By Topic

Computing, Communication and Applications (ICCCA), 2012 International Conference on

Date 22-24 Feb. 2012

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 99
  • Analysis of sub-threshold swing and performance of various tunnel transistors

    Page(s): 1 - 9
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the last few decades, MOSFET scaling has enabled smaller and faster transistors that consume less power per operation. Device dimensions are shrunk into the sub-65-nm regime, However, In order to increase the speed of operation, the sub-threshold swing has to be reduced to below 60 mV/dec. Advanced electron devices such as impact ionization FET, p-i-n and p-n-p-n tunnel FET, double gate tunnel FET, nano electromechanical FET, and FBFET have been proposed recently as novel concepts by many researches to achieve sharper swings below 60 mV/dec. As a result, these devices potentially enable reduced Vdd operation and contribute considerable reduction in system power. In this paper, detailed study of subthreshold swing is done and performances of above mentioned transistors are analyzed. In this analysis it is found that the IMOS device has least sub-threshold swing than other transistors. It was also found that FBFET has low value of loaded and unloaded delay while comparing other transistors. NEMFET and PNPN consume low active power than other transistors. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design and implementation of AMBE based Voice Codec Module over custom FPGA platform

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a Voice Codec Module (VCM) over a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform for low bit rate voice communication using Vocoder AMBE (Advanced Multi Band Excitation)-2000 and Codec AD-73311. Low bit rate voice communication has become essential to many applications like digital radio, satellite communication, underwater acoustic communication etc. where bandwidth is at a premium and voice intelligibility is imperative. The hardware circuit of VCM is designed using FPGA instead of following the traditional DSPs/Microcontrollers approach so as to fulfill the objective of designing all the major subsystems of voice/data communication baseband unit inside a single FPGA chip. The Codec AD73311 used is a high performance A/D & D/A chip with programmable input and output gain control, and AMBE-2000 is the vocoder which is based on the AMBE compression algorithm. Using this VCM, the call voice is clear and legible at the rate of 2.0~2.4 Kbps which is very low compression bit rate. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Using rough sets for optimal cost evaluation in supply chain management

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (194 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Over the last decade we have seen rapid advancement in the field of rough set theory. It has been successfully been applied to many varied fields such as data mining and network intrusion detection with little or no modifications. The concept of rough set is increasingly becoming popular which can be easily seen from the increasing number of research articles devoted to it. In the past several studies have targeted on finding the qualitative causal relationships that exist between various businesses and their associated attributes. This has resulted in the need for a quantitative approach for the evaluation of cost for supply chain management. However since the process for supply chain management itself depends on multiple complicated features regarding which the standard statistical techniques are not deemed suitable. Therefore in this paper we have analyzed and demonstrated a method for optimal cost evaluation using the rough set theory. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Identify malaria parasite using pattern recognition technique

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Moving with the technological advancement in the field of bio imaging processing this paper presents an innovative digital technique detecting parasitic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Traditionally, in clinical laboratories the direct microscopic prediction of the parasite on the thick and/or thin blood smears are used for the diagnosis of malaria. It involves collection of a blood smear, its staining with Romanowsky stains and examination of the Red Blood Cells for intracellular malarial parasites. In blood samples, if the red corpuscles of vertebrates are infected by malarial parasites, they will have a specific shape which can identify their presence. Recent research has suggested that the shape of the affected red blood cells can be detected using the 2D moments of the image of the infected cell. In this paper an algorithm is implemented to identify the type of parasite through their color and shape. This technique can detect the existence of malaria parasite within seconds and thus can replace the conventional methods of detection of malaria in bio-medical applications and medical science. The proposed method can automatically diagnose the parasite's presence using the algorithm mentioned which consumes less time and man power as compare to conventional methods. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Multi-level authentication technique for accessing cloud services

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (138 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cloud computing is an emerging, on-demand and internet-based technology. It provides variety of services over internet such as, software, hardware, data storage and infrastructure. This technology has been used by worldwide customers to improve their business performance. However, to utilize these services by authorized customer, it is necessary to have strict authentication check. At present, authentication is done in several ways: such as, textual, graphical, bio-metric, 3D password and third party authentication. This paper presents the strict authentication system by introducing the multi-level authentication technique which generates/authenticates the password in multiple levels to access the cloud services. In this paper, details of proposed multilevel authentication technique are presented along with the architecture, activities, data flows, algorithms and probability of success in breaking authentication. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • ASIC implementation of an auto ranging data converter

