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Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference Europe Conference Proceedings (PCIC EUROPE), 2012

Date 19-21 June 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Motors of explosive gas atmosphere: Selection-installation-inspection-maintenance following IEC standards

    Page(s): 1 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (957 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electric motors are widely used in the industrial field and make major contributions in every sector of industry. They are the working horse power of today's industrialization. These motors are designed for the global environment following safety rules established by various recognized local and international authorities. Motors used in the oil and gas industry require special consideration with respect to selection, installation, and maintenance. They are the motors with extra protection incorporated in order to operate safely in various explosive gas atmospheres such as the Zone 1, Zone 2 locations common in the oil & gas industry. The types of protections and their designations can be complicated during selection process for the particular hazardous location. The motors if selected correctly, but not installed properly, could create problem in the field. The long, safe, operation of these motors is critical and may require special attention during maintenance cycles. The authors are members of the IEC working group for rotating machines in explosive atmospheres, and would like to clarify the selection-installation and maintenance aspect of motors installed in the oil & gas industry when following IEC standards. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of applying hydrogen-cooled generators

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (877 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper analyzes the use of Hydrogen-Cooled Generators for potential common use in the chemical, oil and gas (COG) industry. Currently, most of the existing generators in the COG industry facilities are air cooled generators. In fact, air cooled designs are now available in ratings up to 300 MVA. On the other hand, hydrogen cooled designs are available for ratings as low as 110 MVA, which means that there is a choice of cooling technology, in the range from about 100 MVA to 300 MVA, available to the user. Most COG generator applications are less than 200 MVA, which places them in the cooling media selection range. The advantages, disadvantages and the life cycle economics are analyzed in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Company specific technical requirements

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (122 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    End user companies such as oil and gas companies need to have a set of company specific technical requirements for the electrical discipline. This paper presents a strategy for the development of such a set of technical requirements based on a case study for two oil and gas companies that merged in 2007 and developed a full set of new technical requirements thereafter. View full abstract»

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  • IEC standard high voltage circuit-breakers: Practical guidelines for overvoltage protection in generator applications

    Page(s): 1 - 12
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The IEEE C37.013, [1] standard defines the overvoltage withstand requirements for circuit breakers (CBs) intended for use in generator applications. The constraints of these requirements may lead to larger sized CBs to be used. In Oil & Gas offshore applications, IEC 62271-100, [2], certified CBs are often preferred due to their more compact size. However, detailed validation of IEC CBs for generator applications has not been as well defined compared to IEEE CBs. Hence, validation of IEC CBs for overvoltage protection in generator applications is required, usually by performing computer transient simulation and analyses. Very often a simplified model of the generator is believed to be sufficient to provide reliable results. However, as this paper will demonstrate, correct modeling of the generator has a significant impact on the overvoltage results, especially with salient pole machines. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the aspect of Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) analysis that have to be conducted when an IEC breaker is intended for use in generator applications. Main guidelines to understand and perform such overvoltage analysis are also provided. The influence of generator saliency on the TRV peak and slope is demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • High power electrical systems for air separation plants

    Page(s): 1 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (798 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is a need for reliable, efficient and safe high power electrical systems in the petrochemical industry e.g. for air separation/oxygen plants. Such air separation plants use large synchronous motors. These motors cannot be started directly on line and a specialized redundant, cost effective, static frequency converter start system is proposed for a number of such trains. Redundancy is built in to meet availability requirements. Unique motor excitation systems are essential to meet reliability, soft start and ride-through requirements. The high power ratings require an advanced distribution network and associated switchgear design to manage fault levels while meeting system stability requirements. Specialised automation and protection systems are required to cater for various plant conditions. Overall electrical design, construction, testing, commissioning and operation experience are described for two of the world's largest air separation plants (100 MVA each) with synchronous motors rated up to 55 MW. The lessons learned from the first plant are overviewed and subsequently integrated to achieve an optimised design for the second plant. Associated electrical equipment design improvements are outlined. It is shown how the key challenges were effectively addressed proven by test and operation experience results. View full abstract»

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  • Reduced environmental impact and improved safety and performance of power transformers with natural ester dielectric insulating fluids

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (350 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Natural ester fluids may be used in new transformers as well as to retrofill existing units in order to improve their performance and reliability. Designing or retrofilling power transformers with natural ester fluids requires, however, to account for a number of significant differences in properties, characteristics, and material parameters between natural ester fluids and mineral oil in order to obtain the desired performance (thermally and dielectrically). This paper gives a comprehensive review of natural ester fluids main properties and associated values when it comes to environmental impact, fire resistance and overall performance of transformers filled with such fluids. The key fluid characteristics impacting the design of power transformers are also highlighted. View full abstract»

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  • The big picture of arc-flash mitigation

