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Date 9-13 Sept. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 183
  • [Title page]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1
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  • Copyright page

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 14
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  • Bio-inspired compliant spine for humanoid robot a degrees of freedom challenge

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1012 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Taking into consideration the architecture of the human spine, we propose the construction of a module whose series could be used as a robotic spine*. This module is basically constituted by an elastic diabolo, which mimics the vertebral bodies and the intervertebral disc, joining two metallic setsquares - the two consecutive vertebrae. Two actuators realize the actuation of the module and are oriented parallel to the main axis of the diabolo. This simple compliant model allowed us to construct a demonstrator that will be used to measure the incidence of active and passive movements of the model. From the knowledge of these results we will design a new compliant system in place of the elastic diabolo whose characteristics will be adequate to the convenient properties of the spine that could be included in humanoid machines. View full abstract»

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  • Prototyping robot appearance, movement, and interactions using flexible 3D printing and air pressure sensors

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 6 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1047 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a method for rapidly prototyping interactive robot skins using flexible 3D printed material and analogue air pressure sensors. We describe a set of building blocks for presenting affordances for different manipulations (twist, bend, stretch, etc.). Each building block is a hollow air chamber that can be printed as an integral part of the skin to easily add sensing capabilities over any broad area. Changes in volume caused by manipulating the chambers are captured using air pressure sensors; the sensors can be plugged in and removed, allowing rapid iteration on new designs. We demonstrate our method by prototyping three robot skins that attach to the Keepon Pro armature. With fully operational robot skins, we can study the dependencies between appearance, movement, and interactions at a deeper level than would previously be possible at the concept stage. View full abstract»

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  • Stability and transparency improvement in haptic device employing both MR-brake and active actuator

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 12 - 18
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1211 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An ideal haptic device should transmit a wide range of stable virtual model impedances (Z-width) with high transparency. Magneto-rheological fluid (MR) brakes are advantageous in haptic devices since they are passive actuators. However, they cannot provide high transparency and smooth interaction due to high viscous friction, residual torque, slow response, sticking and hysteresis effects. On the other hand, active actuators cannot simulate high virtual impedances stably, but provide high transparency with a closed loop control algorithm. In the proposed hybrid actuation a task divider control (TDC) algorithm was developed for torque sharing between two actuators to provide a large Z-width and improve both transparency and smoothness. The algorithm employs two parameters which were estimated experimentally and extended to entire achievable impedance range by artificial neural network (ANN) and curve fitting techniques. A 1-DOF device having an excitation motor at the user side and brushless DC motor and MR-brake in the haptic side was used in the experiments. The excitation motor is used to generate a white noise torque input to simulate a user for frequency domain transparency tests. Results of the proposed and conventional closed loop impedance control (CLIC) algorithms were compared. The proposed algorithm improves the transparency of MR-brake by eliminating its drawbacks and presents a larger Z-width than the active actuator alone. View full abstract»

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  • A novel variable impedance compact compliant series elastic actuator for human-friendly soft robotics applications

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 19 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (453 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the analysis of electro-mechanical design, materials, dynamics and control of a novel variable impedance compact compliant series elastic actuator (SEA) to improve human-robot interactions in human-friendly soft robotics applications. The design consists of a servomotor, a ball screw, a torsional spring connecting the servomotor and the ball screw via a pair of spur gear, and a set of translational springs connecting the ball screw nut to the output link. The translational springs have low stiffness and these are used to handle low force operations that reduce non-linear friction, output impedance, impact etc. The torsional spring is in the high speed range, has high effective stiffness and it enhances the system bandwidth for large force operations when the translational springs are fully compressed. Design, materials for construction, kinematics and working principle of the actuator are analyzed. Then, dynamics modeling and control on the physical implementation of the actuator for different conditions are analyzed. The conditions are: (i) open loop transfer function with load end fixed, (ii) closed loop transfer function with load end fixed, and (iii) output impedance with load end free for (i) low force, and (ii) high force cases. Then, the advantages of the design over its existing counterparts are discussed and its potential applications are mentioned. This novel SEA overcomes the major limitations of the existing SEAs, and can be used to develop human-friendly soft robots for various applications. View full abstract»

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  • Study on avoidance action parameters against a sharp end-effector tip approaching human's eyes

