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Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS), 2012 IEEE

Date 7-9 Feb. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 54
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Copyright notice]

    Page(s): ii
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): iii - x
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  • [Front matter]

    Page(s): xi - xiv
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  • Assessment of VOCs in air using sensor array under various exposure conditions

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    Sensor array exposure conditions were examined in this work regarding their influence on the assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. Measurements were performed using sensor array composed of fifteen TGS sensors. Eight VOCs were considered together with air featured by different humidity levels. It was shown that misclassification rates of VOCs patterns could be reduced to zero by selecting best conditions of exposure and by considering responses of selected sensors in these conditions as the basis for classification. Combinations of best sensors and best exposure conditions allowed to achieve mean relative error of VOCs concentration prediction at the level of several percent. The considerable improvement was associated with using a nonlinear model of relationship between VOC concentrations and sensor responses as compared to a linear one. View full abstract»

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  • Wideband capacitive energy harvester based on mechanical frequency-up conversion

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (965 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel mechanical frequency-up convertor for energy harvesting using low frequency ambient vibration based on overlapping capacitive comb has been proposed in this paper. Centrally clamped bistable beam is used to frequency-up conversion which is similar to pre-buckled structure and makes a large acceleration to induce initial displacement. We have achieved more average power from the proposed system by excitation at the low frequencies so improved power density. View full abstract»

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  • A microfluidic gas analyzer for selective detection of biomarker gases

    Page(s): 1 - 5
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    We report fabricating a microfluidic device that selectively detects biomarker gases. It consists of a microfluidic channel and a semiconductor gas sensor integrated on a PMMA chip. Biomarker gases are identified by monitoring their transient molecular diffusion-driven flow in a microfluidic channel using a semiconductor gas sensor. Analyte-dependent specific features of the sensor response patterns are extracted, which facilitate analyte classification in a 3-D feature space. The ability of the device to distinguish four different gas biomarkers, including acetone, hydrogen, ethanol and benzene, in a wide concentration range, is demonstrated. The miniaturized gas analyzer presented is versatile and cost effective. View full abstract»

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  • IPT charged wireless sensor module for river sedimentation detection

    Page(s): 1 - 5
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    A wireless sensor module consisting of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a microcontroller detects the rotations and accelerations of the module when placed in a hydraulic environment. The device is to be used to detect sedimentation in rivers by processing the motion sensor data stored within it. Inertial navigation algorithms have been programmed into the device to reproduce its trajectory in 3 dimensions. The device called the `smart sediment particle' is wirelessly charged using inductive power transfer technology, and powered by super capacitors, which has proven successful. The device is based purely on commercially available sensors which provide reasonable accuracy for the purpose of detecting sedimentation. View full abstract»

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  • TPC-BS: Transmission power control based on binary search in the wireless sensor networks

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (858 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposed a new method to optimize energy consumption in a wireless modem by setting up a transmission power value according to the distance between nodes and circumstance in the MAC layer of IEEE 802.15.4. The proposed method can dynamically find an optimal transmission power range using the binary search scheme and minimize overhead caused by multiple message transmissions in determining the optimal transmission power. The determined transmission power is used for transmitting data packets and can be modified dynamically depending on the changes in a network environment when exchanging data packets and acknowledgement signals. The results of the simulations showed 30% reduction in energy consumption while 2.5 times increase in data transmission rate per unit of energy compared with IEEE 802.15.4 standard. View full abstract»

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  • Incipient fault detection for electric power transformers using neural modeling and the local statistical approach to fault diagnosis

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (803 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes neural modelling and the local statistical approach to fault diagnosis for the detection of incipient faults in critical components of the electric power grid, such as power transformers. A neural-fuzzy network is used to model the thermal condition of the power transformer in fault-free operation (the thermal condition is associated to a temperature variable known as hot-spot temperature). The output of the neural-fuzzy network is compared to measurements from the power transformer and the obtained residuals undergo statistical processing according to a fault detection and isolation algorithm. If a fault threshold (that is optimally defined according to detection theory) is exceeded, then deviation from normal operation can be detected at its early stages and an alarm can be launched. In several cases fault isolation can be also performed, i.e. the sources of fault in the power transformer model can be also identified. The performance of the proposed methodology is tested through simulation experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Non-intrusive measurement of the active power in induction heating systems through the proximate magnetic field

    Page(s): 1 - 6
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    The paper studies the possibility of measuring the active power in induction heating applications by using the proximate electromagnetic field, respectively the value of the magnetic flux density in a point placed in the device proximity. View full abstract»

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  • Diagnosis of induction motor rotor faults based on finite element evaluation of voltage harmonics of coil sensors

    Page(s): 1 - 5
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    The paper deals with the finite element evaluation of the electromagnetic field associated with the induction motors operation and with the diagnosis of rotor faults based on the time and space dependent magnetic field outside the motor. The effects of one squirrel cage broken bar and of rotor eccentricity on the electromagnetic torque and force and on the external magnetic field are presented. Solutions for on-line or off-line faults diagnosis based on the output voltage of coil sensors placed in the motor neighbourhoud are analysed. View full abstract»