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (357 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High performance and high speed data converter systems are needed for biomedical fields. Area, power dissipation and speed are the most important factors when it comes to implementation of such systems in VLSI domain. The project proposes implementation an auto ranging analog to digital converter for biomedical applications as an ASIC. The system outputs 24 bits and features a sigma delta ADC of 16 bits resolution, a range detection unit with 7 bits and a sign bit for polarity detection. The analog part of the modulator is a second order sigma delta modulator operating at audio frequency ranges. The digital section of sigma delta ADC containing the decimation filter banks is done in a cascaded filter structure form including a CIC decimation filter, droop compensation and half-band filters. The Analog modulator simulation is being done using spice. The top level module was coded using VHDL and the simulation was carried out with ModelSim and MATLAB. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Slot Management based Energy Aware routing (SMEAR) for wireless sensor networks

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    ZigBee is the emerging industrial standard for Ad hoc networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 physical and MAC layers standard. It was originally specified for low data rate, low power consumption and low cost wireless personal area networks (WPANs). ZigBee is expected to be used in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for industrial sensing and control applications. Handling high data rate applications, such as video surveillance in WPANs is a real challenge. To decrease energy consumption of the node in a ZigBee network, in this paper, time management routing, where multiple paths are used in various time slot to transfer data between a source and the sink. This paper presents an integrated MAC and routing protocol called Slot Management based Energy Aware routing (SMEAR) for time-sensitive wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. SMEAR is a TDMA-based protocol designed to provide deterministic delay guarantee in an energy-efficient manner. The slots for the path of nodes are carefully computed so that data is transported from the source toward the sink whereas the nodes could sleep at other times to conserve energy. This paper has simulated SMEAR using ns2 simulator and results are compared with those of without SMEAR. Simulation results show that the packet reception ratio, energy consumption and number of packets received at the sink are much better in a network using SMEAR than that using without SMEAR. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Secure enhancement scheme for detecting selfish nodes in MANET

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) operates on basic underlying assumption where all participating nodes are fully collaborated in self-organizing functions. However, performing network functions consumes energy and other resources. Therefore, some network nodes may decide against cooperating with others. The selfish nodes, also termed as misbehaving nodes, with an incentive to cooperate has been an active research area recently. In this paper consider 2ACK scheme, which can be simply add-on to any source routing protocol. Security is achieved through the use of cryptographic algorithms. In this work, we perform an analysis of the energy requirements of various cryptographic primitives with the intention of using this data as a foundation for devising energy-efficient security protocols also we measure on delay, packet delivery ratio and routing overhead to evaluate best security algorithm. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • FRCT based efficient image compression for texture images

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (674 KB)  

    In this paper different Image compression techniques particularly for texture images are discussed. A texture image can be conceived as repetition of different patterns and spatially the pixels are connected in predefined shapes. So the better way of compressing these texture images is by suitable image compression techniques. Both Finite Radon Transform (FRAT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) are well suited for this. Applying the DCT on the Radon domain gives the new transformation which is Finite Radon Cosine Transformation (FRCT). The properties of both DCT and FRAT are been exploited in this new transformation. Image quality is measured objectively, using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). A comparison with a Wavelet transform, DCT and Finite Ridgelet Transform (FRIT) based compression systems are given. The results show that by applying the DCT on the Radon domain (FRAT) one gets high PSNR compared to other transforms for a given compression ratio. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design of dual log-spiral metamaterial resonator for X-band applications

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (267 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dual log-spiral designs that represent inclusions at the elemental level, in the synthesis of metamaterials with negative values of permittivity (ε) and permeability (μ), are analysed for their application in the X band frequency range based on the equivalent circuit model. The dual log-spiral resonator is useful when it comes to miniaturization for relevant applications. The extended LC model focuses on the impact of start angle in coupling factor and mutual inductance values. Estimation of Scattering parameters, bandwidth of operation and impedance of metamaterial samples is performed. Results from full wave simulation tests on this model are used to accurately design miniaturized artificial magnetic inclusion in a homogeneous material so as to have anomalous values of ε and μ. Discussions on the effective role of Artificial Neural Network method as a potent optimization technique in design are also presented. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design and implementation of high speed sense amplifier

