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Electrical Power Distribution Networks (EPDC), 2012 Proceedings of 17th Conference on

Date 2-3 May 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 101
  • Automatic local state detection for synchronous distributed generators

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (113 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to avoid unnecessary loss of supply especially for high priority loads, distributed generators (DGs) stand-alone operation is getting more attention. However, to ensure more reliability, the islanded distribution network must reconnect to the grid as soon as the quality of supply from grid is refined. As the circuit breaker (CB) which had been opened for unintentional/intentional islanding operation is often kilometers far from the DG, introducing a reliable method for localized reconnection detection and proper DG control mode activation will be an interesting issue. Such a method could be implemented via a micro-processor based relay as a low cost alternate for the expensive communication means required between all of the CBs that may initiate the islanding and the DG. In this paper a suitable procedure to provide reconnection detection signal for synchronous type DGs is presented. The procedure is based on governor signal processing. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless smart network in Alborz Province

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (145 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Smart power distribution grid has many aspects such as automation of network, consumers and intelligent control to manage and coordinate between them. Wireless network base architecture is proposed in this paper, for monitoring and optimizing application of recloser, sectionalizer, and fault detection equipments trough of the Alborz Province Electric Power Distribution Company's networks. The system consists of multiple recloser, sectionalizer, and fault detection equipments trough of the network and a control and monitoring central that workman analyze system and make prepare decisions for having stable system. The implementation of this system will improve usage of recloser and sectionalizer and save large amount of electricity by decreasing fault detection time, and thereby electricity will be available for more number of consumers than earlier, in a highly populated province such as Alborz. The proposed smart grid architecture developed for Alborz scenario, real-time monitoring of protection devises operation, minimum energy not supplied, and minimum fault detection time. View full abstract»

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  • A new look on the automation of medium voltage substations in power distribution systems

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the expansion of electricity networks, increasing operational complexities, improved knowledge of the system operators, all with the subsidies elimination in some countries such as Iran and experiencing the real price of electricity by then, it necessitates a more reliable power to be delivered to the system customers. Power system automation is regarded as an efficient solution and the effective key to this problem. However, the great number of substations in power distribution systems has led to the fact that it is neither feasible nor economic to automate all of them. This calls for a comprehensive scheme on the placement of the distribution substations to be automated. In this paper, a practical glance is followed on the calculation of outage times which follows a practical approach for the substations placement. Some reliability-oriented indices are also proposed with which, together with their suitable fuzzy membership functions, the optimal location of substations for automation would be identified. The presented approach is finally applied to a real part of a distribution system in Tehran, Iran. And the results, as expected, show the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • The effect of placement of distributed generation on mitigating voltage sag in distribution network

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power quality is one of the most discuss topics in power industry. There are numerous types of power quality issues but voltage sags and harmonics are a major concern to the customers. Generally, voltage sags are short duration reductions in rms voltage caused by faults in the electric supply system and starting of large loads. Many industrial customers using sensitive equipments suffer a huge loss because of sag. Therefore, this paper intends to investigate the effects of distributed generator's (DG) installation for different fault location in distribution network. PSCAD 4.2.0 is chosen to simulate the distribution system in order to obtain the best placement of distributed generator in distribution network, together with determining the effects of DG on voltage sag. simulation covered for radial distribution network, only one balanced three phase fault will occur at one time, fixed capacity of synchronous generator are used for all placements of distributed generators and they are applied during fault conditions. Simulations covered on three major parts which are simulation on normal condition, simulation on fault condition, and simulation on fault condition with the application of distributed generator. 9 output voltages are observed and analyzed to determine the effects of distributed generator on voltage sag and best placement of distributed generator can be obtained based on the large improvement of voltage sag in the system. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal DG allocation and sizing for mitigating voltage sag in distribution systems with respect to economic consideration using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (450 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The necessity for clean electric power without any power quality problems has persuaded distribution companies to overcome these issues. Sag/swell, flicker and harmonics are these ones. Among them, voltage sag is one of the most important problems. This phenomenon imposes a bad effect on domestic and industrial loads, especially on sensitive ones. An alternative is use of distributed generation (DG) because of its positive impacts such as voltage support, improved reliability, small size and losses reduction, together with improving voltage sag. An approach is proposed based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), capable to establish the optimal DG allocation and sizing on a distribution network. The objective function is the summation of cost of injecting energy of DGs, fixed installation cost of DGs and number of percentage of buses experiencing voltage sag in a vulnerable zone that multiplied by number of faults for every kind of faults. The results show that the appropriate placement of DG results in improvement of the aforementioned indices. View full abstract»

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  • A new method of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of photovoltaic (PV) cells using impedance adaption by Ripple correlation control (RCC)

