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Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM), 2011 19th International Conference on

Date 15-17 Sept. 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 97
  • RFID tag readability around white wine bottles

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (386 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    RFID technology has been proposed as an alternative to barcode in applications as food traceability, due to its inherent radio characteristics of distance readability and automatic management. However, many food packagings are not made of radio electric friendly materials: they contain different metallic elements, or they are surrounded by ice or water, etc. The case of wine bottles is of especial interest, as the wine is an added value product that could allow the use of RFID tags to provide information to the final user. The study of the performance of different tag models attached to wine bottles is the aim of this paper. In all cases, propagation results are better in the tests performed with empty bottles than in the ones with full bottles. Another interesting result is the changes in the pattern shape obtained with the measurements made around the bottles. View full abstract»

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  • Towards RFID traceability systems of farmed fish supply chain

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (807 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the project “RFID from Farm to Fork” an implementation of RFID technologies will be used along the food supply chain: from farm to the consumer. The paper is intended to highlight two examples of how to define farmed fish traceability system suitable for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The first one presents a change from a manual collection of data to an electronic RFID implementation in a small company that performs a complete supply chain from fish farm to retail and private customers. In the second one, a part of already automated process of packing fish using barcode labeling will be upgraded by RFID technology, and traceability will be extended back to breeding and on-growing fish farms, which currently use manual collection of data. The proposed design and selection of fixed and mobile RFID readers in different steps of pilot implementation are defined as modules which could be used as a general approach to apply an automated business process. View full abstract»

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  • RFID and WSNs for traceability of agricultural goods from Farm to Fork: Electromagnetic and deployment aspects on wine test-cases

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (233 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The need of traceability systems adequate for food is a matter of fact: provenance, means of processing, time of the actions, temperature during transportation, are only a few of the possible data a consumer wants to know to buy with confidence. Among the others, the wine sector is especially susceptible of applying such a system: this sector produces highly added value products and the consumers are sensible to pay more money for a better (and also better traced) product. The RFID Farm to Fork project was born with the aim of testing the ability of RFID technology to implement a complete traceability system that covers the processes from the farm to the fork. In this work, based on the joint use of RFID technology and WSN, a system for the wine traceability from vineyard to the consumer glass is described along with related electromagnetic and deployment issues. Two different wineries, selected as pilot sites, are then presented and the current deployment status reported. View full abstract»

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  • Evolution of wireless sensor networks towards the Internet of Things: A survey

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (283 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are playing more and more a key role in several application scenarios such as healthcare, agriculture, environment monitoring, and smart metering. Furthermore, WSNs are characterized by high heterogeneity because there are many different proprietary and non-proprietary solutions. This wide range of technologies has delayed new deployments and integration with existing sensor networks. The current trend, however, is to move away from proprietary and closed standards, to embrace IP-based sensor networks using the emerging standard 6LoWPAN/IPv6. This allows native connectivity between WSN and Internet, enabling smart objects to participate to the Internet of Things (IoT). Building an all-IP infrastructure from scratch, however, would be difficult because many different sensors and actuators technologies (both wired and wireless) have already been deployed over the years. After a review of the state of the art, this paper sketches a framework able to harmonize legacy and new installations, allowing migrating to an all-IP environment at a later stage. The Building Automation use case has been chosen to discuss potential benefits of the proposed framework. View full abstract»

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  • Path following for indoor robots with RFID received signal strength

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (364 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a novel method for robot path following in an RFID-equipped corridor using received signal strength (RSS). RSS measurements are recorded as reference fingerprints during the exploration phase. Then, these data are used to guide the robot through the corridor in the navigation phase. Distance and orientation that the robot derivates from the expected path are approximated through the RSS differences and the index differences of two antennas. Finally, a P-controller is used for the navigation of the robot. This enables the robot to follow a certain path, which may be defined in the first phase of our method. The extensive experiments with a SCITOS G5 service robot confirm the validity and robustness of our approach. View full abstract»

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  • Towards a framework for evaluating the benefits of RFID adoption in supply chains

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (219 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper attempts to define a methodology for evaluating the potential benefits related to the adoption of innovative technologies such as Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) and EPCglobal in some critical processes of a supply chain. The starting point of this work has been a quantitative and qualitative analysis carried out on a particular stakeholder of the pharmaceutical supply chain: the wholesaler. Some experimental measurements, derived by applying the Key Performance Indicator (KPI) method, are discussed. The case study presented allowed us to derive guidelines and indications for the development of a practical unified approach able to evaluate the RFID adoption from different perspectives and easily understandable also by company's top management. View full abstract»

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  • Lightweight matrix-based authentication protocol for RFID

