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Human-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 2013

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  • Table of Contents

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems publication information

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  • Using Temporal Logic and Model Checking in Automated Recognition of Human Activities for Ambient-Assisted Living

    Page(s): 509 - 521
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1735 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Automated monitoring and the recognition of activities of daily living (ADLs) is a key challenge in ambient-assisted living (AAL) for the assistance of the elderly. Within this context, a formal approach may provide a means to fill the gap between the low-level observations acquired by sensing devices and the high-level concepts that are required for the recognition of human activities. We describe a system named ARA (Automated Recognizer of ADLs) that exploits propositional temporal logic and model checking to support automated real-time recognition of ADLs within a smart environment. The logic is shown to be expressive enough for the specification of realistic patterns of ADLs in terms of basic actions detected by a sensorized environment. The online model checking engine is shown to be capable of processing a stream of detected actions in real time. The effectiveness and viability of the approach are evaluated within the context of a smart kitchen, where different types of ADLs are repeatedly performed. View full abstract»

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  • Person Tracking in Large Public Spaces Using 3-D Range Sensors

    Page(s): 522 - 534
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1689 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method for tracking the position, orientation, and height of persons in large public environments is presented. Such a piece of information is known to be useful both for understanding their actions, as well as for applications such as human-robot interaction. We use multiple 3-D range sensors, which are mounted above human height to have less occlusion between persons. A computationally simple-tracking method is proposed that works on single sensor data and combines multiple sensors so that large areas can be covered with a minimum number of sensors. Moreover, it can work with different sensor types and is robust to the imperfect sensor measurements; therefore, it is possible to combine currently available 3-D range sensor solutions to achieve tracking in wide public spaces. The method was implemented in a shopping center environment, and it was shown that good tracking performance can be achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Standby Power Management Using Usage Profiling and Prediction

    Page(s): 535 - 546
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7410 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reducing the standby power used by home appliances is critical in a household energy management system. Although significant effort has been made to minimize the standby power use of appliances, manual operation is still required to eliminate standby power usage. Additionally, the current regulation strategy of standby power typically focuses on real-power consumption, and it does not consider the apparent power and power factors. We propose an automatic standby power reduction system that is based on user-context profiling. Our system profiles and analyzes the occupancy pattern, as well as the appliance usage. The system then actively manages standby power utilization by predicting the probabilities of future appliance usage. We built a prototype smart meter to monitor and control the power lines. We also developed software that implements the proposed scheme. Our experiments, conducted for three to five weeks in four households, show that power consumption in standby mode can be reduced. View full abstract»

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  • Validation of a Haptic-Based Simulation to Test Complex Figure Reproduction Capability

    Page(s): 547 - 557
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (659 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The objective of this research was to develop a new computer-based system for psychomotor skill assessment. The focus was on the simulation of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) reproduction test incorporating a haptic interface. Various system functions were created to support customized testing protocols that are based on specific user requirements, facilitate semiautomated scoring of tests, and produce quantitative test output. Advanced technologies of pattern recognition were reviewed and adapted for the system development. This approach yielded an application for recording freehand drawings and recognizing and normalizing drawing strokes for semiautomated scoring according to a standard. The new simulator system was validated by comparison with traditional paper-based tests in which participants were asked to use their nondominant hand to simulate a minor motor impairment. Results demonstrated the simulator to be sensitive to functional differences between dominant and nondominant hand use. The computerized scoring software also appeared to be valid for generating ROCF scores, which were consistent with manual scores determined by a trained rater for the same drawing stimuli. View full abstract»

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  • Detection and Discrimination of Motion-Defined Form: Implications for the Use of Night Vision Devices