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  • Elemental analysis of coal by means of the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique

    Page(s): 1 - 3
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    On line characterization of the elemental composition of coal, in connection with numerical models, allows predicting important combustion parameters affecting the industrial boilers efficiency, like e.g. the coal heating value and the ash fusion temperature. This paper presents preliminary experimental results aimed at evaluating the possibility of using the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique for the elemental analysis of coal. View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent sensor hub benefits for wireless sensor networks

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1447 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An innovative product type is enabling wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to become pervasive: The intelligent sensor hub. This device type integrates one or more sensor die with a 32-bit microcontroller and memory in an architecture optimized to manage, process and fusion a cluster of different sensor types. Integrated analog and digital interfaces allow connections to a wide spectrum of external sensors and systems. Sensor networks can be efficiently managed at system and sub-system levels, allowing very low-power consumption, high flexibility through software, and adaptability by managing new kinds of sensors. An implementation proposal for a WSN demonstrates the key benefits of this concept at the node and system levels. This includes minimizing data transfers and intelligent interaction between the different nodes. Interfaces within a wireless network, like ZigBee™, are also becoming seamless and modular. Moreover, the small size -3 by 3 millimeter - and the low-cost of such new solutions are required for WSNs to become widely adopted in many applications. View full abstract»

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  • The Recursive Time Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (829 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many applications of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) require accurate time synchronization for data consistency and coordination. While the existing protocols for time synchronization provide sufficient accuracy, they consume high energy and poorly synchronize the distant nodes. We propose a Recursive Time Synchronization Protocol (RTSP) which provides global clock synchronization in an accurate and energy-efficient way. It achieves better performance by using a novel blend of techniques such as the MAC-layer time-stamping based on Start of Frame Delimiter (SFD) byte, fewer broadcasts by the reference node, compensation of the propagation delay and adjustment of the timestamps at each hop, estimation of the relative skew and offset using least square linear regression on two data points (2LR), adaptive re-synchronization interval, aggregation of the synchronization requests and energy-awareness. We also analyze the sources of errors and efficiency. Simulation results show an average accuracy of 0.3μs in a large multi-hop network while using only 1/5th of the energy consumed by FTSP in the long run, i.e., the RTSP outperforms all other protocols of its class including RBS, TPSN and FTSP. View full abstract»

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  • Parallel-plate capacitance sensor for nondestructive measurement of moisture content of different types of wheat

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (710 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple, low cost instrument that measures impedance and phase angle was used along with a parallel-plate capacitance system to estimate the moisture content (MC) of six types of wheat. Moisture content of grain is important and is measured at various stages of their processing and storage. A sample of about 150 g of wheat was placed separately between a set of parallel plate electrodes and the impedance and phase angle of the system were measured at frequencies 1 and 5 MHz. A semi-empirical equation was developed using the measured impedance and phase angle values, and the computed capacitance, and the MC values obtained by standard air-oven method. Multi Linear Regression (MLR) method was used for the empirical equation development using statistical software. In the present work, a low-cost impedance analyzer designed and assembled in our laboratory was used to measure the impedance and phase angles. MC values of wheat samples in the moisture range of 9% to 25%, not used in the calibration, were predicted by the equations and compared with their standard air-oven values. For over 97% of the samples tested from the six varieties of wheat, the predicted MC values were within 1% of the air-oven values. This method, being nondestructive and rapid, will have considerable application in the drying and storage processes of wheat and similar field crops. View full abstract»

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  • Plug-in electric vehicle battery sensor interface in Smart Grid network for electricity billing

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The technological advancement in the field of energy and proposition of a Smart Grid has paved the way for sophisticated information systems with network management capabilities. Unlike the legacy systems, today we need a two-way communication model for the electricity distribution network that can, not only communicate with the devices but interact with sensors and actuators. This task becomes more daunting when the devices are mobile. For this purpose we chose to design a Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) management information base (MIB) for a Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) that utilizes charge-level sensors to intelligently bill electricity usage per subscriber independent of the location of the charging. This paper proposes the design of a sensor information exchange that would identify and collect data from a PEV at a charging station. The proposed design delivers a scalable and simple network management methodology for these chargeable vehicles. View full abstract»

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  • Active crack indicator with mechanoluminescent sensing technique: Detection of crack propagation on building

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4215 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, there have been innovative mechanoluminescent (ML) nano- and microparticles made available, each of which repeatedly emits light in response to small applied stresses such as deformation, friction, or impact. When dispersedly coated onto a structure, each particle acts as a sensitive mechanical sensor, while the two-dimensional emission pattern of the whole assembly reflects the dynamical stress distribution inside the structure and the mechanical information around the crack and defect. This stress visualization technique, which provides a novel way of diagnosing the structural health of a building, is advantageous over the conventional point-by-point measurement method. Recently, we have successfully exploited the remarkable advantage of the ML sensing technique by applying it onsite to a building as a non-destructive evaluation method. In this paper, we present the notable results for the visualization of active cracks on a building and the detection of crack propagation. View full abstract»