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (515 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Paper examines the delay of Current Mirror Sense amplifier by chang of Vdd and Vtn and also verifies the various result Like Slew Rate, Noise Margin, Power consumption, Voltage Gain, CMRR, Offset Voltage Sensitivity at 180 nm technology. Paper shows that when Vdd increases circuit Ability to avoid the noise increases but power consumption are increases and accordingly current consumption are also increases. Simulation result shows that speed of Sense Amplifier are decreases but interesting improvement in current consumption. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Implementation of high-speed LFSR design with parallel architectures

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Linear feedback shift register (LFSR) is an important component of the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) operations and BCH encoders. The contribution of this paper is two fold. First, this paper presents linear transformation of serial LFSR architecture into the transformation of parallel LFSR architecture. This transformation achieves a full speed-up compared to the serial architecture at the cost of an increase in hardware overhead. This method applies to all generator polynomials used in CRC operations and BCH encoders. Second, a new formulation is proposed to modify the parallel LFSR into the form of pipelining and retiming algorithm. We propose a high-speed parallel LFSR architecture based on pipelining and retiming algorithms to reduce the critical path. Finally, we are calculating the Bit Error Rate (BER) tester for the proposed LFSR design. The advantage of this proposed approach over the previous architectures is that it has both feed forward and feedback paths. Also it has the advantage of further increasing the speed-up and it increases the throughput rate. We further propose to apply combined parallel and pipelining techniques to eliminate the fan-out effect in long generator polynomials. The proposed scheme can be applied to any generator polynomial, i.e., any LFSR in general. The proposed parallel architecture achieves better area-time product compared to the previous designs. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A method for optimization of static slot length for maximum utilization of bandwidth in Flex ray protocol

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (183 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most of the mechanical and hydraulic parts, nowadays, are replaced by electronic control units in automobile industry. The number of infotainment and multimedia applications has an increasing trend. Hence, the number of Electronic control units and signals in a cyber physical system like vehicles are increased and a high bandwidth protocol for communication between distributed embedded controllers is required. Flexray provides time triggered static segment for the transmission of time critical periodic data and a priority based scheduling of frames in a dynamic segment for transmission of event triggered signals. Number of Electronic control units connected to the Flexray protocol depends on the time units allocated to a particular node. If it can be optimized for maximum utilization, then more electronic control units can be connected to one Flexray bus. In this paper, a method for optimization of static slot length for maximum utilization of every cycle in the hyper period of periodic tasks satisfying its worst case deadline is presented. A linear integer programming problem is developed from its non linear constraints and number of Electronic control units that can be connected for the communication length is also obtained. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design and analysis of OFDM based CRAHN with common control channel

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (148 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In wireless communication, the important factor to face its spectrum scarcity; to solve that scenario we are going to use the spectrum opportunistically. The Cognitive radio (CR) technology is defined to solve the problems in wireless networks resulting from the limited available spectrum and the inefficiency in the spectrum usage by sharing the existing wireless spectrum opportunistically. In cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs), the distributed multi-hop architecture, the dynamic network topology, and the time and location varying spectrum availability are some of the key distinguishing factors. OFDM multicarrier communication technique is chosen in Cognitive Radio Networks due to its inherent capability of transmission and reception in variable bandwidth and in multiple chunks of subcarriers called sub channels. In this paper, non contiguous OFDM subcarriers placed within the dynamic guard bands based always-on, dedicated out-of-band common control channel (CCC) design is proposed for efficient spectrum utilization. Our proposed CCC design is to ensure the spectrum sharing, network connectivity, efficient data rate of CR users and dynamic guard bands when compared to cluster based and sequence based CCC design. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Intrusion detection system for grid computing using SNORT

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (124 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Because of distributed nature, grid computing environments are easy targets for intruders looking for possible vulnerabilities to exploit [1]. By impersonating legitimate users, the intruders can use a service's abundant resources maliciously. To combat attackers, intrusion-detection systems (IDSs) can offer additional security measures for these environments by investigating configurations, logs, network traffic, and user actions to identify typical attack behavior. However, IDS must be distributed to work in a grid computing environment. It must monitor each node and, when an attack occurs, alert other nodes in the environment. This kind of communication requires compatibility between heterogeneous hosts, various communication mechanisms, and permission control over system maintenance and updates. We present the problem of grid intrusion; analyze the requirements of a system to detect them. In this paper we are discussing how IDS can be implemented for grid computing environment. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Cost benefit analysis of cloud computing in education