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (677 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper provides a big picture of arc-flash mitigation. From pre-arc issues, both preventive measures as well as various arc fault prediction technologies are discussed. Arc fault prediction is explained as identifying a developing arc fault by analyzing pre-arc conditions, in practice by on-line monitoring. Because preventive or predictive measures can not totally eliminate the risk of arc faults, arc fault mitigation is justified. Two mitigation approaches, current-limiting and time-limiting, are discussed, and the risks related to current limitation are illustrated. Performance of light and overcurrent detection based mitigation is presented, and aspects of arc elimination by either circuit breaker or by an arc eliminator are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A user's perspective: Design considerations for Power Management Systems at Islanded facilities - Part 1

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When designing a Power Management System (PMS) for an islanded power system, various factors should be taken into account. Consideration of these factors early in a PMS specification process will lead to a facility power system that is fit-for-purpose, user-friendly, flexible, and reliable. This paper presents a user's perspective of PMS and is based on the authors' experiences in operating, maintaining, and modifying power management systems. It offers advice for designers and focuses on optimizing PMS at oil and gas production and processing facilities, both onshore and offshore, at which the power system is islanded (i. e. all electricity is self-generated and there is no external source of supply). This first-part paper provides design considerations focused on PMS interaction with generators themselves. More specifically, topics are covered such as frequency control, voltage control, active power sharing, reactive power sharing, waste heat recovery, engine driver reliability, distributed generation, sub-island management, and engine control interface. Not all these factors will apply in every situation, but this paper will provide a practical list of design factors to consider when planning and determining performance specifications for new power management systems. (A future second-part paper is anticipated which will provide design considerations for PMS functions that are not related to generator management.) View full abstract»

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  • EC market surveillance: The role of ATEX Adco structure for workers and plant safety

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    ATEX Adco is the European Administrative cooperation working group composed of representatives of Member States market surveillance authorities and were established to pursue the following objectives: 1) to achieve of a uniformly high level of enforcement of the relevant EU legislation; 2) to exchange information between Member States' authorities concerning the national market surveillance mechanisms and the adopted solutions; 3) to reduce the overlapping of national surveillance operations; 4) to assure good market surveillance practices, to exchange views and solve practical problems arising during surveillance phases. The purpose of this article is to make a review of ATEX EC market survey efficiency according to the Ex equipment and protective system, the penalties, the consequences of noncompliance with point of views made by Member States, Ex NB, end user and manufacturer. View full abstract»

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  • How to increase EDG's reliability and performance while reducing space requirement on FPSO/FLNG

    Page(s): 1 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In offshore installations, there is more and more focus on reliability of electrical power to manage safety-related control functions, which must be always available and run all the time. Back-up power systems based on emergency gen-sets are designed to ensure this continuity of operation, even in case of loss of the main electrical power. Specially in view to the present development of larger FPSO and FLNG units, an essential criteria is to ensure this increased emergency power requirement as well as improve reliability, while optimizing weight and dimensions of equipments. The aim of this paper is to present solutions for the optimal design of emergency diesel generators, taking into account cooling system options, insulation and temperature rise, and the different technologies for excitation and AVR. In other terms, how to increase EDG performance and reliability while reducing weight and space requirement. View full abstract»

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  • Good performing induction motor at factory test- What factors affect to poor performance at the operating site

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1408 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the difference in performance of an induction motor while tested at manufacturing factory test stand and customer site. The induction motor is the prime mover in any process or chemical or power generating industries. There are several factors affecting the performance of the induction motor. They are type of driven equipment, installed conditions such as ambient temperature, humidity, coupling and its alignment, power supply and its quality and maintenance program. Also initial selection of motor type such as open, totally enclosed, air cooled or water cooled, power requirement and type of the bearings also have influence in motor performance. View full abstract»

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  • A view on internal arc testing of Low Voltage Switchgear

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (554 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Safety and downtime are the critical factors in petrochemical installations. In this respect, possible internal arc faults have also become a more important issue in user's specification, dimensioning, operating and maintenance of Low Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear Assemblies. Preventing internal arc occurrences in switchgear assemblies is of paramount importance and an increasingly more important consideration for the design engineers. The paper compares the user's perception of Arc Proof switchgear against the manufacturer's way of marketing it's Arc Proof switchgear. This results in an assessment of the guide for testing under conditions of internal arcing - the IEC/TR 61641 - and suggestions for evolving this Technical Report in order to match the user's and the manufacturer's perception. Furthermore the paper gives a manufacturer and test house perspective on the practical value of the internal arc testing, and how the results are assessed and interpreted in order to conclude that a design is arc proof. The latter is in the perspective of safety during operating and maintenance. Conclusions: for the user there is a need for more stringent rules in testing, possible classification and clearer reports in order to make switchgear of different makes comparable. View full abstract»

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  • Grounding arrangement in direct electrical heating systems