    Page(s): 558 - 569
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (841 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Superimposed luminance noise is typical of imagery from devices used for low-light vision such as image intensifiers (i.e., night vision devices). In four experiments, we measured the ability to detect and discriminate motion-defined forms as a function of stimulus signal-to-noise ratio at a variety of stimulus speeds. For each trial, observers were shown a pair of image sequences - one containing dots in a central motion-defined target region that moves coherently against the surrounding dots, which moved in the opposite or in random directions, while the other sequence had the same random/uniform motion in both the center and surrounding parts. They indicated which interval contained the target stimulus in a two-interval forced-choice procedure. In the first experiment, simulated night vision images were presented with Poisson-distributed spatiotemporal image noise added to both the target and surrounding regions of the display. As the power of spatiotemporal noise was increased, it became harder for observers to detect the target, particularly at the lowest and highest dot speeds. The second experiment confirmed that these effects also occurred with low illumination in real night vision device imagery, a situation that produces similar image noise. The third experiment demonstrated that these effects generalized to Gaussian noise distributions and noise created by spatiotemporal decorrelation. In the fourth experiment, we found similar speed-dependent effects of luminance noise for the discrimination (as opposed to detection) of the shape of a motion-defined form. The results are discussed in terms of physiological motion processing and for the usability of enhanced vision displays under noisy conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical Study of Perceptual and Motor Transparency in Bilateral Teleoperation

    Page(s): 570 - 582
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1026 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In bilateral teleoperation, a human operator manipulates a remote environment through a pair of master and slave robots. The transparency quantifies the fidelity of the teleoperation system, and is typically defined as the ability to accurately display remote environment properties to the operator. We propose a novel multidimensional measure of transparency which takes into account the human operator and consists of three components: 1) perceptual transparency, which quantifies human perception of the remote environment, 2) local motor transparency, which quantifies how far is the movement of the human operator from ideal, and 3) remote motor transparency, which describes how far is the movement of the remote device from ideal. We suggest that for many practical applications, the goal of the transparency optimization is to maintain perceptual and remote motor transparency while sacrificing local motor transparency, and that it is plausible to take advantage of the gap between perception and action in the operators sensorimotor system. We prove analytically that for a teleoperation channel with a position and force scaling and a constant transmission delay, in a palpation and perception of stiffness task, it is possible to find gains that ensure perfect perceptual and remote motor transparency while maintaining stability. We also show that stability depends on the operator that maintain sufficient arm impedance relative to environment impedance and delay. View full abstract»

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  • Requirements for Future Collision Avoidance Systems in Visual Flight: A Human-Centered Approach

    Page(s): 583 - 594
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1742 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this simulator study, we evaluated the benefits and limitations of a collision warning system for flight according to visual flight rules (VFR). Pilots were confronted with single and multiple traffic, visible both on a moving map display and on the visual system of a simulator. The results demonstrate the benefits of the collision warning system in identifying traffic. However, the avoidance maneuvers initiated by the pilots did not always conform to the regulations. Under multiple traffic conditions, the pilots exhibited slower reaction times when confronted with the traffic warning. They also reported higher levels of workload and reduced situational awareness in comparison to the conditions of single traffic. Using the pilots' feedback, we identified technical requirements for the future development of collision avoidance systems for the VFR. View full abstract»

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  • Framework to Support Scenario Development for Human-Centered Alerting System Evaluation

    Page(s): 595 - 607
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1970 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of the framework introduced here is to support the development of evaluation scenarios that are capable of assessing system level performance while considering the system, the humans that interact with it, and the environment. The following five step framework is presented and applied to a pilot self separation task: 1) identify entities critical to system design, development, and operation and define their goals and properties as they relate to the system being studied; 2) define a subset of functionality for evaluation (define an execution sequence); 3) map entity properties to the execution sequence to identify independent variables; 4) translate entity goals into a set of system goals that can be used to identify dependent measures; and 5) iterate through each step to ensure the models produced are internally consistent. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Culture and the Safety of Complex Automated Sociotechnical Systems

