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Design, Test, Integration and Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS (DTIP), 2012 Symposium on

Date 25-27 April 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 57
  • Author index

    Page(s): 258 - 259
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  • Symposium committees

    Page(s): III - IV
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    Provides a listing of current committee members. View full abstract»

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  • Preface

    Page(s): V
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    This Symposium is a follow-up to the very successful issues held in 1999 and 2000 in Paris and in 2001, 2002 and 2003 in Mandelieu-La Napoule, in 2004 and 2005 in Montreux, Switzerland and in 2006 and in 2007 in Stresa, Italy, in 2008 in Nice, France, in 2009 in Rome, Italy, in 2010 in Séville, Spain and Aix-en-Provence, France in 2011. This series of Symposia is a unique single-meeting event expressly planned to bring together participants interested in manufacturing microstructures and participants interested in design tools to facilitate the conception of these microstructures. Again, a special emphasis will be put on the very crucial needs of MEMS/MOEMS in terms of packaging solutions. The goal of the Symposium is to provide a forum for in-depth investigations and interdisciplinary discussions involving design, modeling, testing, micromachining, microfabrication, integration and packaging of structures, devices, and systems. We hope you enjoy the technical presentations of two conferences - CAD, Design and Test / Microfabrication, Integration and Packaging -, of three joint invited talks, and of four special sessions, on Point of Care Diagnostic Devices, on Bio-MEMS/NEMS, on Wireless Networked Green Sensor Systems and on Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic for MEMS. View full abstract»

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): VII - XI
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  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • Synthesis of biochemical applications on flow-based microfluidic biochips using constraint programming

    Page(s): 37 - 41
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    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers and are able to integrate the necessary functions for biochemical analysis on-chip. In this paper we are interested in flow-based biochips, in which the flow of liquid is manipulated using integrated microvalves. By combining several microvalves, more complex units, such as micropumps, switches, mixers, and multiplexers, can be built. We propose a constraint programming (CP) based approach for the synthesis of biochemical applications on flow-based microfluidic biochips. We use a sequencing graph to model the biochemical application and consider that the biochip architecture is given. We model the architecture using a topology graph. We are interested in synthesizing an implementation, consisting of binding and scheduling of the biochemical operations onto the components of the architecture, such that the resource and dependency constraints are satisfied and the application completion time is minimized. Our CP framework generates optimal implementations and has been evaluated using synthetic as well as real-life case studies. View full abstract»

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  • An all-inkjet printed flexible capacitor for wearable applications

    Page(s): 192 - 195
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    We report on the fabrication of an all-inkjet printed capacitor on a flexible substrate for future use in wearable electronics. Each layer of the capacitor was deposited exclusively using inkjet printing. The capacitor is constructed using the parallel plate structure. A silver nanoparticle dispersion was chosen for the conductive inkjet ink with a curing process of 150 °C for 10 minutes. An inkjet printable photoresist (SU-8) is chosen for the dielectric layer which requires room temperature UV curing for 10 seconds. The theoretical capacitance is calculated to be 48.59 pF using a relative permittivity of 4.2 for SU-8. The discrepancy is around 0.2% to actual capacitance measured at 100 Hz. View full abstract»

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  • CO2 laser machining of fully packaged autonomous microfluidic systems

    Page(s): 63 - 70
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    In this article we demonstrate a simple yet robust CO2-laser etching rapid prototyping technique for the construction of autonomous microfluidic capillary systems. The final packaging of the microfluidic device is demonstrated using both thermal and adhesive based lamination bonding and allows for a turnaround time of approximately 30 minutes to 3 hours from activation of the laser system to device use. The low-cost CO2 laser system is capable of producing repeatable microfluidic structures with minimum feature sizes superior than 100–150µm over channel depths of more than 150µm. This system is utilised to create capillary pump and valve designs within poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates. Such components are utilised to create advanced systems that can self initiate and maintain the flow of various volumes of fluids from an input to a collection reservoir, whilst also controlling the progression of the flow through the various simple and advanced valve type structures demonstrated. Such systems could prove a very useful alternative to traditional, non-integrated, fluidic actuation and flow control systems found on-chip, which generally require some form of energy input, have limited portable capabilities and require more complex fabrication procedures. View full abstract»