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (177 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we are likely to introduce a new method of tracking maximum power point of PV arrays. the relationship between arrays output power and load impedance enables us to provide suitable adaption between load impedance and internal impedance of arrays and find the optimum operating point to receive maximum available power of PV arrays. a boost convertor is connected between arrays and load to adapt load impedance to PV internal impedance. Ripple correlation control (RCC), is used as a basic law to correlate load impedance and power Ripples in order to compute duty ratio of switching devices to maximize PV output power via adapting load and PV internal impedance. View full abstract»

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  • Study of solar energy usage in green buildings

    Page(s): 1 - 3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (221 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Today, given the population growth in the world, we witness development of industry sector, particularly building construction industry, so as on the one side, we are confronted with fuel consumption increase and consequently uncontrolled production of buildings' environmental contaminators and on the other side, non-observance of the standards and non-insulation of many buildings as well as increase of fuel consumption caused by technical defects of buildings and household appliances have worsened the current situation. For this reason, in recent decades, researchers have succeeded in solving lots of the existing problems by means of solar energy and achieving desirable results. In this study, constituents such as non-production of greenhouse gasses, reduction of conventional consumed fuels, environment friendliness, use of safe and pure energy can be considered the reason to justify application of solar energy in building construction industry (Solar buildings). View full abstract»

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  • Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PIEVs) aggregator as a source of energy storage

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (130 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Because the owners of private vehicles use their spinning reserve (SR) market and presents a mathematical model for optimal charging and discharging of the PIEVs, based on driving patterns of the fleet The aggregator maximizes its profit in SR market subject to a number of technical and contractual constraints. The said problem is a nonlinear and mixed integer problem which is solved using simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • A new active islanding detection method of DG

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (155 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Islanding detection of DG is one of the most important aspects when interconnecting DGs to distribution systems. Recently various methods are presented but this paper proposes a method that it can detect islanding in most worst loading conditions according to IEEE1547 or UL1741 standards and various study cases. The proposed method is high speed and can be used in both anti islanding detection protection and micro grid applications. To confirm the method is simulated by PSCAD/EMTDC environment and results confirm performance integrity the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • PSO algorithm for sitting and sizing of distributed generation to improve voltage profile and decreasing power losses

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (76 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method for optimal sitting and sizing of Distributed Generation (DG) in distribution systems. In this paper, our aim would be optimal distributed generation allocation and sizing for voltage profile improvement, loss reduction in distribution networks. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used as the solving tool, which referring determined aim, the problem is defined and the objective function is introduced. Considering the fitness values sensitivity in PSO algorithm process, it is needed to apply load flow and harmonic calculations for decision-making. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated for typical distribution network, and it is compared with the GA method in terms of the solution quality and computation efficiency. The experimental results show that the proposed PSO method is indeed capable of obtaining higher quality solutions efficiently. View full abstract»

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  • Small energy resources management for voltage control in transmission level

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High penetration of energy resources and energy storage in smart grids has increased capability of reactive power production. The accurate performance of inverters which connect resources to grids can quickly provide the necessary reactive power consumption or injection for voltage correction. Using the communication infrastructure and management created in smart grids, these end-user reactive-power-capable devices can be coordinated for voltage support. Energy management system (EMS) is responsible for network management in smart grids. The assistants, as Distribution Management System (DMS), can be used in very widespread grid to make some of the decisions to control different parts of networks. In this paper, a framework for voltage control by EMS and DMS by introducing a new coefficient is presented. This coefficient is calculated in real time for selection a group of buses that is used for reactive power compensation and voltage correction. Finally discussed how resources selected by DMS. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of a typical biomass fueled power plant using Genetic algorithm and binary particle swarm optimization

    Page(s): 1 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (206 KB)  

    Over thousands tons of animal manures are produced in Iran. The major animal manures producers are located in central regions. Animal manures collection is an autochthonous and important renewable energy sources that in most cases are released in nature by ranchers. In this paper, a typical animal manure producer region is considered and optimal location and size of a typical biomass fueled power plant is determined. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used as the major approach of determination and effectively this approach will make possible to determine the optimal location, biomass supply area and power plant size that offer the best profitability for investor. Binary particle swarm optimization algorithm is also used as the second approach of optimization and eventually results obtained from both algorithm are compared. In this work we use profitability index (PI) as the fitness function of Genetic algorithm and the point with the maximum PI is selected. View full abstract»

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  • Micro-combined heating and power generation and an economical and technical comparison of fuel cell technologies used in it

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (206 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nowadays secondary energy depends on great value of fossil fuels combustion in the world. But fossil fuels combustion has low efficiency and received gases of the combustion are considered as a main element of environment pollutions. Fuel cell is identified as a modern technology of conversion chemical energy to electrical energy in the world. Nevertheless, phosphoric acid fuel cells have been considered as a most perfect fuel cell type. PAFCs are utilized in large scale CHP arena successfully. Several micro-CHP systems using Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology have been developed and tested that could indicated Ceramic Fuel Cells Limited (CFCL) has been developing flat plate SOFC technology for recent years. Each type of fuel cell has both advantages and disadvantages in comparison with other fuel cell technologies and DER equipments in various locations. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of major fuel cell types have been compared. The best fuel cell selected with consideration of the details of the application. In this paper, fuel cell characteristics are given. View full abstract»

