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High Power Particle Beams (BEAMS), 2008 17th International Conference on

Date 6-11 July 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 188
  • [Title page]

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  • Paper index

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  • Registrant list

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  • Review of pulsed power development and applications in Russia

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    A collection of slides from the author's conference presentation. This paper presents pulsed power generators; charges particle beams; Z-pinches and radiation sources; and pulsed power technological applications. View full abstract»

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  • Recent advances in radiographic X-ray source development at Sandia

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    Recent experiments at Sandia National Laboratories have demonstrated electron beam diode X-ray sources capable of producing >; 350 rad@m with 1.7mm FWHM x-ray source distributions, and endpoint energy spectrum in the 6-7 MeV range. A review of our present theoretical understanding of the diode(s) operation and our experimental and simulation methods to investigate them will be presented. Emphasis is given to e-beam sources used on state-of-the-art Induction Voltage Adder (IVA) pulsed-power accelerators. In addition, a brief discussion of a proposed radiographic system based on Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • High power particle beams researches in IFP

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    “Presents a collection of slides covering the following topics: high power particle beams; linear induction accelerators; and Z-pinch accelerators. View full abstract»

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  • Cost optimization of HPM systems

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    For fixed power density in the far field, what is the cost-optimum HPM system? We derive general relations for cost-optimal aperture and power. For linear dependence of capital cost on transmitter power and antenna area, minimum capital cost occurs when the cost is equally divided between antenna gain and radiated power. For non-linear power law dependence a similar simple division occurs. This is validated in cost data for many systems and is used as a rule-of-thumb in industry. Cost of pulsed cost-efficient transmitters can be estimated using these relations using current cost parameters ($/W, $/m2) as a basis. View full abstract»

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  • Recent progress on relativistic magnetrons using a transparent cathode

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    Researchers at the University of New Mexico (UNM) recently proposed that a transparent cathode can significantly improve the output characteristics of magnetrons [1]. Since then, a comprehensive study using particle-in-cell simulations [2] has identified the many benefits of using this cathode. At present we are in the midst of preparations for performing the first experiments at UNM to demonstrate the key features of using a transparent cathode instead of a traditional solid cathode. This paper will review the various benefits of operating relativistic and nonrelativistic magnetrons using a transparent cathode. In addition, plans for the initial experiments at the University of New Mexico on an A6 magnetron [3] driven by a short-pulse Sinus-6 accelerator will be presented. Future experiments on an A6 magnetron using a longer pulse (50 ns) accelerator at UNM will also be described, including details on the pulsed power redesign of the UNM PI-110A accelerator. View full abstract»

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  • Progress in Z-pinch at NINT

    Page(s): 1 - 9
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    Experiments on Z-pinch has been carried out based on a 2 MA pulsed power facility. Gas puff and wire array liners were tested at current 1.4 ~ 2.1 MA with rise time 80 ~ 100 ns. For Krypton specific mass of 23 and 47 μg/cm, soft X-ray yield of 55 and 62 kJ, radiation power of 1.9 and 1.7 TW have been obtained, with imploding time of 90 and 118 ns corresponding to current of 1.4 and 1.5 MA and rise time of 80 and 96 ns. For tungsten specific mass of 182 μg/cm, array diameter 12 mm, wire diameter 5 μm, wire number 48 and wire space 0.8 mm, soft X-ray yield of 32 kJ and radiation power of 1.3 TW were obtained with imploding time of 140 ns corresponding to current 1.6 MA and rise time of ~100 ns. Double nested neon puff liner was tested with keV level X-ray radiation power observed to be greater than that achieved using single liners. 5 filtered XRDs were used to measure X-ray waveform and energy spectrum. A nanosecond, two energy region, 4-framing (for each energy region) soft X-ray imaging camera with 1.8 ns temporal resolution and 1.2 ns timing error was developed to monitor the temporal and spatial evolution of the Z-pinch liner. A nanosecond 4-framing ultraviolet camera was employed to observe the liner's motion during implosion. Total soft X-ray energy was measured by a nickel foil bolometer. Leading (precursor) plasma in the case of tungsten wire array and zip effect in the case of gas puff were observed during implosion. Regarding theoretical approach, driving current waveform will obviously influence initial liner parameter scaling, and maximum imploding kinetic energy per unit liner length can be 0.9 times the square of driving current amplitude multiplying by the natural algorithm of the ratio of initial liner diameter to the final. View full abstract»

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  • The “Baikal” project and investigations of radiating Z-pinches at the “Angara-5-1” facility