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Because of simplicity, low cost, and convenience of use, radio frequency identification (RFID) is gaining popularity in a wide variety of applications. At the same time, the threats that RFID systems are susceptible to are also evolving. The practical deployment of RFID systems depends highly on effective security mechanisms that can mitigate numerous intrusions. Providing security in the RFID system is challenging because of its limited power and computational capabilities. Mitigating denial-of-service attacks and providing bi-directional authentication to the tag and reader are the two of the most challenging security issues in RFID systems. In this regard, Karthikeyan and Nesterenko have proposed a matrix-based security protocol that uses simple matrix-based operations and is lightweight in nature. However, their protocol is proven to be vulnerable to de-synchronization and replay attacks. In this paper, we propose a modified matrix-based security protocol that can prevent de-synchronization and replay attacks yet providing a lightweight and effective security mechanism. The proposed protocol can be implemented on the hardware. A practical deployment of the proposed protocol is also feasible. View full abstract»

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  • On the weakness of contactless systems under relay attacks

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (438 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Contactless technology is a well explored area used in many different fields. However, the lack of security in the physical layer has recently delayed its use in many applications like payments. The permissiveness of this technology leads to threats such as the activation of a contactless card out of its operating range or the violation of the communication privacy between a reader and a transponder. Among the possible attacks, the relay attack is considered as the most dangerous. This attack creates unauthorized transactions between two contactless devices. For now, the current cryptographic algorithms are not able to circumvent it. In this paper, we develop two new designs of relays with introduced delays lower than 2 μs. By doing this, we demonstrate the requirements of countermeasures based on delay assessment. Finally, we propose a new protocol resistant to mafia and terrorist frauds and present experimental results to prove its reliability. Based on the HF physical layer properties, this solution authenticates the two communicating devices and uses correlation to measure delays. This new countermeasure, in accordance with contactless standards, detects relays with 300 ns accuracy which is enough to detect most of relay attacks. View full abstract»

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  • Minimization of energy consumption in passive HF contactless and RFID systems

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (441 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Green or environmental technologies are considered as one of the most significant topics for few years. Today, many people work on the development of new technologies based on energy harvesting or renewable energy. In this field of energy consumption optimization, a considerable work must be done on the consumption of current wireless communication systems as there are billions of wireless devices in the world and this continually grows up. Among all these wireless technologies, contactless technology is going to know a significant expansion as these standards must be used for all identification cards or payment cards. In such systems, the emitter uses magnetic waves to transmit power to the passive receiver. This principle needs a considerable amount of energy. The main problem of these systems is that the reader sends continually an RF field even if the card is not in its proximity. In this paper, we propose a new solution allowing the detection of a card without activating the RF field of the reader. The card presence is detected up to 10 cm in less than 3 μs with a minimal consumption of energy. This solution requires no modification of standards, of current contactless cards and can be added to a current reader for a low cost. View full abstract»

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  • Design and development of a social shopping experience in the IoT domain: The ShopLovers solution

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (612 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper the authors approach the Internet of Things field describing the ShopLovers solution as a tool to create an environment of interconnected objects through RFID/NFC technologies. The objective of the ShopLovers solution is to enhance sociability for customers and to empower social media marketing solutions for companies and brands. The prototype described here is the result of the collaboration between two laboratories of CATTID (Centre for Application of Teleservices and of Technologies for Innovation in Digital world), one dealing with ICT and the other dealing with Web and Mobile Usability. CATTID is a research centre within “Sapienza” University of Rome. After giving a technical overview on Near Field Communication (NFC) and Internet of Things (IoT) related scenarios, the authors explore the growth of Web 2.0, discussing the way it is changing communication between people and brands. Finally, the authors present the ShopLovers solution, describing both the architectural components and the design process which has followed a User Centered Design (UCD) methodology. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental validation of wireless localization techniques in IEEE802.15.4 networks

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (343 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Localization techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks are attractive for a large set applications in which the data recorded from a device must be correlated to the exact position of the node, i.e. temperature monitoring by means of sensor devices in a wide area deployment. In recent years various localization techniques for IEEE802.15.4 based networks have been proposed by the research community, and their performance mainly evaluated by means of simulation studies. In this work we mainly focus on the performance evaluation of state-of-the-art localization algorithms in real testbeds. Moreover, we propose and measure the performance of a new algorithm based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator, developed for nodes localization in case of static networks. View full abstract»

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  • Event-based location detection