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  • New dual-curvature microlens array with high fill-factor for organic light emitting diode modules

    Page(s): 224 - 229
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    A new method to fabricate a novel dual-curvature microlens array with high fill-factor using the proximity printing in lithography process is reported. The lens profiles including dual-curvatures which are a new shape composed of triangle and hexagon. We utilized the UV proximity printing by controlling a printing gap between the mask and substrate. The designed a high density microlens array pattern can be fabricated dual-curvature microlens array with high fill-factor in photoresist. It is due to the UV light diffraction to deflect away from the aperture edges and produces a certain exposure in photoresist material outside the aperture edges. A dual-curvature microlens array with 0.48 of height ratio can boost axial luminance up to 22%. Therefore, dual-curvature microlens array will be an economical solution for increasing the luminance of organic light emitting diodes. View full abstract»

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  • Size effect on performance of Resonant Piezoelectric Millimeter-sized Cantilevers using as liquid level detection sensors

    Page(s): 42 - 46
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    Resonant Piezoelectric-excited Millimeter-sized Cantilevers (PEMC), has attracted many researchers' interest in the applications such as liquid level and density sensing. As in these applications, the PEMC are partially immersed in liquid, an appropriate analytical model is needed to predict the dynamic behavior of these devices. In this work, a PEMC has been fabricated for liquid level sensing. Analytical model based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is developed and applied to evaluate the dynamic behavior of this device in different tip immersion depths. To validate the proposed model, the theoretical results are compared with experimental results for the tip immersion depths from 5 mm to 15 mm in water. The simulation results are in almost good agreement with experimental data. After the validation of the theoretical model, to examine the performance of the PEMC as a liquid level sensor, the effect of geometrical dimensional and resonant mode changes on PEMC performance parameters such as sensitivity and working range is investigated for different mode shapes of PEMC vibration. A liquid level change of about 8μm could be detected by the proposed design (2nd design) in 5th resonant mode. View full abstract»

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  • An alternative polymeric protection mask for bulk KOH etching of silicon

    Page(s): 204 - 207
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    The utilization of a newly developed photosensitive polymeric coating, ProTEK PSB plays a significant role in realizing simple process steps in the fabrication of MEMS devices using bulk micromachining technology. The photosensitive coating serves as an alternative to the conventional silicon nitride mask of bulk KOH etching in devising MEMS devices, particularly suspended microcantilever structure. Although the coating is an excellent outer protective layer from any pinhole issues, the lateral etching in KOH solution is prominent, which results in an undercut issue. Therefore, the combination of ProTEK PSB and thermal oxide layer was studied for its possibility in obtaining minimum undercut-etch depth ratio of the polymeric coating in KOH (45%wt, 80°C). The combination of ProTEK PSB patterned on thermal oxide results in an effective etching condition attributed by minimum undercut ratio with respect to the etch depth. View full abstract»

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  • MEMS capacitive switch with stable actuation voltage over a broad temperature range

    Page(s): 18 - 21
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    The pull-in and up-state capacitance of two types of switch have been measured for temperatures from -25 to 75°C. In one device, the plate is suspended by meander springs, while in the second by straight springs. Experiments show that the change in the pull-in and capacitance in meander switch are only 0.2 V and 5 fF over the entire temperature range. The straight switch has a high measured slope of pull-in and capacitance change across the same temperature range: 0.34 V/°C and -0.53 fF/°C, respectively. Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation indicates that the high coefficient of temperature expansion of switch metal causes the movable electrode to expand as the temperature increases. In response to this effect the air-gap and capacitance in the straight switch significantly change, while in the meander switch the metal expansion is largely compensated for by the spring design. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling a monolithic silicon carbide pintle rocket injector