    Page(s): 1 - 6
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    In the work presented are the results of the investigations into the physics of implosion of multiple wire arrays from various elements carried out on the Angara-5-1 facility. To study the process of prolonged plasma production for such arrays some microprobes placed inside the liner were applied. As a result a dependence of the time taken by a magnetic field to penetrate the half radius of the liner on its wire substance type has been found. Study into the process of compression both along the pinch radius and axis was carried out in experiments with conic arrays. Such experiments along with calculations permit clarifying 3-D effects arising in compressing these wire arrays. We describe the results produced by a MEVL code for simulation magnetically insolated vacuum transmission lines (MIVL), which are connected in parallel. This simulation has been tested on the Angara-5-I installation. The results of experiments performed on MOL installation for Baikal project about energy transfer at millisecond time scale are presented. View full abstract»

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  • The electrical energy conversion in the z-pinch implosion on the “QIANG GUANG I” facility

    Page(s): 1 - 7
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    In the processes of implosion of argon gas-puff and tungsten wire-array z-pinches on the “QIANG GUANG I” facility, the delivered electrical energy, inductance and relevant stored energy, and the effective work done by the Lorentz force, as well as the effects of the load type and its parameters on them are investigated by making use of measured current and voltage. The effective work becomes largest when using a wire-array of diameter 8mm with a fixed wire number of 32. For a given array diameter, for a load with more wires, the effective work becomes larger. A zero-D model was used to calculate optimum masses per unit length for wire array loads on the “QIANG GUANG I” facility on 1.6MA current level. The calculated results show that tungsten wire arrays with 8mm diameter should be a more suitable load for this generator. It is consistent with the analyzed results based on electromagnetic energy conversion, as well as with measured results of x-ray yield in wire array z-pinches on this facility. View full abstract»

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  • Development of the prototype module of the 6MV/10MA Z-pinch test stand

    Page(s): 1 - 5
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    In order to study the physics of fast Z-pinches and research the key issues of pulse power technology, a 10MA/6MV z-pinch primary test stand (PTS) composed of 24 modules will be built in IFP. The prototype module adopted capacitive storage scheme has been built and tested. It is composed of the 6MV/300kJ Marx-generator (MG), intermediate storage capacitor (IC), laser-triggered switch (LTS), pulse forming line (PFL), water self-breakdown switch (WS), and tri-plate pulse transmission line (PTL). The measured output current of the prototype is approximate 520kA, and output voltage is approximate 2.1MV. The unique multi-stage LTS based on uniform field distribution design and multi-pin unsymmetrical WS make the prototype modules have low systemic delay jitter which is necessary for synchronization of multi-module facility. 1-δ jitter of delay of the system is less than 4ns. View full abstract»

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  • Space-temporal structure and x-ray emission dynamic of Z-pinch on base of wire arrays in energy quantum range over 20 keV

    Page(s): 1 - 6
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    The investigation results concerning the process of emission of hard x-rays with an energy quanta of over 20 keV from the plasma of dense radiating Z-pinches are considered. The work was aimed at identifying the nature of the fast electron (electron beam) generation at compression of cylindrical and conic multiwire arrays (liners) at a current of up to 3 MA on the Angara-5-1 installation. At compression of conic arrays an effect of plasma zippering on a time profile of hard x-rays that is caused by an inclination of wires was revealed. It was shown that the generation of hard x-rays always correlates with the disintegration of a plasma column at the cathode in the final phase of pinch compression. The pinch images in quanta of hard x-rays is attributed to the emission of bremsstrahlung radiation of fast electrons generated at the plasma column disintegration on the plasma ions and in the anode target. It was also found that using conic arrays makes it possible to supervise the plasma zippering direction, to regulate space-temporal and power characteristics of the pinch x-ray emission and, in particular, to change the hard x-rays yield, i.e. the current beam value. For the multiwire arrays 12 mm in diameter with a mass on the length unit of 200-400 μg/cm the current and energy values of the fast electron were found to be 20 kA and 60 J, respectively, that makes ~0.002 of the energy of the soft x-rays pulse. View full abstract»

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  • X-ray emission of relativistic nonquasineutral current structures (nonthermal model of “hot spot”)