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (790 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    FE computations are performed to investigate the current load on anodes and pipeline in the current transfer zone (CTZ) of a Direct Electrical Heated flowline. It is shown that there may be great differences in the current load on the anodes, and that there is a significant increase in the current density towards edges and corners. A simple model based on laboratory measurements show that these current densities may cause a very uneven net charge transfer on the anodes, which may indicate accelerated corrosion. In addition, current densities in coating holidays are investigated, showing that the pipeline may be exposed to high crack currents just outside the CTZ. FE analysis can be used to design the grounding arrangement such that anode loads and crack currents are within acceptable levels. View full abstract»

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  • The Practical Issues involved in Designing, Specifying and Installing Skin Effect Current Tracing Systems

    Page(s): 1 - 13
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Practical Issues involved in Designing, Specifying and Installing Skin Effect Current Tracing Systems, (SECT), for land based applications will be presented. Key learnings from the author's forty years of experience with skin effect heating for above ground and underground applications are described. Specific details of installation do's and don'ts, transformer, control and load centers options, and the mechanical issues of welding the skin effect heat tube and thermal insulation will be examined. The heart of a skin effect heating system is the conductor; the options of dielectrics for applications up to 150 degrees C, pipe maintain temperatures and voltages up to 4KV will be detailed including installation and splicing techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical power system challenges during the expansion of offshore oil & gas facilities

    Page(s): 1 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1153 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Rising development costs for new oil and gas facilities has led many operators to look to maximise the production capability from existing onshore and offshore plants. These projects often include a combination of brownfield and greenfield development - with the target of using as much of the existing infrastructure as possible. For example, as existing wells become depleted, production tails off, and new wells must be drilled for production, water injection or gas lift. Often this requires new wellhead platforms because existing well slots are fully utilised, or they are required to enable drilling to reach other untapped parts of the reservoir. These type of projects present many challenges, especially when the original facilities were designed and built in the mid 1990's in a low oil price market, when the CRINE initiative was hatched. This typically led to minimising facility flexibility and stripping out any allowance for future expansion in order to reduce CAPEX. Many were originally designed for a limited lifetime, and now some of these facilities are the ones being extended and expanded to provide additional production throughput. View full abstract»

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  • How to guarantee continuity of supply and reliability in the smart grids? diagnostic systems in the MV network components, circuit breakers and switch disconnectors

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (227 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The quality and continuity of electrical energy supply is becoming a more and more important issue. The users costs due to a supply interruption are relevant and dependent on the duration of the interruption, the zone and the time when it occurs. The distributed generation topology of the Smart Grids increases the difficulty in guaranteeing stability of the network while the customer requirements are more and more strict. The Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) have to respect supply quality regulations including also incentive and penalty schemes. In this environment reliability and availability of the distribution network components are a priority issue. To achieve this goal, in an economical efficient way, the MV Circuit Breakers and Switch Disconnectors have to allow a preventive and selective maintenance. These components have been equipped with several self-diagnostic functionalities monitoring the behavior and the overall functional condition of the device. In order to run these diagnostic functions the equipment has been provided with sensing devices to measure temperatures, voltages, positions, speeds, pressures etc. Alarms are both sent to a remote control room via communication channels and displayed locally by visual signaling in the Human Machine Interface. The self-diagnostic functions allow to perform a preventive and selective maintenance on the network components increasing the quality of energy supply, reducing the risk of energy losses while optimizing the overall cost of network maintenance. View full abstract»

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  • International IECEx system evolution and role of the united nations, UNECE

    Page(s): 1 - 15
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (818 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    From its humble beginnings in 1996 to address an industry need for closer cooperation among Test Houses worldwide, to overcome wasteful duplication of testing and assessment in the Ex Field at that time, IECEx has emerged to become an essential compliance assessment tool for all industries worldwide where flammable or combustible materials are used, stored or transported that present a risk of fire or explosion. Situations where flammable substances in the form of gas, vapour, dust, fibres, or flyings are used, processed, stored or transported in quantities considered to present an explosion hazard have been labeled as “Hazardous Locations”, “Hazardous Areas”, “Explosive Atmospheres” and so on but one common symbol for such is “Ex” Ex is not an industry of its own but rather a facet of just about every industry known to mankind. Whether it be Transportation including aerospace, Furniture manufacture, Automotive Manufacture + Repair, Production of Pharmaceuticals, Food processing, the Grain industry, the Coal Mining industry and of course Oil and Gas, Petrochemical and Chemical, all of these utilize flammable substances in quantities that may give rise to an explosive concentration being present, either continuously, during normal operation or due to abnormal situations. IECEx is the International System solely dedicated to providing Internationally recognized Certification Schemes as verification of compliance with International Standards. IECEx now operates three Separate International Certification Schemes covering a large number of industrial sectors addressing Equipment, Service Providers and Competent Persons. The United Nations via its UNECE concluded its project, to consider a Common Regulatory Objective covering Ex Equipment, Services and Persons, of the past few years, to determine that use of International Standards such as those produced by IEC TC 31 and supported by Certification under the - ECEx system demonstrates world's best practice for ensuring safety in the Ex related fields. View full abstract»

