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Advanced Robotics and its Social Impacts (ARSO), 2011 IEEE Workshop on

Date 2-4 Oct. 2011

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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): c1
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  • [Title page]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): i
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  • [Copyright notice]

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): ii
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • Anybody, anywhere, anytime - Robotics with a social impact through a building block approach

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    In order to confront the challenge of creating robotics with a social impact, this paper speculates on how to allow anybody anywhere hands-on opportunity to make contextualized solutions. Inspired by embodied artificial intelligence and modular robotics, we present the building block approach as a way to achieve user-driven innovation of high tech solutions with a social impact. Modularity invites to physical manipulation and reconfiguration, and in the process of physical manipulation, the user starts understanding and developing the functionality. Through immediate action in the interaction, the user is not only learning about the abstract thinking that the system may represent, but at the same time, the user is able to try the system in new, innovative configurations. Hence, the system becomes a true engine for innovation allowing the user to creatively invent, build and test new developments as the exploration is happening. As instantiations of this building block approach and its social impact, we briefly review the development and use of modular robotic devices for education, health improvements, and business in Africa. We briefly outline the modular building blocks for education, modular interactive tiles for rehabilitation in Tanzania and for soccer tournaments in Africa, Asia and Europe. View full abstract»

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  • Teaching assistant robot, ROBOSEM, in English class and practical issues for its diffusion

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 8 - 11
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Various studies on robot assisted learning have proven them to be effective tools for language education because robots are remarkably successful in eliminating the affective filter. This study demonstrates ROBOSEM with class content for sustaining long-term interaction with students in English classes of elementary schools as a teaching assistant, not a teacher. We close with some practical considerations for the continuous process of improving technology and its diffusion throughout society, such as in elementary schools, through interviews with developers and observations from field trials. View full abstract»

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  • Emergent phenomena of robot competitions: Robot identity construction and naming

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 12 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The naming of robots in competitions is an emergent phenomenon. Naming is invoked by the affordances of competition registration forms. Naming both reflects and creates robot identity, and is illustrative of the social relations between robot designer and robot. Naming is a fundamental classifier and naming practices have been shown to have far reaching implications for behavior in many domains. View full abstract»

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  • On the development of dependable intelligent systems

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 16 - 19
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    With the increasing presence of intelligent systems such as robots in our everyday lives, the risk of a failure in one of these machines causing injury to someone is growing. No longer can we rely on training and fenced-off work cells to provide safety. Instead, we must consider other approaches to producing dependable intelligent systems. This includes revising how we design intelligent systems and considering the adoption of certification schemes. In this article, we propose using a modeling language, dubbed SafeML, for the design of safety-conscious and dependable intelligent systems. View full abstract»

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  • Toward practical semi-autonomous teleoperation: Do what i intend, not what i do

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 20 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The discussed research trajectory could begin improving the capabilities and robustness of teleoperation immediately. Initial work related to the RRM project described in Section I-A is beginning to incorporate explicit task models that can be used to bootstrap more sophisticated approaches like those used in the Language of Surgery project. The inclusion of task and skill modeling into robotic automation, and in general the movement to more seamless human-robotic task collaboration, will have long term effects in both the technical aspects of robotics, as well as industrial and societal acceptance of robotics. One of the significant limitations to the continuing adoption of robotics has been a lack of trust. This lack of trust often manifests itself in a technical form; for instance, engineers in industry will often double check by hand the calculations or task execution plans generated by an autonomous system before allowing an action to be performed. This gives us greater confidence that the robot is performing as we would, given the situation. View full abstract»

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  • The iCub project: An open source platform for research in embodied cognition

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 24 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    This short paper describes the iCub robot, an endeavor supported mainly by the European Commission to develop a common platform for researchers interested in the study of artificial embodied cognitive systems. The iCub is a humanoid robot of the approximate size of a three years old child, equipped with sensors ranging from cameras, microphones, inertial, force and tactile and distributed fully under the GPL license. It is adopted by about 20 laboratories worldwide and a variety of research is carried out often in collaboration. A support middleware favors sharing of software modules and complex behaviors. View full abstract»

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  • Teaching motion planning concepts to undergraduate students

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 27 - 30
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    Motion planning is a central problem in robotics. Although it is an engaging topic for undergraduate students, it is difficult to teach, and as a result, the material is often only covered at an abstract level. Deep learning could be achieved by having students implement and test different algorithms. However, there is usually no time within a single class to have students completely implement several motion planning algorithms as they require the development of many lower-level data structures. We present an ongoing project to develop a teaching module for robotic motion planning centered around an integrated software environment. The module can be taught early in the undergraduate curriculum, after students have taken an introductory programming class. View full abstract»

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  • The RoboCupRescue robot league: Guiding robots towards fieldable capabilities

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 31 - 34
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    The RoboCupRescue Robot League is an international competition where teams from all over the world compete against an arena that allows them to demonstrate their advanced robotic capabilities for emergency response applications. The league is also a community that works together to advance the state-of-the-art towards improving performance and the standards that help quantify this performance. In this paper, we present the current state of the competition, its links to the wider standardization process and how it is guiding robots towards fieldable capabilities. View full abstract»

