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Cyber Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems (CYBER), 2012 IEEE International Conference on

Date 27-31 May 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 80
  • Notice to IEEE Xplore subscribers

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  • Index of authors

    Page(s): 1 - 3
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  • Conference committees

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  • Collective control of networked microgrids with high penetration of variable resources part I: Theory

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (453 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper will present the design of collective feedback controllers for the integration of renewable energy into networked DC bus microgrids. These feedback controllers are based on a single DC bus microgrid because the networked DC bus microgrids are self-similar. As a result, these feedback controllers are divided into two types. Type 1 is based on a feedback guidance command to determine the boost converter duty cycle. Type 2 is based on Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6] to determine the required distributed energy storage systems to ensure stability and performance. Two DC bus microgrids coupled with a transmission line is used as an example. This model architecture can vary from 0% energy storage with transient renewable energy supplies to 100% energy storage with fossil fuel energy supplies which will be useful in the future to demonstrate the benefits and costs of networked microgrids. View full abstract»

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  • Voltage and frequency regulation strategies in isolated AC micro-grids

    Page(s): 5 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In ac power systems, including micro-grids, it is important to regulate the amplitude and frequency of the voltages throughout the system. Many of the existing and proposed control strategies for micro-grids are patterned after the classic ac power system. That is, frequency regulation is achieved by designing micro-sources (commonly called Distributed Energy Resources or DERs) to exhibit an output-frequency-versus-power characteristic similar to the speed-versus-power (droop) characteristics of conventional turbo- and hydro-generators. Moreover, voltage regulation strategies are patterned after the output-voltage-versus-reactive-power (droop) characteristics of the automatic voltage regulators (AVRs) used in conventional turbo- and hydro-generators. In this paper, established approaches of frequency and voltage regulation are reviewed. Alternative strategies that utilize modern communication and control technologies are presented and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization in energy and power management for renewable-diesel microgrids using Dynamic Programming algorithm

    Page(s): 11 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (631 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an optimization analysis for energy and power management in microgrids with renewable energy resources and diesel generators. Dynamic Programming (DP) algorithm and the simplex method have been used to minimize the total daily cost of the system and also maximize the total efficiency of the energy storage system during charge and discharge. The algorithm is validated on a hybrid system for military forward operating base camps that contain a PV array, wind generator, hydrogen-based fuel cell, batteries and diesel generators. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-objective optimization for environmental/economic microgrid scheduling

    Page(s): 17 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Microgrids are subsystems of the distribution grid which comprises small generation capacities, storage devices and controllable loads, which can operate either connected or isolated from the utility grid. A microgrid has the ability to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions. This paper studies the microgrid environmental/economic problem, i.e. the problem of optimizing microgrid operations to fulfil a time-varying energy demand and operational constraints while achieving a tradeoff between microgrid running costs and emissions. The problem is posed as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear optimization problem, which is solved in an efficient way by using commercial solvers. A case study of a typical microgrid is investigated: simulation results show the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Secure Scalable Microgrid Test Bed at Sandia National Laboratories

    Page(s): 23 - 27
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (953 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High penetration levels of stochastic renewable sources introduce variability into power systems that result in voltage and frequency regulation difficulties. As the cost of fossil fuels increase and governments mandate large renewable-energy portfolios, new engineering approaches will be necessary to compensate for this variable generation. Today renewable energy penetration levels are often limited by using curtailment, by installing additional fossil-fuel-based generation, or by installing expensive energy storage. Recent research focused on mitigating regulation challenges include: advanced sensing, storage, and controls. This paper introduces a new research facility at Sandia National Laboratories dedicated to the development of tools for designing and implementing adaptive, secure, scalable, microgrids with high penetration levels of stochastic renewables. View full abstract»

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  • Wind turbine emulation for intelligent microgrid development

    Page(s): 28 - 33
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (759 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wind is being aggressively pursued as a potential source of renewable electric power. However, the principal difficulty when integrating wind power into the utility is one of controls. Regulating a power system to provide balance between source and load is challenging when a significant amount of generation is produced by variable sources. This has sparked a wave of research into the development of controls for microgrids with high renewable penetration levels. However, generating repeatable experiments for a system that includes wind power is not straightforward. In this paper, a simple methodology for implementing an 11-kW wind turbine emulator without a torque sensor is presented for supporting microgrid research. In particular, the direct-torque-control feature of a commercial induction motor drive with brake resistor is used, and the torque reference is generated using an industrial computer. Simulation results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis the impacts of data rates and Forward Access Channel Scheduling on QoS in 3G UMTS network