    Page(s): 144 - 147
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    A monolithic silicon carbide (SiC) pintle rocket injector is under development with the intent to be used in a liquid propellant micro-rocket engine. MATLAB code was developed to determine the rocket's Thrust/Weight ratio, which is critical in maximizing a rocket's efficiency. COMSOL finite element modeling has been used to develop two-dimensional turbulent flow models to simulate the velocity flows coming from the radial and axial orifices of the injector. Three-dimensional turbulent flow models were also developed to study the axial and radial flows independently. Using these models, the velocity of the flows through the axial and radial orifices were determined based on a given inlet pressure. Two designs were chosen for the axial chamber. Both designs were tested for the velocity flow speed and the uniformity of the flow through the axial ring. Based on these models a suitable inlet pressure was chosen and fed into a set of three-dimensional solid mechanics models to study the stresses in the injector walls. Models indicated significant stresses around the axial orifice, and this was drastically reduced by adding several columns to reinforce the axial fuel chamber of the injector with a minimal change of flow characteristics. These models will serve as a guide in the batch production of pintle injectors on a silicon substrate. View full abstract»

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  • Droplet-aware module-based synthesis for fault-tolerant digital microfluidic biochips

    Page(s): 47 - 52
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    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate on-chip all the basic functions for biochemical analysis. On a “digital” biochip liquids are manipulated as discrete droplets on a two-dimensional microfluidic array of electrodes. Basic operations, such as mixing and dilution, are performed on the array, by routing the corresponding droplets on a group of electrodes, forming a virtual device. Initially researchers have ignored the locations of droplets during operation execution, and have considered that all electrodes inside devices are occupied.We have recently proposed a droplet-aware approach for the execution of operations on the microfluidic array, in which the locations of droplets inside devices are known at each time step. In this article we extend the droplet-aware approach to consider the synthesis of biochips which contain defective electrodes on the microfluidic array. We show that for such biochips knowing the exact locations of droplets during operation execution leads to significant improvements in the completion time of applications. View full abstract»

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  • Plasmon enhanced optical absorption in silicon nanohole arrays for thin film solar cells applications

    Page(s): 3 - 7
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    The surface plasmon effect of gold (Au) nanoparticles in combination with the silicon nanohole (SiNH) arrays texture surface is studied via simulation for light absorption enhancement for the thin film silicon solar cells application. It is found that the ultimate efficiency of an optimized silicon nanohole (SiNH) arrays texture surface in combination with the surface and bottom-of-a-trench Au nanoparticle arrays described herein, is 39.67%, which compares favorably with the ultimate efficiency of 31.11% for an optimized silicon nanohole arrays texture surface without Au nanoparticles. Detailed balanced analysis is carried out for the limiting values of short circuit current density (JSC), open circuit voltage (VOC), and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the proposed solar cells geometries. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of thermal interface materials (solders) on thermal performance of a microelectronic package

    Page(s): 154 - 159
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    The increase in thermal failures associated with the operations of microelectronic devices at elevated temperature has accounted for some of their recent reliability concerns. The removal of heat with heat sink from chip level devices used in microelectronics assembly such as laptop computers is the key to achieving high reliability. Normally, when a heat sink is mounted on the chip level device, the surface roughness which exists at the interface is filled with air and it impacts heat transfer across the boundaries. Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used to eliminate the interstitial air gaps from the interface by conforming to the topography of the surfaces in contact. In this paper, steady state thermal analysis built into finite element method was employed. The architecture and thermal conductivity of solder TIMs were varied to investigate their impact on thermal resistance of the TIM which in turn influences the thermal performance of the electronic package. The results obtained show that a solder thermal conductivity and bond line thickness less than 0.1 mm does not have a great impact on the thermal performance of the microelectronic device. In addition, a 75% and above TIM coverage area is required for optimum thermal performance. It is anticipated that the results will assist design engineers involved in setting standard for TIM architecture and thermal conductivity. View full abstract»

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  • Reduction of initial stress stiffening by topology optimization