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  • Practical object recognition in autonomous driving and beyond

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 35 - 38
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    This paper is meant as an overview of the recent object recognition work done on Stanford's autonomous vehicle and the primary challenges along this particular path. The eventual goal is to provide practical object recognition systems that will enable new robotic applications such as autonomous taxis that recognize hailing pedestrians, personal robots that can learn about specific objects in your home, and automated farming equipment that is trained on-site to recognize the plants and materials that it must interact with. Recent work has made some progress towards object recognition that could fulfill these goals, but advances in model-free segmentation and tracking algorithms are required for applicability beyond scenarios like driving in which model-free segmentation is often available. Additionally, online learning may be required to make use of the large amounts of labeled data made available by tracking-based semi-supervised learning. View full abstract»

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  • View-based multi-touch gesture interface for furniture manipulation robots

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 39 - 42
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    This paper presents a user interface for manipulating structured furniture and electric equipments based on view-based multi-touch gesture interface and demonstrational mechanism for action candidates. The contribution of this papers is summarized as follows: 1) we define multi-touch gesture for push, pull and rotate manipulation of the robot. 2) We propose demonstrational feedback mechanism of daily environment manipulation. 3) In order to obtain a 3D point that corresponds to the user-touched point on the interface, we show a method to estimate 3D points from screen points of the robot's view images. A prototype system has been implemented using iPad browser and we have evaluated the prototype system on our office and kitchen within environment and showed some preliminary results on usability assessment. View full abstract»

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  • On the impact of embedded knowledge-based systems

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 43 - 45
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    Autonomous mobile robots are well visible both in science and in popular media. Significant progress has been made lately in that branch of robotics in all involved aspects of science, technology and engineering. Interesting studies and forecasts have been made how robots, based on the science and technology of mobile robotics, have started to become parts of our lives and will increasingly do so in the future. However, we think that the fascination with the idea of robots - preferably humanoid ones - both in science and in the public has been outshining the topic that is actually making the impact on society here: The science and technology behind these advanced robots, in particular embedded knowledge-based systems (EKBSs). So the question about the societal impact of robotics is actually the question of the impact of EKBSs. View full abstract»

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  • Range sensor based model construction by sparse surface adjustment

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 46 - 49
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    In this paper, we propose an approach to construct highly accurate 3D object models from range data. The main advantage of sensor based model acquisition compared to manual CAD model construction is the short time needed per object. The usual drawbacks of sensor based model reconstruction are sensor noise and errors in the sensor positions which typically lead to less accurate models. Our method drastically reduces this problem by applying a physical model of the underlying range sensor and utilizing a graph-based optimization technique. We present our approach and evaluate it on data recorded in different real world environments with an RGBD camera and a laser range scanner. The experimental results demonstrate that our method provides more accurate maps than standard SLAM methods and that it additionally compares favorable over the moving least squares method. View full abstract»

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  • Seeing with your hands: A better way to obtain perception capabilities with a personal robot

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 50 - 53
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    For validation and to visualize the advantage of using an in hand Kinect sensor we are using the PR2 robot to observe a cluttered tabletop environment, as shown in Fig. 4. We assume the robot has to remain stationary, since positions around the table are not accessible to the robot. To show the advantage of an in hand camera we conduct two observation attempts, one with only the head mounted Kinect sensor and the other with the Kinect sensor held in the robots right gripper. The motion of the head mounted Kinect sensor is restricted by a pan/tilt joint, while the in hand sensor can be positioned in the entire manipulator workspace. The result of the observed environment, represented as an occupancy grid, using only the head mounted Kinect can be seen in Fig. 5a. The head mounted Kinect was able to observe 87% of the scene, however substantial parts of the space are still unobserved. In comparison, by using the in hand sensor the robot is able to observe 97% of the environment. We can see that the in hand camera increases observation ability of the robot, which in turn decreases the unobserved space by 10%. Objects previously unobserved and hidden are visible due to the increase in possible sensor positions which is especially critical for manipulation tasks, collision avoidance, object search and so on. View full abstract»

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  • Grasp, motion, view planning on dual-arm humanoid for manipulating in-hand object

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 54 - 57
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    It is certainly important to get 3D geometric shape models of unknown objects. We try throughout this paper to make humanoid robots construct such models themselves. To reach this objective, we propose a method consisting in observing objects from multiple view points with re-grasping in order to get non-occluded model. In this paper, we especially focus on the selection algorithm of the next grasp position from computed candidates. This problem is expressed through a graph search problem. The nodes represent grasp positions, and they are connected when robots can re-grasp from one grasp position to the other. Of cource when the shape of an object is unknown, it is difficult to solve this problem. This is why we propose a heuristic method to select next grasp position only using grasp position information, so to be able to adapt to objects which 3D shape information is updated online. We compare the result with this method with the optimal solution available when 3D shape information is given. Finally we show the validity of this heuristic method in real time observation by comparison between these two solutions from the standpoint of the acquired 3D shape percentage and the number of regrasping. View full abstract»