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  • Energy efficient Echo-Hiding extraction method based on fine grain intermittent power control

    Page(s): 1 - 6
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    We propose a low power extraction method of Echo-Hiding audio steganography. Our intermittent power control strategy enables to reduce the active time of devices including processor, ADC, and sensors. Our strategy consists of two features; majority-rule extraction method reduces the active time during extraction, and intermittent watermark detection enables the devices to be almost powered off in the environment without watermarked audio. In the experiments, our method reduced the active time of the processor and ADC to 60-70%. Also, in the environment without watermarked audio, our method was able to reduce 99% of the active time. View full abstract»

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  • Photolithography-based realization of frequency steerable acoustic sensors on PVDF substrate

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    Design, fabrication and testing of a frequency-steerable acoustic transducer (FSAT) is presented in this paper. The proposed device concept allows directional guided wave sensing for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The direction of an incoming wave is univocally encoded in the spectrum of the output signal thanks to the spatial filtering effect produced by the peculiar shape of the FSAT. Accurate localization of acoustic events within a two-dimensional half-plane can thus be performed with very small hardware and software complexity by processing the time-trace recorded by a single device. Photolithography-based fabrication on a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) substrate provides a flexible and lightweight transducer with a number of attractive features for integrated and wireless SHM. View full abstract»

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  • Conductors sag monitoring by means of a laser based scanning measuring system: Experimental results

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    In this paper we will present the experimental results relevant to clearance to ground measurements carried out on high voltage transmission lines by means of an innovative measuring system. The instrument is based on a laser scanning method and carries out measurements from ground at a distance of about 30 meters from the line. View full abstract»

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  • High availability wireless temperature sensors for harsh environments

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    The recent improvements in RF devices transformed wireless sensor networking into a reality. Advantages deriving from the cable removal are well known, especially in industrial applications where large part of the cost is due to wire routing and related maintenance. A lot of studies have been proposed in the past to analyze and anticipate obtainable performance in harsh environments, but only few reports real world experiments. In this work, a wireless system for temperature measurement is proposed. Specifically, a distributed coordinator approach allows implementing a redundant star network topology ensuring high availability and reliability also in harsh environments. The realized system is designed to operate into a vessel subject to very extreme conditions, including an extended temperature and pressure range (from -5 to +140 °C and up to 5 bar) with the presence of humidity (RH 100% condensing). In particular, the RF signal quality has been experimentally verified also in such a critical environment. View full abstract»

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  • Combining multiple, inexpensive GPS receivers to improve accuracy and reliability

    Page(s): 1 - 6
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    GPS is a technology that allows for accurate tracking of various parameters, namely speed and location. These parameters are important to many applications, such as autonomous vehicles. In order to make a successful autonomous vehicle, it is necessary to be able to quantify its performance. Tracking a vehicle with GPS is an effective, well-established way to accomplish that. However, the consumer-level GPS technology available today is not accurate enough to provide useful data about a vehicle's speed and position with respect to something as restricted as a race track or a sidewalk. To attempt to solve this problem, the goal of this research is to significantly improve the accuracy of GPS, using only inexpensive GPS receivers and the supporting electronic components. Data from individual receivers will be merged, which will provide a more accurate tracking system capable of fine enough detail to provide useful data for many applications. View full abstract»

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  • Environment sensing using smartphone

    Page(s): 1 - 4
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    Mobile devices (in particular smartphones and tablets) can be used to monitor quality of life parameters. Today mobile devices use embedded sensors such as accelerometers, compasses, GPSs, microphones, and cameras without considering, for example, the air quality or the pollutants of the environment. This paper presents the possibility to use the smartphones capabilities to gather data from other phones or sensors. Nowadays, monitoring climate condition's parameters such as temperature and humidity is a prominent factor to control the changes of the environmental condition of living or working places for the human being. This point can be obtained by using distributed devices in different environments that containing high-resolution sensors and a wireless transmission apparatus for transferring data to smartphones. The Bluetooth was chosen as a transmission tool since it is embedded in all smartphones and it can work in the absence of the Wi-Fi connection. Smartphones are the programmable tools to have different kinds of applications that allow communicating with other devices and also gathering, analyzing and verifying data. In this paper, a novel interface by applying a Bluetooth-based sensor to sense Temperature and Humidity for monitoring of the environmental conditions using the android-based smartphone is introduced. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-frequency ECT method for defect depth estimation

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1290 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Scientific research on non-destructive testing is constantly looking for new solutions, about sensors and digital signal processing techniques, to improve the detection and characterization of defects in materials. The authors have engaged this particular line of research with particular reference to non-destructive testing applied to the conductive material through the use of eddy currents. After the realization of a novel instrument based on a Giant Magneto-Resistance probe, in this paper they propose the use of a suitable multi-frequency approach to improve reliability and accuracy in the defect estimation. Key features of the proposed instrument are the capability to detect, locate, and characterize thin defects as superficial and sub-superficial cracks. A number of tests carried out both in simulation and real environments show the goodness of the proposal. View full abstract»

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