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (139 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the current financial crisis and the growing need for quality education, the educational institutions are under increasing pressure to deliver more from less. Both public as well as private institutions can use the potential benefit of cloud computing to deliver better services even with fewer resources. Application of Cloud Computing in Education not only relieve the educational Institutions from the burden of handling the complex IT Infrastructure management as well as maintenance activities but also lead to huge cost savings. Government of India is having the ambitious plan to raise the present 16 million enrolments in higher education to 42 million by 2020 as well as interconnect electronically India's 572 universities, 25,000 colleges and at least 2,000 polytechnics for enabling e-learning and content sharing across country. The lunch of low cost, affordable Aakash tablet PCs for the student community is likely to increase the number of users' for educational online resources exponentialy. In this paper we have studied about the benefit of use of cloud computing by educational institutions. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Integration of route lifetime prediction algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm for selecting reliable route in MANET

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (931 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In MANET, generally nodes operate with batteries for its normal operation. The nodes tend to drain their energy even when it remains in idle mode. This exhaustion of energy will be more in MANET due to its infrastructureless nature and mobility. This may lead a node to drain their energy completely within a short period comparing with general mobile network. Due to this lack of energy, communication between two nodes gets blocked and their topology may also vary. This may drastically affect the performance of routing protocol and also affect the network lifetime. Several routing protocol studies based on node lifetime and link lifetime has been done to address this problem. To mitigate this problem a new algorithm has been developed which utilizes the network parameters relating to dynamic nature of nodes viz. energy drain rate, relative mobility estimation to predict the node lifetime and link lifetime. In addition to this it also maximizes the network lifetime. But this has given a problem of network congestion and delay. To mitigate this problem, in this paper we have implemented an algorithm by integrating route lifetime prediction algorithm along with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Since PSO uses for network centric localization purpose, this approach generates in-network navigational decisions by obviating centralized control thereby reducing both the congestion and delay. Hence, this network centric approach is effective in a typical MANET scenario which involves node mobility, large deployment and energy constraints. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Simultaneous multi-channel data acquisition using a scalable adaptive heterogeneous maximum service scheduler

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel simultaneous multi-channel data acquisition system is proposed. Analog signals with different bandwidths are applied to an analog multiplexer with a single analog to digital converter. A novel scalable adaptive Heterogeneous Maximum Service (HMS) scheduler is designed to detect different bandwidths in order to determine the proper sampling rate for each input signal. The analog multiplexer is adaptively controlled to switch between the analog signals of variable bandwidths. The target technology of implementing the proposed design is the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The Analog-to-Digital Converter interface and the adaptive scheduler are implemented in the FPGA using hardware description language. The synthesized prototype used only 11% of the total logic elements (of Altera Cyclone II, EP2C35F672C-6N FPGA) and 15% of its total memory bits. The worst-case prorogation delay observed for the system is 12.04 ns, which is less than the 50 MHz clock period of 20ns. The Cyclone-II FPGA consumes power as low as 12 mW. The proposed acquisition root mean square of error is 2×10-15. The proposed system can be used in various applications that require heterogeneous multi-channel data acquisition system such as biomedical devices. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Comparative analysis of CBRP, AODV, DSDV routing protocols in mobile Ad-hoc networks

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (131 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that wish to communicate without any fixed infrastructure or centralized control. It is a self-configuring network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links the union of which forms an arbitrary topology. Therefore, routing in MANET is a critical task due to highly dynamic environment. Several protocols are introduced for improving the routing mechanism to find route between any source and destination host across the network. This paper focuses on the three popular routing algorithms Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP), a hybrid routing protocol, Ad-Hoc on Demand Distance Vector Protocol (AODV), reactive routing protocol and Destination Sequence Distance Vector Routing Protocol (DSDV), Pro-active routing protocol. This paper provides an overview of these protocols by presenting their characteristics, functionality, benefits and limitations. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An energy efficient data aggregation based medium access control protocol using centre at nearest source approach for sensor networks in a lattice topology

