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Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 1999. IMTC/99. Proceedings of the 16th IEEE

Date 24-26 May 1999

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  • Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference - Volume 3 [front matter]

    Page(s): i - xxxi
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author's index

    Page(s): xxxii - xl
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Sine-fitting software for IEEE Standards 1057 and 1241

    Page(s): 1504 - 1506 vol.3
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    The author demonstrates software that performs the calculations related to the sine-fit tests of IEEE Standard 1057-94 for digital waveform recorders and IEEE Standard 1241 for analog to digital converters, which is currently in preparation. He shows example outputs and explains how to use these outputs determine the important characteristics of the device under test (DUT) View full abstract»

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  • The noise power ratio-theory and ADC testing

    Page(s): 1507 - 1512 vol.3
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    This paper develops theory behind the noise power ratio (NPR) testing of ADCs. A mid-riser formulation is used for mathematical simplicity. Simulated results, using DAC generated signals, suggests that the uniformly distributed signal is easier to implement and is more sensitive to amplitude dependent distortions View full abstract»

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  • Standard basis of Ukraine in the field of electrical and magnetic values measurements

    Page(s): 1879 - 1882 vol.3
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    The results of work for the creation of a standards basis of Ukraine in the field of electric and magnetic measurements are given. Considerations about the further development of the researches in this field of measurement are formulated View full abstract»

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  • Fiber optic polarimetric thermometer using low extinction ratio polarizer and low coherence source

    Page(s): 1520 - 1525 vol.3
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    We theoretically and experimentally investigated the influences of extinction ratio of the input polarizer, the coherence properties of the light source and sensing and lead fiber length for polarimetric temperature measurements. We show that there is a possibility to construct a relatively simple and inexpensive fiber optic polarimetric thermometer for absolute temperature measurements. By decomposing the interferometer into two ideal `mutual incoherent' interferometers a low ER polarizer and a low coherent source can be used. An experimental temperature sensor for absolute temperature measurement working in the range from 20°C to 60°C has been produced View full abstract»

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  • Calculable coaxial resistors for precision measurements

    Page(s): 1468 - 1471 vol.3
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    Coaxial straight-wire resistors have been constructed with the purpose of improving comparisons between resistors, capacitors, and inductors in the audio frequency range. The design is based on the principle that a coaxial line with a cylindrical shield can be described by relatively simple equations for the real and imaginary parts of the impedance. The resistors, with values above 100 Ω will be used as primary transfer standards for characterization of frequency dependence View full abstract»

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  • Mapping error of simplified dynamic models in electrical metrology

    Page(s): 1704 - 1709 vol.3
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    The paper presents a theory and its practical application in the process of the determination of the mapping error of simplified dynamic models. This mapping is expressed by means of the integral-square-error criterion. A special calculation algorithm showing how to compute the maximum value of this criterion is discussed and presented in detail. The paper shows also the method of a synthesis of a special class of simplified models which in the initial time interval, map the models of the higher order with a very small error. The particular transformations presented in the matrix notation, are defined in this paper for this method. The theory presented in the paper is illustrated with a numerical example View full abstract»

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  • On the guaranteed failing and working frequencies in path delay fault analysis

    Page(s): 1794 - 1799 vol.3
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    When running a set of test vectors to detect path delay faults in a digital system, desired test frequencies are needed. In this paper we determine the guaranteed failure frequency (GFF) and the guaranteed working frequency (GWF) for a given set of test vectors used for path delay testing of a sequential circuit. If the circuit passes the test when the vectors are applied at GFF, then all paths activated by those vectors are guaranteed to be free from delay faults provided the clock frequency does not exceed the GWF. Ambiguity cancellation and minmax-delay or statistical-delay modeling techniques are used in a timing simulation system to determine GFF and GWF. Experiments show that by using the guaranteed failure frequency, we can obtain the best (most reliable) path delay fault coverage provided by the given test vectors View full abstract»

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  • Testability of 123DD based differential pass-transistor logic circuits

    Page(s): 1784 - 1787 vol.3
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    Differential Pass-Transistor Logic (DPTL) circuits have demonstrated significant power-delay advantages over conventional CMOS logic circuits. They also offer effective noise immunity by structural means rather than requiring large signal swings. They are particularly suitable for the design of high-speed iterative arithmetic circuits. In this paper we show that DPTL circuits have certain inherent self-checking capabilities. We show that all single transistor faults in a DPTL circuit, either produces the correct output or can be detected by (i) loss of complementarity at the outputs or (ii) excessive current drawn from the power supply. This property can be used to design simple, low-overhead test circuitry that allows fast, on-line detection of single faults. Although detection of all multiple-faults cannot be guaranteed using only the on-line tests, many such faults are also detected by the test circuitry View full abstract»