    Page(s): 1 - 4
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    The experiments with Z-pinches show the appearance of “hot sports”, where neutrons and x-ray emission are produced [1,2]. In the first stage of the hot-spot evolution the x-ray hardness reaches the values up to 10-12 keV, and in the second more long stage the x-ray hardness can reach the values up to 100 keV and even much higher. If the x-ray hardness in the first stage of the Z-pinch evolution can be explained by the plasma temperature, then in the second stage of the Z-pinch evolution the x-ray hardness, with the quantum energy about 100 keV and more, hardly can be explained in this manner. Therefore, some another mechanisms of the x-ray emission should be drawn. Up to now, there are various mechanisms of the generation of the x-ray emission with such a high x-ray hardness had been proposed: the forming of non-Maxwell electron distribution functions, a rapid increase of the Z-pinch resistance and the subsequent increase of the Z-pinch voltage, the generation of relativistic electron beams and maybe some others. The suggested theory includes in some sense all the enumerated features in the framework of the model, based on the violation of the plasma quasineutrality condition connected with Hall effect [3,4]. This results in the generation of the current filaments with a very high potential difference across the filament. In addition, the electron current filaments are considered at the stage when the time of their evolution is smaller than the characteristic skin time. In this case, the total filament current must be equal to zero, so that the direct current along the filament axis must be accompanied by the return current at the periphery of the filament [5]. The intercurrent repulsion results in the increase of the electron density at the axis of the inner current, where the electron velocity has a maximum value which corresponds to a high value of the transverse potential difference. One must stress that according to the recent measurements the - ilament currents represent only a small part of the Z-pinch current. View full abstract»

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  • Plasma dynamics in different kinds of experiments at megaampere range on S-300 machine

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    This article presents experiments on a high-current magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) and a mega-ampere X-pinch. It was shown that the time during which a MITL preserves its transmission properties at high linear current densities (5-7 MA/cm) corresponds to the requirements of the conceptual fusion reactor. The traditional X-pinch dynamics existence at electrical currents 1.3-2.3 MA has also been demonstrated together with the applicability of the main dynamic features (linear mass-current scaling, in particular) for considerably lower currents. It has been shown that the forming plasma object has the radiation luminosity higher than 1015 W/(cm2sr) in a photon energy range of 1-3 keV, the size of the hot spot ~20 μm, and the radiation power ~120 GW; these parameters are several times higher than the values obtained previously. The energy emitted by the molybdenum X-pinch in the range of 2.5-3 keV was shown to be no less than 15 J. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the PTS vacuum insulator stack

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    The paper discussed the relationship between the structure of VIS, especially the thickness of single insulator ring, and working performances of VIS. Utilized combined analysis method with circuit simulation, MFI criterion calculation and flashover probability analysis, obtained the effects of MFI on effective pulse width teff and on flashover probability F(t) of whole stack. The teff will decrease and the curve of F(t) will move rightward if MFI criterion is considered. The calculation results of flashover probability on ±20 percent change of thickness of single ring are given. The curve of F(t) will move leftward if the thickness of level D decrease 20 percent. So there is possibility of compact design of the PTS VIS, in other words, the original designed VIS can working on higher voltage with same flashover probability level. In designing of z-pinch device with higher current, the MFI criterion must be considered to increase the vacuum-insulator power flow density. View full abstract»

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  • Multiframing Mach-Zehnder interferometer for spatiotemporal plasma density measurement in “Dragon-1” target zone

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    Interferometric measurement is used to establish the spatially and temporally resolved plasma density distribution. The Mach-Zehnder interferometer is established in “Dragon-1” target zone, the experiment with the interferometer was conducted and interferograms were obtained by the high speed multiframe CCD camera. By counting the fringe shift on the interferograms, the density of plasma was calculated to be on the order of 1022/m3. View full abstract»

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  • Prospects of pulsed high-current dischargein nitrogen-filled-capillary for lasing at 13.4 nm

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    The recombination pumping scheme requires hot dense plasma with abundance of nuclei of active atoms (nitrogen in our case). Then this plasma has to be efficiently cooled to create at recombination of nuclei to hydrogen-like ions and their de-excitation a population inversion on Balmer-alpha transition. Such conditions can be achieved in a capillary discharge that heats plasma during compression (pinching), and cools it during expansion. The time curve (registered by vacuum photodiode) as well as the spectral composition (registered by McPherson 1 m grazing incidence spectrograph) of axially emitted EUV radiation of the pulse, high-current capillary discharge in nitrogen are investigated. It turned out that despite the pinching time is close to its optimum, the pinching process is not yet efficient enough to heat the plasma to temperature at which an abundance of nitrogen nuclei is created. View full abstract»

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  • Studies of high power microwave sources at NUDT

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    Studies of high power microwave (HPM) sources at NUDT trace to twenty years ago. In this paper, studies of a variety of HPM sources at NUDT, such as the virtual cathode oscillator (vircator), the magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO), the overmoded slow-wave high-power microwave generator and other sources are reviewed. Direction of further investigation of HPM sources at NUDT is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Advances in cherenkov relativistic backward-wave oscillators