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 25 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1196 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, a psychological experiment is conducted to investigate harm-avoidance action characteristics in humans in close contact with robotic devices. For the experiment, a situation is created in which the sharp end-effector tip of a robot suddenly approaches the eyes of a facing participant. We define three parameters that represent harm-avoidance action characteristics: the avoidance reaction time, maximum avoidance acceleration, and maximum avoidance speed. The results suggest that the avoidance reaction time depends on the initial distance between the human's eyes and the approaching object. The results show that there are individual differences in all parameters studied. The results also show that the avoidance reaction time is negatively correlated with the other two parameters, which have a strong positive correlation with each other. We conclude that the avoidance reaction time and maximum avoidance speed are considerable parameters on avoidance actions. View full abstract»

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  • Functional Anthropomorphism for human to robot motion mapping

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 31 - 36
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we propose a generic methodology for human to robot motion mapping for the case of a robotic arm hand system, allowing anthropomorphism. For doing so we discriminate between Functional Anthropomorphism and Perceptional Anthropomorphism, focusing on the first to achieve anthropomorphic solutions of the inverse kinematics for a redundant robot arm. Regarding hand motion mapping, a “wrist” (end-effector) offset to compensate for differences between human and robot hand dimensions is applied and the fingertips mapping methodology is used. Two different mapping scenarios are also examined: mapping for teleoperation and mapping for autonomous operation. The proposed methodology can be applied to a variety of human robot interaction applications, that require a special focus on anthropomorphism. View full abstract»

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  • Joint torque servo of a high friction robot manipulator based on time-delay control with feed-forward friction compensation

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 37 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses a torque control method in a high friction robot manipulator. A stiction feed-forward compensator is proposed to eliminate the control problem caused by the nonlinear friction and disturbance. In order to control a robot manipulator with unknown effects, a time-delay control method is used to control the torque. One degree of freedom flexible joint robot manipulator with a joint torque sensor is used to show the performance of the proposed control method. View full abstract»

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  • Gender identification bias induced with texture images on a life size retro-projected face screen

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 43 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1955 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A retro-projected face display system has great advantages in being able to present realistic 3D appearances to users and to easily switch the appearance of the humanoid robot heads animated on the display. Therefore, it is useful to evaluate how effectively users can perceive various information from such devices and what type of animation is suitable for human-robot interaction - in particular, face-to-face communication with robots. In this paper, we examine how facial texture images affect people's ability to identify the gender of faces displayed on a retro-projected face screen system known as Mask-bot. In an evaluation study, we use a female face screen as the 3D output surface, and display various face images morphed between male and female. Subjects are asked to rate the gender of each projected face. We found that even though the output 3D mask screen has a female shape, gender identification is strongly determined by texture images, especially in the case of high-quality images. View full abstract»

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  • Personality distortion in communication through teleoperated robots

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 49 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent research has focused on such physical communication media as teleoperated robots, which provide a feeling of being with people in remote places. Recent invented media resemble cute animals or imaginary creatures that quickly attract attention. However, such appearances could distort tele-communications because they are different from human beings. This paper studies the effect on the speaker's personality that is transmitted through physical media by regarding appearances as a function that transmits the speaker's information. Although communication media's capability to transmit information reportedly influences conversations in many aspects, the effect of appearances remains unclear. To reveal the effect of appearance, we compared three appearances of communication media: stuffed-bear teleoperated robot, human-like teleoperated robot, and video chat. Our results show that communication media whose appearance greatly differs from that of the speaker distorts the personality perceived by interlocutors. This paper suggests that the design of the appearance of physical communication media needs to be carefully selected. View full abstract»

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  • Impression evaluation for different behavioral characteristics in ethologically inspired human-robot communication

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 55 - 60
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To maintain long-term human-robot communication, a robot behavior model based on the behaviors of dogs in human-dog relationships has been proposed. We apply this model to a robot in a monitoring support system designed for home care. This paper presents an improvement to the model, adding behavioral factors to show different characteristics of the behaviors. We conduct experiments to evaluate users' impressions of the robot behaviors when given different characteristics using a simulator. Our findings show that the subjects had the impressions that we expected based on the factors selected. View full abstract»

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  • Influences of evaluative contexts in human-robot interaction and relationships with personal traits

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 61 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (815 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To investigate the effects of robots on human self-assessment under the more general contexts of learning, this research focused on the evaluative feedback by robots. A psychological experiment was conducted by using a human-sized humanoid robot. The results found that the evaluative context tended to increase the subjects' negative responses regarding disclosure of their skills to the robot and the robot evaluating the skills, and the internal locus of control and the fear of negative evaluation positively influenced the subjects' responses to disclosing their skills to the robot. This paper discusses the implications on the use of robots in self-monitoring for healthcare and education. View full abstract»