    Page(s): 148 - 153
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    Topology optimization is a rigorous method of obtaining non-intuitive designs. We use it to obtain a capacitive RF switch that stiffens little in response to an increase of the in-plane biaxial stresses that typically develop during MEMS fabrication. The actuation voltage is closely related to the membrane's stiffness, and is more stable for a stress insensitive switch. We employ the Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) method with the Method of Moving Asymptotes (MMA) and a robust formulation to minimize the ratio between the compliance at a low stress level and that at a high stress level. We include a volume constraint and a compliance constraint. Topology optimized designs are compared to an intuitively-designed RF switch. The switches contain similar features. The compliance constraint is varied such that the topology optimized switch performance approaches the intuitively-designed one. Finally, the importance of the compliance constraint and of the robust formulation are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A patterning technique of lead zirconate titanate thin film by ultraviolet-light

    Page(s): 27
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    Summary form only given: The patterning technique of PZT thin film is an essential process in device fabrication processes for application in microsensors and microactuators. Chemical etching and physical etching processes are two of the most commonly used techniques to pattern PZT thin film. However, the difference in etching yields of Pb, Zr, and Ti leads to undesired residues on PZT films in chemical etching process. The poor selectivity of PZT over photoresist mask and platinum electrodes causes unsatisfactory PZT pattern. This thesis developed a PZT pattern technique by photolysis processes PZT thin films were first spin coated on the substrate and exposed by UV light for photolysis step. The UV photolysis step defined exposed and unexposed area by mask, and the pattern will be transferred to PZT thin film. After photolysis, PZT films were placed in non-ionic surfactant to remove unexposed area. Finally, PZT films were sintered at 650°C in the furnace for crystallization. Experimental results showed that remnant polarization of PZT film by UV photolysis was 21.4(μc/cm2), which was compared to 17.24(μc/cm2) by hot plate prolysis. Coercive fields were 45 and 104 kV/cm by UV photolysis and hot plate prolysis, respectively. Dielectric loss was 0.027 by UV photolysis which was much smaller than 0.043 by hot plate prolysis. PZT thin films patterned by UV photolysis showed satisfactory geometries. View full abstract»

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  • Online synthesis for error recovery in digital microfluidic biochips with operation variability

    Page(s): 53 - 58
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    Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate on-chip all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis using microfluidics. The digital microfluidic biochips are based on the manipulation of liquids not as a continuous flow, but as discrete droplets. Researchers have presented approaches for the synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips, which, starting from a biochemical application and a given biochip architecture, determine the allocation, resource binding, scheduling, placement and routing of the operations in the application. The droplet volumes can vary erroneously due to parametric faults, thus impacting negatively the correctness of the application. Researchers have proposed approaches that synthesize offline predetermined recovery subroutines, which are activated online when errors occur. In this paper, we propose an online synthesis strategy, which determines the appropriate recovery actions at the moment when faults are detected. We have also proposed a biochemical application model which can capture both time-redundant and space-redundant recovery operations. Experiments performed on three real-life case studies show that, by taking into account the biochip configuration when errors occur, our online synthesis is able to reduce the application times. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of damping in vibrating microplates through measurements in the time domain

    Page(s): 76 - 81
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    This paper reports a study about the measurement of damping in microplates for MEMS applications as switches, varactors, transceivers, radio frequency devices and energy harvesters. Through the measurement of applied force and displacement in the time domain, the hysteresis curve is obtained; by using an energetic approach, the dissipative effects acting on the structure are derived and the damping coefficient is estimated. The results are compared with damping values obtained with two alternative experimental strategies: the response decay to a step force and the half power method applied to the frequency response function. View full abstract»

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  • Polymer MOEMS mirror by all vacuum-less processes combining printed film and injection molding replication