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    The paper provides a review of experimental research on a backward-wave oscillator with a resonant wave reflector (BWO-RR) which provides frequency tuning within 11 %, extremely high microwave peak power (up to 5 GW in the X-band and 0.2 GW in the K-band), and 35 % efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • A repetitive high-current pulsed accelerator—TPG700

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    The design and construction of a repetitive high-current pulsed accelerator-TPG700 is described in this paper. The accelerator consists of a Tesla transformer with 40 ohm build-in coaxial pulse forming line. The triggered high-pressure switch of TPG700 has the capability of conducting current of 17.5kA in 35ns' duration at 100 pps. The transformer was designed to operate at 1.4MV, when its primary capacitors were charged to approximately 1000V. Under the working state of 100pps, the jitter of breakdown of the switch voltages is lower than 1% on average. To enhance the overall efficiency of the pulser, resonant charging technology based on IGBTs was utilized. As the experimental results indicate, the total efficiency of the pulser, when measured on matched dummy load, is close to 75%. The experimental results indicate that in matching case, the output of 700kV, 17kA for 40Ω resistive load is obtained. Moreover, some experiments such as long lifetime cathode testing and high power microwave (HPM) generation using backward oscillator (BWO) have been conducted on TPG700. View full abstract»

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  • Sharp electron density for laser wakefield accelerator

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    The electron densities of plasma channels are studied for the electron injection in laser wakefield acceleration and the effect of the finite transition scale length is studied using one-dimensional particle in cell code. The simulation indicates that the density transition scale length must be less than 2 μm for the electron injection. The density transition scale lengths were measured by an interferometer at different times. The feasible electron density structure was formed 1.2 ns after laser pulse. View full abstract»

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  • A repetitive high voltage pulse adder based on solid state switches

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    A repetitive high voltage pulse modulator based on solid state switches with insolated recharge is described. All capacitors in the modulator are recharged by a corresponding transformer separately through magnetic core transformers by a common high frequency power supply. This configuration simplifies the isolation design and arrangement. This scheme is suitable for work at high repetitive rate discharge due to its high charge efficiency. At the same time it retains the inherent switch protection capability of a solid-state Marx modulator. In our present work, a 22-stage test modulator has been built and has been successfully operated at repetitive rate of 20kHz, output voltage of 20kV, rise time of 150ns and pulse width of 3μs. The primary experiments verified the system feasibility. A system with higher parameters is under way. View full abstract»

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  • Study of magnetically isolated diode with dielectric anode at repetitive rate operation mode

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    High-power ion beams (HPIB) find a wide application for the modification of construction material surfaces and for the deposition of metal and semi-conductive films [1]. High effectiveness of these technologies stimulates the study of magnetically isolated diodes (MID). The diodes with radial magnetic field (Br-field) possess a row of advantages [2, 3]. The important aspect of practical application of MID is the increase of MID pulse repetition rate. To create plasma on the anode, basically, two approaches are used. The first one is pulsed gas introduction in area of the anode with its subsequent ionization [4]. The second one is plasma formation on the surface of dielectric filling on the anode [5]. The increase of diode operation frequency is related to the pressure alteration in the working chamber and stability of MID parameters at that. Earlier [6] we reached a rather high life time of MID operation with dielectric anode without a significant degradation of anode coating after 104 pulses. In these studies MID with ballistic focusing and passive plasma source was used. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of high-voltage nanosecond pulse compression

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    The work is directed on an increase in an energy effectiveness of the existing compact devices, intended for the energy compression of the nanosecond time range pulses [1]. Devices consist of high impedance (HL) and forming (FL) lines and high-pressure spark gas discharger. In contrast to the device [1] with a serial discharge circuit of FL, the version of circuit with a parallel discharge for the load of lines HL and FL is proposed. The calculations, which show the energy effectiveness of this scheme, are given. Converter with the parallel discharge circuit on base [1] is developed. The converter with parallel discharge circuit increased peak pulse power additionally on 17% in comparison with serial discharge converter for a case of initial pulse with rise time ~0.5 ns. The voltage amplitude of the initial nanosecond pulse 4 ns was increased from 145 kV to 195 kV (across the load 45 Ohm) with the time compression of pulse to ~0.8 ns. A real increase of the peak power across the load 45 Ohm reached 1.8 when calculated value 2.5. Device, which form two fixed pulse waveforms 210 kV, 0.8 ns and 250 kV, 0.45 ns by converting nanosecond pulse with an amplitude 160 kV and peaked rise time to 0. 3 ns is made. View full abstract»

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