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  • An optrode type sensor to measure dissolved oxygen in water

    Page(s): 1537 - 1540 vol.3
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    Oxygen concentration in water is an important parameter in several industrial processes, for instance, in water treatment plants or in fish-farms. Electrochemical sensors provide a simple way to determine the oxygen concentration. However, these sensors present important drifts and they need continuous maintenance. Optical sensors are suitable for long term measurements. Most of the optical sensors are based on the measurement of fluorescence lifetimes or fluorescence intensities. In this paper, we present a fiber-optic oxygen sensor based on the measurement of phosphorescence lifetime of Al-Ferron in Sol-gel support. A silicone and nylon membrane is used to separate the sensor from the water. Sterm-Volmer ratio is used to determine the oxygen concentration View full abstract»

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  • Using Ethernet for industrial I/O and data acquisition

    Page(s): 1492 - 1496 vol.3
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    The worldwide familiarity, standardization and availability of Ethernet, along with its current and potential performance levels, has prompted increased consideration of Ethernet as a viable communications technology for distributing industrial I/O and data acquisition tasks. This paper examines the use of Ethernet-based measurement and data acquisition systems, and some of the unique requirements and considerations that result. Specifically, the performance level and reliability of Ethernet is shown to be evolving to a level to deliver very high-performance measurement data. Technologies that are key to this evolution include intelligent switching hubs and Fast Ethernet. Implementation of Ethernet-based measurement systems can be classified into one of two categories-the PC-based measurement system, or the dedicated Ethernet-based I/O device View full abstract»

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  • HP94000 multi-site mixed signal test development considerations

    Page(s): 1563 - 1568 vol.3
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    This paper describes the implementation of a quad site test solution on HP94000 Mixed Signal LSI Test system. The HP94K has multi site test capability meaning that, multiple components can be tested simultaneously in parallel provided there is enough test resources in the system. It also has the capability of parallel processing. With parallel processing capability, one can perform complex computations on previously collected data while new data in being collected into the capture memory therefore reducing test time. The test solution described in this paper is for Burr-Brown's ADSI20I high dynamic range delta sigma modulator. Circuit design and layout considerations are paramount when considering a mixed signal multi site test solution on HP94K. The test solution must go through a vigorous capability study, to verify test repeatability not only on a single site basis but also between site to site View full abstract»

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  • IVD modulus error measurement

    Page(s): 1696 - 1698 vol.3
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    The calibration method of inductive voltage divider (IVD) designed for application to AC/DC transfer is described. Algorithms minimizing influence of the error of RMS/DC converter are given. The method presented makes it possible to find the IVD modulus error in the frequency range of up to 1 MHz View full abstract»

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  • Accuracy limit of high precision stochastic watt-hour meter

    Page(s): 1710 - 1713 vol.3
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    Paper deals with the practical application of newly developed stochastic watt-hour meter. The limit of its precision is analysed theoretically, via simulation, and experiments. The precision of 0.0062% is achieved in the laboratory experiment. Field experiment also confirms good application properties of the device View full abstract»

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  • Automation of a precision temperature calibration laboratory

    Page(s): 1883 - 1887 vol.3
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    The objective of the following paper is to discuss the automation of a precision calibration laboratory in the view of achieving maximal quality of metrological performance. Besides automation of measurement equipment for ease of operation, communication and data processing, basic emphasis is given to reliability of operation, flexibility, and possibility of achieving minimal uncertainty for given measurement equipment. Several software design guidelines are discussed in the case of automation of a high precision temperature calibration laboratory View full abstract»

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  • Fiber optic fluorosensor for oxygen measurement

    Page(s): 1426 - 1430 vol.3
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    In this paper, we report a fiber optic oxygen sensor using fluorescence and its application to clinical examinations. It is based on fluorescence quenching. The quenching ratio of fluorescence is proportional to oxygen partial pressure by Stern-Volmer's formula in which oxygen concentration is estimated from measured emission intensity. We fabricated a microscopic luminous probe using a Solvent Green 5 doped plastic optical fiber coupler. The probes were demonstrated to have certain advantages; for example they can be operated in both liquid and gas phases. And also, they are stable with regard to pH and flow velocities. As a clinical application, the probe can reliably measure oxygen concentrations of whole blood in vivo. Moreover, we have clarified various characteristics of these probes View full abstract»

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  • Temperature measurement by multi-fiber optical sensor