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  • Design and development of shock absorbable tendon driven ankles for high-powered humanoids

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 58 - 61
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    High-powerd humanoid robots may move at a high speed in the same environment as human. When they receive shocks suddenly, instantaneous impact is applied to the structure of the feet and they can be broken. So, robots require shock-reduction mechanisms at the ankles. In this paper, we present one-legged robot with its ankle mechanism which can reduce landing impact by using a spring elastic element. We describe the mechanical structure and the relationship between mechanical structures and shocks. We verifie such a relation and checked that our proposed leg is effective. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a medical robot system for pedicle screw surgery assisted by fluoroscopic X-ray image

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 62 - 65
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    Converging robot technology into medical applications allowed surgeons to achieve accurate and enhanced surgical results. In laparoscopic surgery, da Vinci system consisting of master and slave robot system allows to perform operation more precisely. In fluoroscopic surgery, C-arm systems are widely used to monitor status of patient instantly during the operation. However, one of the drawbacks of the C-arm system is that surgeons are consistently exposed to X-ray radiation. This radiation exposure can be harmful to surgeons having hundreds of surgeries a year. In this paper, a system consisting of master-slave robot, imaging robot and operation bed for pedicle screw surgery is proposed. Also, its control hardware architecture and algorithm are proposed. Proposed system is validated via simulation environment. View full abstract»

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  • A humanoid robot for table tennis playing

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 66 - 67
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Humanoid robot has been one of the most active research topics in the field of robotics. Their human-like form and configuration gives it advantages in working in human-interactive environment. The bipedal walking capability makes them possible to step over and onto obstacles, providing accessibility and mobility in cluttered space. The multi-DOF design of arms and legs enables them assist or replace humans in their normal tasks, making human life easier and safer. Humanoid robots, with their human-like outlook, also bring better interactive experience and are expect to play a part in people's daily life and help the elderly and the children. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive robot formations using fast marching square working under uncertainty conditions

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 68 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Robot formations are getting important since they can develop tasks that only one robot could not do or could take too much time. Also, they can perform some tasks better than humans. This paper provides a new algorithm to control robot formations working under uncertainty conditions such as errors in robot positions, errors when sensing obstacles or walls, etc. The proposed approach provides a robust solution based on leader-followers architecture (real or virtual leaders) with a prescribed geometry of the formation and it adapts dynamically to the environment. The algorithm applies the Fast Marching Square (FM2) method to the path planning of mobile robot formations, which have been proved to work fast and efficiently. The FM2 method is a potential based path planning method with no local minima which provides smooth and safe trajectories. The algorithm described here allows to easily set different behaviours to the formation during its motion depending on the objectives, being possible to set its flexibility. The results presented here show that using this method allows to the formation reacting to either static and dynamic obstacles with an easily changeable behaviour. View full abstract»

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  • Safe acting and manipulation in human environments: A key concept for robots in our society

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 72 - 75
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    In this paper we review our work on safe acting and manipulation in human environments. In order for a robot to be able to safely interact with its environment it is primary to be able to react to unforeseen events in real-time on basically all levels of abstraction. Having this goal in mind, our contributions reach from fundamental understanding of human injury due to robot-human collisions as the underlying metric for “safe” behavior, various interaction control schemes that ground on the basic components impedance control and collision behavior, to real-time motion planning and behavior based control as an interface level for task planning. A significant amount of this work has found found its way into international standardization committees, products, and was applied in numerous real-world applications. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous parameter calibration, localization, and mapping for robust service robotics

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 76 - 79
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    Modern service robots are designed to be deployed by end-users and not to be monitored by experts during operation. Most service robotics applications require reliable navigation capabilities of the robot. The calibration parameters of a mobile robot play a substantial role in navigation tasks. Often these parameters are subject to variations that depend either on environmental changes or on the wear of the devices. In this paper, we propose an approach to simultaneously estimate a map of the environment, the position of the onboard sensors of the robot, and its kinematic parameters. Our method requires no prior knowledge about the environment and relies only on a rough initial guess of the platform parameters. The proposed approach performs on-line estimation of the parameters and it is able to adapt to non-stationary changes of the configuration. Our approach has been implemented and is used on the EUROPA robot, a service robot operating in urban environments. In addition to that, we tested our approach in simulated environments and on a wide range of real world data using different types of robotic platforms. View full abstract»

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  • To explore and to serve - Robotics between basic research and the actually useful

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 80 - 82
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    There is a wide gap between today's actually working vacuum cleaning robots and the robot butlers hailed by the popular press since the early 20th century. Robotics research it seems has still not managed to put right its perceived image in the eye of the general public and is too often still chasing cheap headlines rather than solid science. In this paper we will take a critical look at some aspects of current advanced robotics research and its presentation to the general public. View full abstract»

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