    Page(s): 34 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (354 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the present world wireless and mobile communications have become a part and parcel of our modern life. As in third generation (3G) technology UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems) is tend to provide all kinds of service for example, data rate, audio, video etc, it needs improved Quality of Service (QoS). Forward Access Channel, one of the downlink transport channel, carries both control message and user data traffic from Radio Network Controller (RNC) to User Equipment (UE) in 3G UMTS network. We can improve the Quality of Service (QoS) of various traffic classes using forward access scheduling in Radio Network Controller (RNC). This paper presents an analysis the impacts of both data rates and this Forward Access Channel Scheduling on Quality of Service (QoS) of various traffic classes in 3G UMTS network and try to focus on end to end delay using Opnet Modeler simulation and try to investigate how End to End Delay in second varies in different classes such as Conversational class, Streaming class, Interactive class, Background class according to Priority Weights as well as we investigate the impacts of data rates. View full abstract»

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  • Study on multi-channel deterministic access for wireless mesh LAN

    Page(s): 39 - 42
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (249 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    IEEE802.11s draft proposes a new medium access control function-mesh deterministic access (MDA), which is mainly used for single-channel wireless mesh local area network (LAN). To provide high performance and network capacity for wireless mesh LAN, this paper develops an algorithm for MDA to work well on multi-channel wireless mesh LAN. To completely avoid the collisions between control packets and data packets, the interval of the meshed delivery traffic indication message is first divided into contention period and data transmission period. We define a neighbor MP status table for MPs to support multi-channel environment. The mechanism for reserving MDA opportunity (MDAOP) uses the four-way-handshaking mode to reduce hidden node problem. We propose a multi-channel MDA (MMDA) algorithm to improve the overall performance of wireless mesh LAN in multi-channel environment. View full abstract»

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  • Study on superframe adjustment for cluster tree in wireless sensor networks

    Page(s): 43 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The personal area network (PAN) coordinator periodically transmits beacon frames to coordinator nodes as well as the coordinator nodes periodically transmit beacon frames to device nodes in the cluster tree topology of IEEE 802.15.4. The challenge in cluster tree network is the collisions between beacons or even between beacon and data frames, which degrades the network performance. In order to improve the collisions, this paper proposes the superframe adjustment and beacon transmission scheme (SABTS) by assigning the accurate values of beacon order and superframe order for PAN coordinator, cluster coordinators and device nodes, and deciding the precise time for beacon transmission of PAN and coordinator nodes. A Markov chain model for cluster tree network is developed with taking into account packet retransmission, acknowledgement, and defer transmission. Both analytical and simulation results present that SABTS performs better than IEEE 802.15.4 standard in terms of the probability of successful transmission, network goodput, and energy consumption. View full abstract»

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  • Image reconstruction algorithms for radio tomographic imaging

    Page(s): 48 - 53
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (755 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radio tomgographic imaging (RTI) is a method of imaging the attenuation caused by object's obstruction within the area surrounded by wireless sensor nodes. The image reconstruction of RTI is an ill-posed problem because the pixels are more than the RSS measurements. Therefore, conventional methods such as least square method are not applicable because the solutions amplify the noise by dividing small singular values. In this paper, we discuss three algorithms i.e. LBP, Tikhonov regularization and projected Landweber iteration to obtain the imaging results. LBP is very simple and needs little hardware resources. Tikhonov regularization method makes a good balance between image quality and regularization error and we use L-curve method to choose regularization parameter. Projected Landweber iteration method can further improve the imaging results while it needs lots of computation. All the three algorithms can be used to meet different requirement of applications. The experiment results are also presented to validate the effectiveness of algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Test effectiveness index: Integrating product metrics with process metrics

    Page(s): 54 - 57
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (138 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Defect measurement is an important method in the improvement of software quality. Recent approaches of defect measurement are inappropriate to small software organizations by reason of their intricacy. This paper gives a simple approach of defect measurement, which integrates the power of product metrics with process metrics, i.e., it can not only detect the defect-prone modules, but also find the problems in the software process. This approach uses the results of successive two rounds of testing to create the test effectiveness index constructively. A case study is conducted and the results indicate that the defect-prone modules can be identified and problems of testing process can be discovered by test effectiveness index. View full abstract»

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  • Performance evaluation of ZigBee-based sensor networks using empirical measurements