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1519 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Location detection is an important problem area, which can be found in many business domains. Sample application scenarios are searching books in libraries, shirts in fashion stores or DVDs in department stores. This paper introduces an innovative approach for the localisation of items based on Complex Event Processing (CEP) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). It is shown how CEP can be used to localise items equipped with RFID transponders in a real-world scenario. One key feature of the proposed approach is that it allows the localisation of objects that has not been tracked and traced before. In particular, mobile RFID handheld readers are used for scanning items and providing location information for the CEP system while moving around. First, the CEP system determines the reader's geographical position by trilateration of the RFID signal strengths. Then the most probable direction to the searched item is calculated in real-time. View full abstract»

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  • Signal modeling and processing for physiological sensing through UWB radars

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (621 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A very promising application of Ultra Wide-Band radar technology is the continuous monitoring of some physiological parameters, like those relevant to the breath and heartbeat activity, without the need of any invasive tool neither of any contact with the subject under analysis. This idea has already appeared in the literature since some time, but its practical feasibility and assessment is still an open issue. In this paper, we consider two possible scenarios, in which the UWB radar is in a fixed position (away from the subject) or worn by the subject under analysis. We characterize the signal and environment models, so that we can provide a numerical assessment of the radar performance and address algorithmic issues that affect it. View full abstract»

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  • 0.469 PDFSA protocol for RFID arbitration

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (124 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To enhance the performance of the Dynamic Frame Aloha protocol for RFID arbitration, the grouping of the tag population has been suggested in past works. However, none of them has formalized the problem of optimizing such grouping, nor has been able to provide an efficiency much higher than 0.367, the classic DF-Aloha maximum performance. In this paper we explain how to set the optimal size of groups, based on results attained decades ago in random access systems. We then present a novel protocol, Partitioned Dynamic Frame Slotted Aloha (PDFSA), based on grouping, that, when adopting the best estimation mechanism, reaches an asymptotical efficiency up to 0.469. With a more practical estimate and a short initial phase, this protocol provides an efficiency above 0.420 for any value of the population size N, reaching 0.455 asymptotically. View full abstract»

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  • SystemC modeling of RFID systems for robustness analysis

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (367 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    RFID systems are complex heterogeneous systems, consisting of analog and digital hardware components (readers and tags) and software components (middlewares and ERP applications). In addition to these complexity and heterogeneity, RFID systems rely on low cost tags and are often used in harsh environments. As a consequence, they do not always ensure robust communications (i.e. tag detection). Thus, for critical applications, the robustness evaluation and optimization of RFID systems are a must. This article proposes a SystemC model of an HF RFID system for the Simulation and Evaluation of RFID systems (SERFID). SERFID allows performing realistic bit error injections in the RF channel. An industrial critical application of an HF RFID system is described to show how SERFID can help in evaluating and optimizing the dependability of a critical application. View full abstract»

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  • Use of NFC and QR code identification in an electronic ticket system for public transport

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (278 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The evolution of modern communication technologies and widespread use of mobile phones enable their common use in numerous everyday applications. This paper describes the implementation of a system, which enables the use of phones for acquiring electronic public transport ticket. QR codes and RFID tags are used for registering passenger at the beginning and at the end of their journeys. The development of mobile applications was done by using two modern technologies, mobile operating system Android and Near Field Communication (NFC). A passenger can see the amounts charged for a ticket and other information, like departures. Moreover, a conductor can use the Android application to check the validity of the tickets. Beside the possibility of getting an electronic ticket, which is stored on the phone, a website was built to enable new users of this system to register. An additional website was designed for administrators to see the data on the journeys of passengers and to analyse statistics results. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed monitoring system for material handling

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3733 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reliable manufacture depends among other aspects on the supply of correct parts to the different manufacturing processes. In this paper a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system used for material handling in harsh environments is presented. The system enforces business rules to guarantee that only correct parts are supplied to the assembly line also registering unexpected manual overrides of the system (e.g. Operator manually retracting the solenoid at the entrance of the lane at the assembly station). Resulting benefits allowed include an ergonomically smoother loading operation and a reduction in misbuild levels in a flexible manufacturing environment. View full abstract»

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  • Design and FDTD analysis of single-band and dual-band antennas for RFID and WiMAX applications

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, inset fed microstrip antennas for single band and dual-band operation are proposed. This design aims to achieve single band operation for RFID at 2.4 GHz as well as dual-band operation at 2.4 GHz for RFID and 3.5GHz for WiMAX applications. Simulation results exhibit a return loss of -27dB for single-band operation (2.4 GHz) while at and -20dB and -12.87dB for 2.4GHz and 3.5GHz (for dual-band) respectively. The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique was used to analyze both antennas showing close agreement with the simulated results. View full abstract»