    Page(s): 200 - 203
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    A MOEMS mirror device was fabricated by only replication process and transfer of screen printed-MEMS functional layer from a PET film. The polymer-MEMS device consists with a mirror surface, a magnetic ink and a strain gauge sensor. Using the thick membrane for the mirror part, the deformation of the mirror surface was kept to optical flat. In contrast, the thin membrane of the spring part could allow large tilt angle in low-magnetic force. The tilt angle was evaluated to be 30 degree when the magnetic force was operated to be 55 gauss. In addition, by detecting the strain sensor signal, the actuated frequency of the polymer-mirror device was controlled to resonance condition. We consider that the developed process has a potential to attain a MEMS device production in a low-cost and a high-throughput under all-vacuumless atmosphere. View full abstract»

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  • LTCC package manufacturing using powder blasting technology

    Page(s): 186 - 191
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    This paper presents the application of the powder blasting technique for the fabrication of the LTCC package that is to host an optical sensor device. The package consists of several layers of green tape ceramic featuring aperture sizes ranging from 3mm to 0.1mm in diameter. These layers have been patterned using fine alumina particles of 9μm in diameter in combination with an electroplated nickel mask coated with a protective layer. The latter is based on a photosensitive material laid down on top of the metallic surface, exposed and developed to free the metal apertures from the coating. The results show that the wide range of apertures size present in the mask can be used to machine the green ceramic. The quality of the structures is smooth and vias shapes are perfectly circular. These results were obtained at 50 psi with a flow rate of 0.20g/s for a distance of 20 mm between the tip of the nozzle and the substrate. View full abstract»

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  • RF MEMS switches fabrication by using SU-8 technology

    Page(s): 234 - 239
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    In this paper we present a novel process based on SU-8 technology for the fabrication of double clamped RF MEMS capacitive shunt switches in coplanar configuration. The key element of the exploited process is the MicroChem SU-8 2002 negative photoresist. The polymeric material is widely used in MEMS device processes because of its excellent thermal and chemical stability. In this paper, SU-8 polymer has been utilized in a double way to get suspended structures as double clamped beams: (i) SU-8 for the lateral supports, and (ii) as a sacrificial layer for the release of the suspended membrane. Preliminary RF tests on the manufactured switches have been done, and the measured electrical performances are in good agreement with the performed simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of adhesion of bovine endothelial cells on different materials using dielectrophoresis

    Page(s): 104 - 110
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    In this study, the design, fabrication, and characterization of dielectrophoresis based devices for the measurement of adhesion of bovine endothelial cells on different biomaterials are conducted. At the design stage, the finite element analysis software COMSOL is used to determine a better design of the dielectrophoretic electrode. Accordingly, a dielectrophoretic device that contains several micro electrodes for producing unbalanced electric field is fabricated using microelectromechanical fabrication technique. The proposed device is then used for the detection of cell adhesion on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and poly lactide (PLA) substrates. The hydrophilicity measurement results reveal that PLA is more hydrophilic than PDMS. It is inferred that BEC should have better adhesion on PLA than on PDMA. However, the cell detachment results do not fully agree with this inference. It is further suggested that other features of the substrate are more crucial than the hydrophilicity on the adhesion of BEC. Cell detachment experiments demonstrate that the applied electrophoresis can not detach the adhered BECs from a PDMS substrate for a seeding time larger than 4 h. However, the dielectrophoretic force due to a 6 V applied potential is enough to lift those cells having cultured on the PLA for 4 and 6 hr. When the culture time is increased to 8 h, cells stretch out apparently and a higher voltage is required to lift and move the cells. The results of cell detachment experiments may suggest that BEC can adhere on PLA stably after 8 h of seeding. View full abstract»

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  • Smoothing and surface planarization of sacrificial layers in MEMS technology

    Page(s): 22 - 26
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    In this work we present a novel technology for tailoring the edges of a polymer sacrificial layer by combining multiple techniques. Standard polymers like Shipley Microposit S1818 for the sacrificial layers and gold as a structural layer have been used for our purposes. As a result, oblique profiles of double clamped bridges have been obtained, characterized by an improved homogeneity of the deposited metal thickness on the edges and by a very good surface planarity. View full abstract»

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