    Page(s): 58 - 63
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2026 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    ZigBee is an emerging standard specifically designed for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPAN) with a focus on enabling the wireless sensor networks. It attempts to provide a low data rate, low power, and low cost wireless networking on the device-level communication. In this paper, we have established a realistic environment for the performance evaluation of the ZigBee wireless networks. Several sets of practical experiments are conducted to study its various features, including the 1) packet loss rate, and 2) transmission throughput. The results show that our developed ZigBee platforms could work well under multi-hop transmission over a long period of time. View full abstract»

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  • Give me a hand — How users ask a robotic arm for help with gestures

    Page(s): 64 - 68
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5380 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A task that requires two hands to perform such as soldering usually needs additional tools for holding (e.g. a cable) or adding (e.g. solder) an object to a specific position. A robotic manipulator or robotic arm is one of the solution for this requirement. When gesture is selected as a method for controlling a robot, characteristics of gestures are needed for designing and developing a gesture recognition system. With this requirement, we conducted an experiment to obtain a set of user-defined gestures in the soldering task to find out properties and patterns of a gesture for future development of our research. 152 gestures were collected from 19 participants by presenting the “effect” of the gesture (robotic arm movement), and then asking the participants to perform its “cause” (a user-defined gesture). The analyzed data shows that hands are the most used body parts even they are occupied by the task, that one-hand and two-hands gestures were used interchangeably by the participants, that the majority of the participants performed reversible gestures for reversible movements, and that the participants were expecting for better recognition performance on an easier to plan gesture. Our finding can be useful as a guideline for creating gesture set and system for controlling robotic arms based on natural behavior of users. View full abstract»

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  • Balancing control of bicycle robot

    Page(s): 69 - 73
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (521 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the development of the bicycle robot with balancing control. The flywheel is a device to control bicycle robot stabilizing in a prescribed roll angle. Balancing of bicycle maintains by the rotating of two flywheels with a constant angular velocity. There are composed of two fly wheels, upper and lower fly wheel. The rotations around pitch axis of two fly wheels in different directions cause the change of angular momentum with time. The torque will produce due to weight changing of fly wheel and its direction is proportional to rotating axis. The result from summation of torque from two fly wheels will be set to zero at stable point. To tracking with desired roll angle, PD controller is used to tracking the roll angle by controlling the pitch angle of fly wheels according to a prescribed control of roll angle. The results balancing control of bicycle robot stabilization are shown by simulation methods. View full abstract»

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  • On a sampling criterion -induced oscillatory behaviour

    Page(s): 74 - 79
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (330 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates limit oscillations in an adaptive sampling system whose associated sampling instants are generated from a constant difference of amplitudes. The control law to the linear part is a piecewise - constant control generated from such an adaptive sampling rule. The limit oscillations which are generated are interpreted from the equivalence of the sampling and hold device with a nonlinear one consisting in a multiple relay with hysteresis. View full abstract»

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  • A small-size handshake robot system for a generation of handshake approaching motion

    Page(s): 80 - 85
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (443 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Humans often greet one another using a handshake, a common gesture of friendship. In the case of a human and a robot, the robot can smoothly begin to communicate and coexist with humans without feelings of aversion in humans; if it generates a handshake motion that is emotionally acceptable to humans. Thus, we have proposed a handshake request motion model and a handshake respond motion model to generate a handshake approaching motion prior to actually shaking hands with the human. In the handshake request motion model, the robot stretches its hand out to a human to request a handshake. In the handshake respond motion model, the robot responds a handshake when the human requests a handshake. The effectiveness of these models is demonstrated by experiments using a handshake robot system which is fabricated based on the average size of a human arm. Therefore, in this paper, we develop a small-size handshake robot system that uses the handshake request motion model and the handshake respond motion model to generate a handshake approaching motion with a human. The effectiveness of the robot system is demonstrated by sensory evaluation. Furthermore, a handshake motion between robots is realized by using two small-size handshake robot systems which are adopted these models. View full abstract»

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  • Automation of temperature system for formed meat products: A simulation approach

    Page(s): 86 - 91
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1094 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) requires that formed meat products should be cooked to a specified minimum internal temperature to eliminate harmful bacteria most notable of which is E Coli. In order to meet this requirement, ready-to-eat meat products are tested on exit from an oven. An Automated Temperature Measurement System (ATMS) was developed to improve the current mode of the testing process of the cooked meat products. The development of the system included three modules - a robotic manipulator (for handling the meat products), a database management system and a process control system. The development of the work cell has been documented through photographs and it has been built to scale to display to interested parties. The system was not implemented due to the lack of a graphical or animated simulation for presentation to parties interested in its implementation. The interested parties include different levels of Management, Engineers, Shift Supervisors, Operators, Maintenance Personnel and Quality Assurance Personnel. The methodology of 3D simulation developed in this research will fully convey the working relationship of the various components to make the ATMS operate with great precision. View full abstract»

