the Dyl transformer feeding the diode bridge rectifier are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Single-sensor HCC PWM control of the boost type AC-DC converter giving unity power factor

    Page(s): 103 - 109
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1411 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The bi-directional boost type improved power quality ac-dc converter (IPQC) is capable of providing transformerless power transfer between a high voltage dc (HVDC) link and a relatively low voltage ac system with improved power quality at input ac mains in terms of high power factor and low total harmonic distortion (THD). The current forced control (CFC) strategy is implemented in the single- phase half-bridge topology of the IPQC with closed loop control, adopting the hysteresis-band current control (HCC) pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. This paper presents unity power factor operations, in the rectification and inversion modes, with near sinusoidal line currents; of the IPQC that employs power MOSFETs. Simulation results confirm the efficacy of the control technique. View full abstract»

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  • Power quality analysis of 1-phase matrix topology in PWMAC chopper and cycloconverter modes

    Page(s): 110 - 116
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2593 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The matrix converter topology is a versatile one that is capable of functioning as an ac regulator and as a cycloconverter. The topology has been used for ac-ac conversion for various applications that involve variable voltage and variable frequency. Various pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques have been implemented in the topology to reduce the harmonic distortion and obtain better power quality parameters at the output. In this paper the symmetrical multipulse modulation technique (SMM) has been implemented in the single-phase matrix converter. The ability of the converter to deliver variable voltage at a specific fundamental (source) frequency and variable voltage at variable fundamental frequency with the technique has been assessed and experimental results are presented. The SMM is a simple method that involves two key parameters - the number of equal width pulses per half cycle (M) of the supply and the duty cycle of the pulses (δ). The performance of the single-phase matrix converter is assessed for control strategies that involve a fixed value of M and variable δ; and vice-versa. View full abstract»

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  • Comparing electric mobility policies to transition science: Transition management already in action?

    Page(s): 123 - 128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1158 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Driven by sustainability issues as well as economic aspects, governments have been creating and applying policies and regulations with the aim of shifting national personal transport towards electric mobility. In this context, transition science offers insights into the relevant socio-technological systems and the process of transition. This paper gives an overview of transition science, and furthermore presents current policy making by the UK and German governments that aim to manage the shift to electric mobility. A comparison of the two different policies with transition science shows that there is an overlap between the applied policy making and theory, especially for the case of the UK. Although both governments do not explicitly follow transition management their actions can be explained with the help of transition science. However, it should be noted that transition science is still a young field which needs to be further developed in order to provide policy makers with tools that enable them to manage such transitions. View full abstract»

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