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  • Basic design criteria for switchgear and MCC selection

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (437 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Different technologies are available for switchgear and controlgear for use in industrial applications. Some are based on using withdrawable switching devices, others on using fixed devices. The choice of what type of equipment to use should be fundamentally based on two essential criteria, followed by other criteria specific to the application. The fundamental criteria for which there should be no compromise are safety of operators and maintenance personnel and the availability of the power supply. Other criteria such as cost of the equipment and space required should be considered only after the two fundamental criteria have been met. The purpose of this paper is to review the two fundamental criteria that have to be met and what these criteria imply for the design of the power distribution system, the choice of equipment, and their installation. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic compatibility - A vital issue for medium-voltage switchgear

    Page(s): 1 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) involves functional, legal and safety aspects. The paper summarises fundamentals of EMC in medium-voltage switchgear (1 kV <; U ≤ 52 kV), describing the electromagnetic climate, legislative and normative requirements, and presents guidelines for EMC correct design, manufacture and installation. Using the example of gas-insulated, metal-enclosed switchgear the paper demonstrates practical examples to limit disturbance emission and ensure sufficient immunity regarding the medium-voltage part of switchgear, the secondary system, the wiring arrangements and the selection of electronic devices. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced condition based management and energy efficiency solutions through intelligent process instrumentation and analytic technologies

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (958 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper will discuss how new developments in process instrumentation and analytic technologies can provide solutions for optimization of production processes, improvement of asset management and will lead to: 1. Reduction of unscheduled production downtime and maintenance costs 2. Reduction of Total Costs of Ownership (TCO) 3. Improvement of production quality 4. Improvement of production quantity 5. Improvement of production effectiveness and repeatability 6. Improvement of energy efficiency 7. Protection of investment in equipment and components 8. Increase of safety 9. Elimination of unnecessary preventive maintenance. View full abstract»

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  • Benefits of withdrawable switchgear and motor control centres

    Page(s): 1 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (293 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ever since electricity was first transmitted and distributed, there has been a need for switchgear. As distribution systems evolved, this switchgear became available in fixed and withdrawable forms. This evolution continues, and the emergence of new technologies and designs means that the “optimum” solution still changes over time. View full abstract»

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  • Electric variable speed drives for gas storage

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (724 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This publication describes the challenges and experience with the four electric variable speed drive systems, type LCI, rated at 15.5 MW, installed at RAG's (Rohöl-Aufsuchungs Aktiengesellschaft) gas storage facility in Haidach, Austria. The project consists of two phases. At the time of implementation of phase one, the second phase was optional. In the first phase of the project, which started in 2005, two drive systems were installed to control the gas compressors at the underground gas storage facility. The project was expanded in 2010 with two additional identical drive systems. Special focus will be on the challenges of adding variable speed drives to an existing environment and the operational experience so far. View full abstract»

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  • Assessing the cost of unreliability in gas plant to have a sustainable operation

    Page(s): 1 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With ever-increasing pressure worldwide, it is essential that gas and petrochemical plants operate with high reliability and safety to maximize the return obtained for the capital investment. Higher plant reliability reduces process and equipment failures costs as failure disruption decreases production output which in turn limits the benefits of business for End-Users and OEM as well. For the business, the financial issue of reliability is controlling the cost of unreliability (COUR) from equipment and process failures which waste money. This situation is typical of industries where plants have high equipment redundancy and where only the availability figure is tracked. The strong competitive environment between companies and the current world financial crisis are forcing organizations to explore ways to reduce operating costs, looking for a sustainable economy environment. The cost of unreliability index is a simple and practical reliability tool for converting failure data into cost. It helps to End-Users and OEM to put reliability into a business context to reduce operational costs instead of just cutting expenditures on equipment maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to objectively demonstrate through real examples how to assess the cost of unreliability of gas plant, helping to End-Users and OEM to make the right decision in term of reliability, availability and maintainability improvement to have a sustainable operation. View full abstract»

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  • Petrochemical plant power grid stability control system study

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (246 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is describing a case study on a plant-wide stability control system, which utilizes load shedding for active switching of non-essential load within milliseconds in case of an external grid power failure, in a petrochemical plant in Shanghai, China. Control philosophy and system configuration are introduced in details. Finally system limitations are examined based on actual operation of the system, and then potential improvements in the stability control system by adopting a more advanced power management system are proposed. This paper is one of the first comprehensive studies on stability control systems in industrial complexes in China. View full abstract»

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  • Table of contents

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