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  • A bat-like switched flying and adhesive robot

    Page(s): 92 - 97
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2109 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel bat-like robot which can fly in air and adhere to various vertical wall surfaces or ceilings with much lower power consumption compared to typical flying robots of comparable physical dimensions. Various aspects in system design are discussed including several kinds of adhesion mechanisms, flying mechanisms, mechanical integration and controller design. The dynamic model of the system is derived and a power consumption optimization method is implemented. Several robot prototypes are presented and experiments were conducted on the robot, which verified the design concepts of the developed robot. The adhesion device is light-weight, highly-efficient, and is able to stick to various surfaces, such as wood, glass, painted wall surface and metal, which are strongly needed by various industries and public security authorities in order to perform dangerous operations such as reconnaissance of high-rise buildings and surveillance applications. The power consumption of the bat-like robot III needed by adhesion device is less than five percent of the power consumed by flying the robot. Consequently, its endurance will be prolonged 20 times than flying robot. View full abstract»

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  • Built-in security enhancements for the 1oo2 safety architecture

    Page(s): 103 - 108
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a high level hardware architecture for safe cyber-physical systems taking into account security concerns. The in the safety domain well known one-out-of-two (1oo2) architecture is extended to allow the implementation of security measures which are designed in a way to be independent from the safety functionality of the system so that the security parts do not have to undergo the rigorous task of functional safety certification. The proposed security measures include software assurance to allow flexible and dynamic systems in the safety domain. Diverse compilation and cross-integrity checks of the system aim at random faults and make the system more difficult to attack. For safe and secure communication with other systems a communication concept utilizing the black channel principle is presented. The focus of this paper lies on the synergies that can be achieve when combining safety and security for the 1oo2 redundant hardware architecture. View full abstract»

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  • Concept design for SCADA system using Cognitive Radio based IEEE 802.22 for power system

    Page(s): 109 - 114
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1396 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is used in modern power system for monitoring, controlling, gathering the information, transfer to information back to a central station, carry out necessary analysis and control carry out necessary analysis and control. A SCADA system involves the integrated technologies of computer, communication, electric devices etc. Here the communication media provides the physical medium for transferring, controlling and acquisition of data within SCADA from remote locations. Although wireless communications media become an attractive option as communications networks for SCADA system, compared with wired communications, wireless communications in power system environments presents a number of security and reliability issues. As in SCADA system the communication media plays an important role, to meet objectives of the SCADA systems, different wired and wireless communications media have been applied in modern power system environment. This paper presents a concept about SCADA system using Cognitive Radio based IEEE 802.22 standard for overcoming all existing limitations of SCADA's communication media for future power system where details design, analyses of feasibility and benefits over wired and other wireless systems are also described. View full abstract»

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  • Current-mode multifunction biquadratic filter using a single MCCCDTA

    Page(s): 115 - 118
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (267 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new current-tunable current-mode universal biquadratic filter with two inputs and two outputs using one modified current-controlled current differencing transconductance amplifier, two grounded capacitors and one grounded resistor. The proposed circuit provides following advantages: realization of lowpass, bandpass, highpass, bandstop and allpass current responses; orthogonal control of the natural frequency and the quality factor; employment of grounded passive components which is very suitable for integrated circuit implementation; low active and passive sensitivities. Simulation results are also given to confirm the presented theory. View full abstract»

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  • Mixed-mode universal filter using OTAs

    Page(s): 119 - 122
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (234 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an electronically tunable versatile biquadratic filter. Unlike the typical voltage-mode and current-mode filter, the proposed filter can realize voltage-mode, current-mode, transconductance-mode and transresistance-mode transfer functions without changing the circuit topology, called a mixed-mode filter. The proposed structure employs six operational transconductance amplifiers, two grounded capacitors and one external resistor that provides following advantages: realization of low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, band-stop and all-pass filter responses; orthogonal control of the natural frequency and the quality factor; employment of grounded capacitors which is more suitable for integrated circuit implementation; low active and passive sensitivities. Simulation results are also given to confirm the presented theory. View full abstract»

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