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  • An improved algorithm for indirect time domain analysis of thin wire structures

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (325 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The algorithm for an indirect time domain (TD) analysis using arbitrary frequency domain method is presented. In previous work, an optimized version of the indirect time-domain method based on adaptive sampling iterative algorithm used in combination with Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) was presented. In this paper, the algorithm is further improved by circumventing the use of FFT altogether, and using the simple formula based on the analytical inverse Fourier transform. The proposed approach is faster and more convenient for use with the underlying iterative optimization method, as only a part of the frequency domain (FD) signal has to be transformed to the time domain during each iteration procedure. View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of SAR distribution in the human eye and pregnant woman models exposed to RF radiation using FEKO software package

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (921 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electromagnetic modeling of large scale problems arising from complex geometries, such as the human body or the specific organ, is generally undertaken by numerical methods implemented in simulation software packages. The structures involving high discretization density (mainly based on MRI images and handled by FDTD method) consume tremendously high computational cost. On the other hand, oversimplified numerical models may result in significantly less accuracy. The aim of this work was to investigate how detailed numerical model could be created using standard personal computer. Two rather complex cases of exposure were analyzed: human eye and pregnant woman exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. The SAR distribution, peak localized 10g-averaged SAR and volume-averaged SAR in these models were determined using FEKO software and the results were compared to those available in literature. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of arrays of printed strip dipole antennas

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (765 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is well known that dipole antennas are suitable for applications in wireless technology, because they are simple to design and have excellent radiation properties. The analysis of series-fed printed strip dipole antennas gets complicated by the presence of dielectric inhomogeneity. In addition, the strip dipoles are closely spaced and connected through transmission lines that are integral part of the antenna. Therefore, an analysis method that takes into account the presence of dielectric substrate and the effect of connecting lines is presented to accurately design these antennas. In this paper, arrays of printed strip dipoles antennas are analyzed based on moment method in the spectral domain. The double-sided configuration has been selected because it offers several practical advantages. View full abstract»

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  • Design and testing of a diode-based electric field probe prototype

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents the design and the response measurements of the simple, one-axis diode-based electric field probe, consisting of short dipole, diode detector, low-pass filter, transmission line and monitoring instrument. Frequency response measurement results were compared to the simulation results, where simulation was achieved by a method of combining the numerical FDTD simulation with dipole/diode circuit simulation. The measured results showed good agreement with simulation results in the operational range. Additionally, the measurements of the probe response to amplitude modulated and pulse modulated signals were performed. As expected, the response to the modulated signals showed considerable deviation from the sinusoidal CW response. Measurement error for such signals was calculated and presented. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of human head and hand on PIFA antenna matching properties and SAR

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (570 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper analyzes the influence of human head and hand on planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) matching properties. Since PIFA is a very popular design in mobile applications, it is of primary importance to analyze the matching of such an antenna in real application scenarios (close to the head, grasped by the hand). Any matching deviation leads to the reduction of radiated power which should be accounted for in the system design. SAR in user's head was also calculated for the standalone antenna and the antenna grasped by user's hand. The analysis was done for a linearly tapered PIFA antenna in the 900 MHz frequency range. Such antenna was simulated and realized. Its gain, radiation pattern, SWR and S11 were simulated and measured for free-space conditions. The antenna matching parameters (S11 and SWR) were then simulated and measured for three different realistic scenarios. Difference in SAR in human head was calculated for the cases of stand-alone and hand-grasped antenna. Simulations were done using SEMCAD X, which provided the anatomically realistic model of human hand and the model of SAM head phantom. Both the simulated and measured results showed that the human hand and head considerably affect the antenna matching parameters, resulting in both matching and SAR variations. View full abstract»

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  • Full wave model versus transmission line representation of Tesla's wave propagation: 155th anniversary of birth of Nikola Tesla

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper deals with two models of Tesla's propagation concept of wireless transmission of energy. A transmission line (TL) approximation and antenna model approaches are both implemented to analyze the Tesla's propagation concept. The Tesla's propagation path through the ground has been represented by an equivalent conductor excited at one end by the current source. The current distribution and the voltage have been calculated analytically. In particular, the voltage is calculated from standard TL equation and Generalized Telegrapher's equation formulation. Results for the voltage and generated power are presented in the paper. View full abstract»

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  • HF comparison of image and TL models of a horizontal thin-wire conductor in finitely conductive earth

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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents a comparison between exact, image, and transmission line models for high frequency analysis of a horizontal thin-wire conductor in finitely conductive earth. The main objective of this study is to indicate the cases of applicability of the proposed image and transmission line models in practical EMC studies. View full abstract»

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