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  • The feasibility of 10 MW power plant installation with palm oil waste as a Biomass fuel in Hormozgan, Islamic republic of Iran

    Page(s): 1 - 5
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    The power industry in Iran annual production exceeding 10. million tons of carbon dioxide has carbon emissions about per cent share. In other hands, for production of each power per kilowatt hour of electricity production is released more than 70. grams of carbon dioxide. Integrated program designed to reduce the carbon intensity of the electricity industry and the development of renewable Energy sources (RES) leads to have more than MW capacity from DG behind the year of [1]. One of kind of RES is using Biomass for Power Generation and CHP. In this manner we have more kind Biomass resources include agricultural residues, animal manure, wood wastes from forestry and industry, residues from food and paper industries, municipal green wastes and sewage sludge. This article has been examining the possibility of generating electricity from waste palm tree in the Hormozgan province in th south of Iran with capacity about 10 MW. It's come from about 200000 ton Palm waste in agricultural area. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal DG placement and sizing with PSO&HBMO algorithms in radial distribution networks

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (121 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optimal placement and sizing of DG in distribution network is an optimization problem with continuous and discrete variables. Many researchers have used evolutionary methods for finding the optimal DG placement and sizing. This paper proposes a hybrid algorithm PSO&HBMO for optimal placement and sizing of distributed generation (DG) in radial distribution system to minimize the total power loss and improve the voltage profile. The proposed hybrid algorithm PSO&HBMO is used to determine optimal sizes and locations of multi-DGs. Test results indicate that PSO&HBMO method can obtain better results than the simple heuristic search method on the 13-bus radial distribution systems. Moreover, voltage profile improvement and branch current reduction are obtained. View full abstract»

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  • A comparative study of sequentially layer-deposited and co-deposited Co-Mn oxides as potential redox capacitors

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Layers of cobalt and manganese oxides were co-deposited (CMO1) or deposited by on top of each other (CMO2, CMO3) or next to each other (CMO4) by potentiostatic method onto stainless steel substrate. Deposition potentials of 1 and -1 V for the anodic and cathodic depositions were employed. Specific capacitance values for (CMO1), (CMO2), (CMO3) and (CMO4) samples were found to be 48 Fg-1, 38.5 Fg-1, 78 Fg-1 and 40.6 Fg-1, respectively. The usefulness of the electrodes was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge/discharge cycling, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 2M NaOH electrolyte for redox supercapacitor applications. (CMO3) presented the best charge/discharge behavior with no voltage drop due to ohmic resistance; although the most steady current observed in the course of voltammetry was due to (CMO2). The evaluated double layer and specific capacitances for (CMO1) according to the impedance studies were 1.75 and 47.5 Fg-1, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal reliable strategy of virtual power plant in energy and frequency control markets

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (185 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Virtual Power Plant (VPP) is a new entity in power systems which possesses or manages a group of DGs, Energy Storage devices and curtailable loads. This paper presents a novel approach for optimum operation of a VPP in both energy and secondary frequency control (SFC) markets; considering reliability worth of DGs. DGs in the VPP can operate both in peak shaving or standby mode. Operating the DG in peak shaving mode will reduce the VPP's cost while standby operation of the DG may reduce the customers' interruption cost. The reliability worth and the energy cost evaluations are needed to determine whether DG should be operated in peak shaving mode or as standby power. By applying the Monte Carlo simulation method the effect of reliability worth is taken into account precisely. A combined cost function is proposed and solved using linear programming method. The proposed approach in this paper determines the optimum hourly operating strategy of the DG. It creates a single operating profile from a composite of the parameters characterizing each distributed energy resource (DER) in the VPP. Based on this decision, the VPP bids to the market. View full abstract»

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  • The complexity of electronic infrastructure in DC micro grid and possibility of reduce them

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (414 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Micro-grid is one of new conceptual power systems for smooth installation of many distributed generations (DGs). While most of the micro-grids adopt ac distribution as well as conventional power systems, dc micro-grids are proposed and researched for the good connection with dc output type sources such as photovoltaics (PV), fuel cell, and secondary battery. In this paper, the electronic infrastructure of micro-grid is expressed. Then discussed the reasons for its complexity and the possibility of reducing the elements of electronic circuits are investigated. The reason for this is in order to compact dc micro-grid system for electrification to places like villages. View full abstract»

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  • Behavior of parallel inverters under switches fault condition with parallel drive circuitry in compact smart micro grid