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) has a great application value and prospect in the fields of military, agriculture, environmental monitoring, medical health, industry, intelligent transportation, building monitoring, space exploration and so on. The operation of WSN is normal under lower traffic loads. But in case of an emergency situation, like fire break out large volumes of data have to be generated and delivered to the sink. Such kind of situations results in severe channel collision and thus decreases the communication throughput in medium access control (MAC) protocols. Hence data aggregation has been put forward as an essential paradigm for eliminating the redundancy. In this paper, we propose DA (Data Aggregation) MAC, a hybrid of TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) and CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access) MAC approaches which employs center at nearest source technique. Initially the nodes make use of TDMA for its slot assignment. Each node wakes up for its corresponding slot assignment and then goes to sleep mode thus saving energy. But during any emergency situation nodes participating in it change its MAC behavior by allowing contention in TDMA slots. Instead of data transmission by the one hop neighbors of the affected node, data aggregation is implemented for the node with the minimum hop distance for reducing the overhead. This data aggregation technique is called the centre at nearest source approach. The simulation is carried out by means of NS2 (Network Simulator). Analytical and experimental results show that the proposed hybrid MAC protocol outperforms in all its aspects. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Using similarity degree approach for shortest path in Intuitionistic fuzzy network

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (434 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The shortest path problem is one of the most studied problems in Intuitionistic fuzzy sets and systems area. Thus many authors discussed about Fuzzy shortest path problem in a network. This paper proposes a new algorithm to deal with the Intuitionistic fuzzy shortest path problem. It is composed of Intuitionistic fuzzy shortest path length procedure and similarity measure. In network problem the length of the paths are represented by triangular and trapezoidal Intuitionistic fuzzy number. In this paper the highest similarity degree is utilized to identify the shortest path. An illustrative example is also including demonstrating our proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An improved lane departure method for Advanced Driver Assistance System

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (191 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an improved lane departure algorithm based on region of interest (ROI) segmentation. ROI of a test image is extracted first. Based on statistical parameters a departure warning is generated. Hough transform is used to detect the lines in the segmented ROI. Distance between Hough origin and lane-line midpoint is estimated. Based on the difference between these distances, a lane departure decision is made. A typical road may have multiple lanes which may cause difficulty in generating appropriate departure decision with good accuracy and in short time. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm eliminates this problem. It is simple to implement and robust, and can detect the lane markings accurately and quickly. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Analysis of Bluetooth threats and v4.0 security features

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The advent of Bluetooth technology has made wireless communication easier. Any new invention or improvement is viewed very closely by people who are looking to gain information in an unauthorized manner. Security in any area is given more importance as it leads to better product and satisfied customers. The initial days of any technological invention is more challenging as they deal with new issues every day. The product/invention needs to keep evolving to address the growing list of new features requirement and handling of security issues. Bluetooth security has evolved a lot with different versions of blue tooth. Keeping in mind the growing list of Bluetooth products in the market, there has been lot of improvements done in the version 4.0 of Bluetooth. The LE (Low Energy) operational mode which is new in version 4.0 has slightly different security association models. In this paper, a review of the recent studies in the analysis of Bluetooth security issues and new security features of v4.0 is done. Specifically the paper covers secure simple pairing in Bluetooth normal mode and low energy mode. For each threat, the particular issues are addressed and a review of major approaches to improve security of Bluetooth communication using secure simple pairing is discussed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design and pull-in voltage optimization of series metal-to-metal contact RF MEMS switch

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (137 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design, analysis and simulation of metal-to metal contact series rf-MEMS switch for its pull-in voltage optimization. Fixed - fixed flexure is used as a switching element and the Pull-in voltage is optimized for generating a force to obtain a stable contact resistance. Au is used as the contact material. The simulated value of the pull-in voltage (Vpi) is approximately 10.20 V. At the pull-in voltage the area occupied under contact is 8.89 μm2 and the value of contact force is 1.84 μN. The switch pull-in voltage value is optimized at a value of 23 V giving contact area of 924 μm2 and contact force of 31.55 μN. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A novel method for color face recognition using KNN classifier

    Page(s): 1 - 3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (227 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently face recognition has become an important area of research in computer vision, neuroscience, and psychology. In this paper a new color face recognition (FR) method is introduced. The effectiveness of color information plays an important role when face images are taken under strong variations in illumination, as well as with low spatial resolutions. The proposed method has 3 steps. In the first step the input color image is converted into various color space models. In the second step eigen values and eigen vectors are extracted from each color space models. In the final step a nearest neighbour classifier is designed for classifying the face images based on the extracted features. The accuracy of proposed method is impressively better than the results of other FR methods over different FR challenges including highly uncontrolled illumination, moderate pose variation, and small resolution face images. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.