    Page(s): 608 - 619
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (957 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sociotechnical systems are becoming more complex and increasingly automated. Although human error is now widely viewed as playing a key role in the majority of system failures, there is an increasing recognition of the oversimplification inherent in such a view. This paper examines mismatches between the procedures and automation technologies of sociotechnical systems and their operators from the viewpoint of human culture and capabilities, with a particular focus on flight deck automation. Following an introduction to culture, its sources, its measurement, and its effects, this paper describes recent theories of thinking and decision making, and the influence of culture on decisions. Problems that are associated with automation are presented and it is concluded that current automation systems perform as very inadequate team members, leaving the human operators or crew unprepared when failure occurs or unusual events arise. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • SentiView: Sentiment Analysis and Visualization for Internet Popular Topics

    Page(s): 620 - 630
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (818 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There would be value to several domains in discovering and visualizing sentiments in online posts. This paper presents SentiView, an interactive visualization system that aims to analyze public sentiments for popular topics on the Internet. SentiView combines uncertainty modeling and model-driven adjustment. By searching and correlating frequent words in text data, it mines and models the changes of the sentiment on public topics. In addition, using a time-varying helix together with an attribute astrolabe to represent sentiments, it can visualize the changes of multiple attributes and relationships among demographics of interest and the sentiments of participants on popular topics. The relationships of interest among different participants are presented in a relationship map. Using a new evolution model that is based on cellular automata, it is able to compare the time-varying features for sentiment-driven forums on both simulated and real data. Adaptable for different social networking platforms, such as Twitter, blog and forum, the methods demonstrate the effectiveness of SentiView in analyzing and visualizing public sentiments on the Web. View full abstract»

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  • Boat Dynamics and Force Rendering Models for the SPRINT System

    Page(s): 631 - 642
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1508 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The skills professional rowing indoor training (SPRINT) system is designed to support rowing training. The system includes a configurable instrumented rowing apparatus that supports sculling and sweep rowing and that is coupled with a virtual reality display and haptic feedback. Herein, the system has been updated with models that aim at improving force rendering and at simulating the rowing dynamics. These new models support the rendering of vertical and horizontal forces on the hands and they estimate the effects that actions performed on SPRINT would produce on an actual rowing shell. A proof of concept evaluation with one expert and one intermediate rower included a comparison of data gathered on an actual boat and with SPRINT. Outputs of the boat dynamics model showed to be consistent when compared both with the literature and on-boat data. Moreover, these preliminary data suggest boat dynamics output to be useful to discriminate expertise. In addition, subjective ratings of kinematic features and force rendering by expert and intermediate rowers indicated that they find SPRINT suitable for training. View full abstract»

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  • Haptic Assistance for Memorization of 2-D Selection Sequences

    Page(s): 643 - 649
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (827 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates the effect of haptic feedback on the learning of a 2-D sequential selection task, used as an abstraction of complex industrial manual assembly tasks. This mnemonic-motor task requires memorization of the selection order of points scattered on a 2-D plane and reproduction of this order using entire arm movements. Four information presentation methods, visual information only, visual information + enactment, visual information + haptic guidance, and visual information + haptic disturbance, are considered. The latter three methods provide different levels of haptic kinesthetic feedback to the trainee. We carried out a user study to assess the quantitative performance differences of the four training methods using a custom-built visuo-haptic training system. Experimental results showed the relative advantages and disadvantages of each information presentation method for both short-term and long-term memorization. In particular, training with only visual information was the best option for short-term memory, while training also with haptic disturbance was the most effective for long-term memory. Our findings have implications to designing a training method that is suitable for given training requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Special Issue on Ambient Assist Living sensors methods and applications

    Page(s): 650
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  • Special issue on human-centered internet of things

    Page(s): 651
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  • Systematic approaches to human-machine interface: improving resilience, robustness, and stability

    Page(s): 652
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  • 2013 Index IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems Vol. 43

    Page(s): 653 - 660
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  • IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society Information

    Page(s): C3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems information for authors

    Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems covers human systems and human organizational interactions including cognitive ergonomics, system test and evaluation, and human information processing concerns in systems and organizations.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief 
Ellen Bass 
Drexel University
College of Computing & Informatics
College of Nursing and Health Professions
3141 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia PA 19104 USA 
THMS-EIC@ieee.org