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  • Saliency-based notabilia re-detection via as-is primary transfer

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 67 - 74
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1283 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A robust color matching scheme is presented for future re-detection of landmark sign/design annotated by probe vehicles. By indexing inherent susceptivity to chromatic diversity in terms of the as-is primary, the re-detection process nondeterministically restore the saliency patterns spanning significant discrepancy of ambient light. Annotated and re-detected saliency patterns maintain various types of notabilia to be identified for facilitating over-the-horizon cooperation. View full abstract»

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  • Human-aided robotic grasping

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 75 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1534 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to provide a user-friendly system with simple operation command to grasp different objects successfully, this paper describes a combined approach of real time remote vision-based teleoperation and autonomy for a human-aided robotic grasping. In the teleoperation process, motion tracking is carried out by Kinect in real time to detect the positions of the human shoulder, elbow and hand joints such that the robot can imitate the human. Hand gestures are recognized and used to activate autonomous grasping, which can save time and generate more natural grasping poses. In our system, the robot fulfills some special tasks such as picking up objects using easy commands with Kinect as object sensor. Experiment results show that it is effective and user-friendly. View full abstract»

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  • Teaching data characteristics for direct teaching using a robot with a dual-shell structure

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 81 - 87
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (582 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a robot with a dual-shell structure is proposed to improve operability using direct teaching. The dual-shell structure separates the robot arm actuator from the gripper for the operator. Hence, during the teaching process, the robot arm is able to track the motion of the operator and the operability within the arm's movable range can be improved. Furthermore, by inserting an elastic body into the robot's dual-shell structure, operation with an adequate viscosity for the operator can be achieved. To assess the effectiveness of this structure, an evaluation system is constructed based on a dual-shell structure robot with an elastic body inserted, for the skilled task of inserting flexible printed circuits. In the evaluation experiments, it was found that the teaching time is approximately 1500 msec shorter with the elastic body, and no matter which teaching data is used, the flexible printed circuit is inserted successfully. View full abstract»

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  • 2D spherical spaces for objects recognition under harsh lighting conditions

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 88 - 93
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1081 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For an object recognition task in an unknown environment, we propose a novel approach for illumination recovery of surface with cast shadows and specularities by using the object spherical spaces properties. Robust objects recognition in complex environment is fundamental to robot intelligence and manipulation. The proposed method is done for reducing the illumination effects on the objects detection and recognition processes. In this work, objects reference images are regenerated to match the scene lighting environment to increase the success rate of the recognition process. First, a database is generated by computing the albedo and surface normals from captured 2D images of the target objects. Next, the scene lighting direction and illumination coefficients are estimated. Finally, by using the calculated spherical spaces properties we regenerate objects reference data to match the search area illumination condition. In this work, practical real time processing speed and small image size were considered when designing the framework. In contrast to other techniques, our work requires no 3D models for the objects training process and takes images from a single camera as an input. Using our proposed 2D Spherical Spaces experimentally showed noticeable improvements in an objects identification task performed by an autonomous robot in a harshly illuminated environment. View full abstract»

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  • Pedestrian-inspired sampling-based multi-robot collision avoidance

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 94 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (854 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a distributed collision avoidance algorithm for multiple mobile robots that is model-predictive, sampling-based, and intuitive for operation around humans. Unlike purely reactive approaches, the proposed algorithm incorporates arbitrary trajectories as generated by a motion planner running on each navigating robot as well as predicted human trajectories. Our approach, inspired by human navigation in crowded pedestrian environments, draws from the sociology literature on pedestrian interaction. We propose a simple two-phase algorithm in which agents initially cooperate to avoid each other and then initiate civil inattention, thus lessening reactivity and committing to a trajectory. This process entails a pedestrian bargain in which all agents act competently to avoid each other and, once resolution is achieved, to avoid interfering with others' planned trajectories. This approach, being human-inspired, fluidly permits navigational interaction between humans and robots. We report experimental results for the algorithm running on real robots with and without human presence and in simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Switched observer based impedance control for an assistive robotic cart under unknown parameters

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 101 - 106
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new control scheme of an assistive robotic cart that helps a user easily transport objects in various weights. The maneuverability of the cart would be highly affected by the loaded weight of the cart and the friction between the wheel and the floor. Our focus is placed on how to enable the cart to offer easy maneuverability by creating desired interactions with a user. For this, a switched observer based impedance control scheme is proposed to allow the cart to autonomously adapt to changes in the weight of the load and the friction. Specifically, a pre-determined impedance between the user and the cart is regulated to generate an assist force using the user's input force and the velocity of the cart. The switched observer is designed to estimate the loaded weight and the friction coefficient for the precise computation of the amount of assistance. Further, using the process integration and design optimization approach, the observer gains are automatically adjusted, resulting in enhancing the control performance. We describe the proposed scheme in detail, and perform extensive simulations to demonstrate its effectiveness. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and composing gestures for human-robot interaction