    Page(s): 1526 - 1530 vol.3
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    The paper deals with a new multi-fiber temperature sensor, based on the relationship between temperature and the refractive index of a suitable reference liquid, substituted to a part of the fiber clad. The sensing element, the microcontroller-based hardware, and the measurement software are described. The results of the rests carried out in the range 40°C-110°C showed good prototype accuracy and repeatability (both contained within ±1°C) View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent nodes for distributed sensor network

    Page(s): 1479 - 1484 vol.3
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    Neural networks models and their training algorithms on a central computer with reference to a previously developed distributed sensor network are considered. The requirements for its intelligent node are formulated. Also the node's structure is offered which realises such intelligent functions, as sensor and other measuring channel components drift prediction using remote reprogramming View full abstract»

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  • AC-DC difference precision measurement of μpot

    Page(s): 1834 - 1836 vol.3
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    Many electrical standard laboratories use μpots as the primary standards for low ac voltage measurement. To determine the ac-dc difference of a μpot usually requires a transfer standard which has high input impedance for the standard values transferred from a standard μpot through a step-down procedure. In order to lower the uncertainty of the μpot ac-dc difference measurement, after several step-down procedures at low voltage range, a precision comparison method is introduced View full abstract»

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  • Jitter and decision-level noise separation in A/D converters

    Page(s): 1558 - 1562 vol.3
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    Gaussian aperture jitter leads to a reduced SNR of A/D converters. Also other noise sources, faults and nonlinearities affect the digital output signal. A measurement setup for a new off-chip diagnosis method, which systematically separates the jitter-induced errors from the errors caused by these other factors, is described. Deterministic errors are removed via a subtracting technique. High-level ADC simulations and measurements have been carried out to determine relations between the size of the jitter or decision-level noise and the remaining random errors. By carrying out two tests at two different input frequencies and using the simulation results, errors induced by decision-level noise can be removed View full abstract»

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  • Robust statistical analysis of vector network analyzer intercomparisons

    Page(s): 1320 - 1324 vol.3
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    Classical statistical methods that use the sample mean and standard deviation, under the assumption that the data follow a Gaussian distribution, are often applied to measurement intercomparisons. Consequently, spurious measurements, or outliers, lead to inaccuracies in the estimated mean and standard deviation, thus biasing the results of measurement comparisons. This paper describes the application of robust statistical methods for analyzing measurement results from an intercomparison containing spurious results. Robust techniques eliminate the need to subjectively separate the data into “good” and “bad” before calculating the statistics. We apply these techniques to results obtained from a measurement intercomparison of vector network analyzers View full abstract»

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  • Bayesian approach to spectrophotometric analysis of multicomponent substances

    Page(s): 1901 - 1906 vol.3
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    The spectrophotometric analysis of a chemical substance is based on the interpretation of the measurement data acquired by means of a spectrophotometer, i.e. on estimation of the concentrations of its components. In this paper, a Bayesian approach to the estimation of those concentrations is proposed. Its effective application requires a considerable amount of statistical a priori information, viz, the probability density functions characterizing the distributions of the concentrations of the errors in the data, and of the residual components in the analyzed substance whose concentrations are not estimated. The proposed approach is studied using synthetic data generated on the basis of some real-world reference spectra. The results of study are compared with those obtained by means of the currently used method for estimation of concentrations, viz. constrained least-squares curve fitting View full abstract»

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  • An adaptive rational filter for interpretation of spectrometric data

    Page(s): 1907 - 1912 vol.3
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    The computer-based interpretation of spectrometric data is of great importance for applications of various kinds of spectroscopy in science, biomedical engineering, environmental engineering and industry. It is based on the use of algorithms of (generalized) deconvolution for correcting spectrometric data, i.e. compensating for the instrumental effects and natural bandwidth effects distorting those data. Among many sophisticated methods currently used for this purpose no one is able to properly deal with the irregularities in the data such as variable shape of peaks the interpreted spectrum is composed of. In this paper, a flexible and efficient algorithm of generalized deconvolution is proposed, viz. an adaptive rational filter, which is proven to satisfactorily solve this problem View full abstract»

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  • Test set embedding based on width compression for mixed-mode BIST

    Page(s): 1778 - 1783 vol.3
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    We present a new test generator circuit (TGC) for mixed-mode built-in self-test (BIST) that embeds a precomputed deterministic test set TD in a longer sequence. The design method employs width compression based on the property of d-compatibles. To demonstrate the feasibility of the TGC design method, we present experimental data for single stuck-at test sets for the ISCAS 85 circuits and full-scan versions of the ISCAS 89 benchmark circuits. We also achieve significant improvement over another recently-proposed mixed-mode TGC design scheme for BIST View full abstract»

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