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (222 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Complex circuitry of electronic infrastructure of compact smart micro grids with multiple renewable energy sources feeding the loads using parallel operation of inverters acts as a deterrent in developing such systems. Parallel Inverters is one of the best methods to provide great load power. One way of briefing electronic infrastructure of micro grids, use parallel driver circuit focusing on bootstrap techniques. But so far research has been done in this area that if fault occurs in the switches what happens and will provide the reliability of the driver circuit? In this paper, first the parallel inverter and its driver circuit are studied and in the next section, their behavior will be analyzed when the switch is erroneous. Digital Simulation in Matlab Simulink is used to show the proposed solutions to this type of behavior and to avoid errors leading to other parts of the system. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement of DFIG inertia response by using additional controlling parameters

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (93 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Double-fed induction generators is introduced as the dominant generator in comparison with synchronous generators. With increased production capacity in wind farms their role in power system stability has become important. Inertia response is the first reaction of the generator to the frequency disturbance in power system. Synchronous generators have a high inertia response but DFIG has a very low inertia response, because its controller takes the slip of machine within fix range. In this paper the inertia response of doubly fed induction generator is improved by using additional parameters in control systems. View full abstract»

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  • Domestic Micro Combined Heat and Power: Saving energy and carbon

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Different reasons such as improvement of supply security, efficiency enhancement and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, has pushed engineers and policy makers in many countries to decide about developing distributed generation more than before. After employing large-scale Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems for many years, rising energy price and technological developments of small heat engines have caused that small-scale CHP systems to become more economically justifiable. Micro-CHP (MCHP) systems are small-scale CHP made for utilize in residential or small commercial buildings. Considering thermal and electrical loads, utilizing MCHP systems at the residential level may lead to more efficient energy consumption. Furthermore, nowadays climate change is a very serious problem of many countries all over the world. Since in Iran, the domestic and small commercial sectors have a considerable share of energy consumption, this paper aims to investigate the effects of utilizing MCHP systems in residential buildings on environmental aspects. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal sizing of CHP for residential complexes by two-stage stochastic programming

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (137 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Combined heat and power (CHP) is a well-known technique for producing heat and power simultaneously onsite. Since it has high energy efficiency, low installation time and high reliability, it is an appropriate approach in energy management of residential complexes. In this paper, two-stage stochastic programming is proposed to manage uncertainties in the optimal sizing and operation of CHP for residential complexes. Monte Carlo approach is used to model electrical and thermal load forecasting errors. Maximizing net present value considering the probability of each scenario obtained from the scenario reduction algorithm is the objective function. The proposed method has been applied on a hospital and the results for different scenarios are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A review on protection challenges in microgrids

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    Microgrids are becoming increasingly attractive to consumers and in the near future, a great number of them will be installed in consumer's sites. Microgrids can operate in both grid connected and islanded modes and make use of DG (Distributed Generation) technologies such as micro-turbine, fuel cell, photo voltaic system together with storage devices such as battery, condenser and flywheel. Introduction of microgrids has been accompanied with considerable challenges. Protection of distributed system in the presence of microgrids is one of them. The presence of microgrid not only does change the load flow of the network, but also influences fault currents. The present paper reviews protection problems resulting from microgrid's presence in distribution system and presents a classification of protection schemes. View full abstract»

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  • Field oriented control of DFIG based on modified MRAS observer

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is one of the best choices in wind turbine generator. Nowadays control of DFIG is done in different strategy and this paper discusses the decoupled FOC control with MRAS observer for wind turbine generator and compares with open loop estimator strategy. The proposed sensorless algorithm obtained required information by measuring stator voltage, stator and rotor currents. This strategy is applicable in whole wind speed range and simulation results in MATLAB/SIMULINK verify the effect of this method on DFIG control. View full abstract»

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  • Self healing character of smart grid in presence of DFIG under asymmetrical faults by considering stator resistance and slip frequency

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (113 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nowadays doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) are the most popular generator used in wind turbine plants because of their cost effective partly rated power converter and variable speeds. On the other hand, wind energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources in smart grid this means that it will broadly implement on smart distribution network. The main issue of DFIG is their sensitivity to gird perturbation especially voltage dips since the stator is directly connected to the grid. Rapidly increasing contribution of wind energy in power generation made it important to understand the behavior of these machines under fault conditions where the self healing character of smart grid should be considered while any contingency occur in system. In this paper an analytical equation of stator current under asymmetrical voltage dips is attained. Also the impact of the location of this fault is considered. In addition the behavior of system in traditional distribution network and smart distribution grid is evaluated. It is shown that different time of the fault occurrence can largely effect on the transient amplitude of the stator current and self healing character of smart grid help the system to continue supplying demand without interruption in fault occurrence situation. View full abstract»

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