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 107 - 112
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (695 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We formalize the representation of gestures and present a model that is capable of synchronizing expressive and relevant gestures with text-to-speech input. A gesture consists of gesture primitives that are executed simultaneously. We formally define the gesture primitive and introduce the concept of a spatially targeted gesture primitive, i.e., a gesture primitive that is directed at a target of interest. The spatially targeted gesture primitive is useful for situations where the direction of the gesture is important for meaningful human-robot interaction. We contribute an algorithm to determine how a spatially targeted gesture primitive is generated. We also contribute a process to analyze the input text, determine relevant gesture primitives from the input text, compose gestures from gesture primitives and rank the combinations of gestures. We propose a set of criteria that weights and ranks the combinations of gestures. Although we illustrate the utility of our model, algorithm and process using a NAO humanoid robot, our contributions are applicable to other robots. View full abstract»

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  • A human-characteristics-based novel control method for harmonic manipulation of objects with a power assist robot

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 113 - 119
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (583 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present the design and evaluation of a novel control method for a power assist robotic system for manipulating objects with it by human subjects. We consider the manipulation of objects in harmonic motion (object is lifted up and lowered down repeatedly) as we think that this motion may be very practical and useful in object manipulation. We develop a 1 DOF power assist system. The subjects manipulate different sizes of objects with the system in harmonic motion. We analyze human characteristics such as weight perception, load force, object motions etc. We find that the load force and acceleration are excessive that reduce the performances of the system. We then optimize the perceived heaviness. We then design and implement a novel control method based on human characteristics to reduce load force and acceleration. Results show that the novel control reduces load force and acceleration, optimizes perceived heaviness and thus makes the performances (maneuverability, safety etc.) satisfactory. We also compare this novel control designed for object manipulation in harmonic motion to another novel control designed for lifting objects with power-assist in linear vertical motion. Finally, we propose to use the findings to develop control method for power assist devices for manipulating heavy objects in industries that may enhance interactions between humans and robots. View full abstract»

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  • Improving existing cascaded face classifier by adding occlusion handling

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 120 - 125
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1174 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent face detectors used in human robot interaction are boosted cascades. These cascades can detect upright faces but are very sensible to occlusions. We propose a generic framework to handle occlusions at prediction time in a boosted cascade. The contribution is a probabilistic formulation of the cascade structure that considers the uncertainty introduced by missing weak classifiers. This new formulation involves two problems: (1) the approximation of posterior probabilities on each level and (2) the computation of thresholds on these probabilities to make a decision. Both problems are studied and solutions are proposed and evaluated. The method is then applied on the problem of occluded faces detection. Experimental results are provided on classic databases to evaluate the proposed solution related to the basic one. View full abstract»

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  • Joint space torque control with task space posture reference for robotic-assisted tele-echography

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 126 - 131
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1578 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new control approach for robotic-assisted tele-echography. A computed torque control architecture in the joint space is proposed, allowing to control each joint individually while avoiding the explicit computation of inverse kinematics. Posture errors in the task space are converted into velocity references for joint control. Experiments with a 7-DOF WAM™ manipulator have been carried out, where a human operator tele-controls an ultrasound probe in 6 Cartesian dimensions through a haptic device. View full abstract»

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  • A proposed gesture set for the control of industrial collaborative robots

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 132 - 137
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (710 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Human-Robot Interaction is one of the key challenges in collaborative autonomous robotics. However, no standardised framework allowing either efficient portability to an actual industrial use nor comparison benchmarking exists. This work proposes, implements and evaluates such a set of common ground rules. We present the design constraints between different groups of requirements and a technical solution for automatic recognition using imaging hardware. The Human to Robot and Robot to Human Communications concepts are illustrated on the real industrial scenario: we focus on the definition of a set of gestures for Human to Robot communication in automotive manufacturing. The case study outlines the need for a defined set of gestures for establishing a basic communication with the collaborative robot. First, the gestures are designed to respect the social acceptance principle. Second, a gesture recognition algorithm based on Dynamic Time Warping is used to demonstrate the feasibility of discriminating those gestures by automatic processing. Evaluation of our technique shows low confusion and high accuracy with this method. View full abstract»

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